• I no longer believe that by extending a flashgun 1 m away from the camera the possibility of backscatter is reduced.

• However — I do acknowledge that placing a flash in the position described above can provide a quality of light which enhances the look of various (usually wide angle) subjects.

• With wide angle, try to position your flashgun so the light emitted comes from behind the dome port where there is some shade construction (if your make of dome or fisheye port has shade constructions).

• In order to prevent the hotspot from becoming visible in the picture area, keep the front of the flashgun out of the picture area.

• Using one flashgun, position it from above when shooting either a landscape or a portrait composition. This simulates light from the sun, and produces shadows where human vision is used to seeing them.

• Aim the flash above the subject so that the bottom edge of the light beam cuts just in front of the subject and is illuminated with the outer edge of the beam as opposed to the centre. The outer edge is a cleaner light with less scatter.

• The idea is to avoid lighting the water column in between the lens and the subject. This reduces the effects of particles, and creates images that are cleaner, sharper and more colourful.

• Even when using ultra wide lenses I no longer position my flash further than 90cm from the housing;it's just too unwieldy.

• If I wanted to flash fill over a larger area, such as in wreck photography, I would place it at an angle to which I think will compliment the structure I'm shooting. This is in order to illuminate quite a large area.

• Trust the width of your flashgun and 'edge light' the subject to reduce the illumination of particulates.

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