Chemicals For Developing

These chemicals are all available in pre-packaged or bottled form:

1. Developer. You can get developer in powdered form {dissolve the powder in water according to the manufacturer's instructions), or in liquid form (dilute developer according to instructions). There are scores of different developers on the market. Some are for general use; others are for special effects.

If you go into your photography store and try to choose a developer from the vast array on the shelf, you may well develop a severe case of the shakes. There are dozens of different developers, all promising super contrast, fine grain, good tonal gradation, and maximum speed. The choice is overwhelming. But rejoice. You virtually can't go wrong. They're almost all quite good.

From this multitude, we recommend that you select one all-purpose developer and stick with it throughout this Course.

If you look on the instruction sheet that comes with your film, you will find that specific developers are recommended. Realize however that film manufacturers will usually recommend only their own developers. Kodak only recommends Kodak products, for example. While we can't fault Kodak products, we should note that there are other good products on the market.

Kodak D-76 or Ilford ID-11 are good all-around choices. They are excellent for TVi-X, Plus-X, Panatomic-X, and other B/W films. Their normal development time is about five to eight minutes—short enough to be convenient, yet long enough so that slight errors won't ruin the pictures. Ilford ID-11 developer is exactly the same as D-76, and the two products can be used interchangeably.

Developers are available in throw-away one-shot form or in re-usable replenishable types. With correct replenishment, you can use the developer again and again with no noticeable change in photographic quality. A re-usable developer typically has a companion product that is its replenisher. Thus, D-76 has D-76R.

Developer and replenisher are usually sold separately. You mix a batch of each, and keep them in separate bottles. For each roll of film you develop, add a specific amount of replenisher as recommended by the manufacturer — usually one-half ounce. The replenisher replaces chemicals that are used up, keeping the developer's activity constant.

The replenishing process cannot go on endlessly, however. The manufacturer will suggest a limit — usually, when the volume of replenisher equals the volume of original developer. We recommend that you play safe and throw out your witch's brew of developer when the volume of replenisher is about one-quarter of the volume of the original developer. New developer is cheap compared to the cost of a badly developed roll.

Stop Bath. Simply buy a bottle of Kodak Indicator Stop Bath. Since you use just a few drops at a time, one small bottle can last for years.

Fixing Bath. You can purchase packages or bottles of hypo (the fixer's nickname). Mix or dilute it following the manufacturer's instructions.

For film processing, we suggest you get a rapid fixer that can do its job in about three to four minutes. Be sure to get a fixer that also contains a hardener. The hardener toughens the film emulsion and helps prevent damage to your negatives.

We recommend that you use Kodak Fixer (a powder), Kodak Rapidfix (a liquid), or Ilford Fixer (a liquid concentrate), all of which are combination fixers and hardeners. Follow directions which come with each product.

Wetting Agent. This comes in bottles in concentrated liquid form. You simply dilute it according to the manufacturer's suggestions — for example, with Kodak PhotoFlo the dilution rate is 1 to 200 — just a couple of drops to a quart of water. Caution: Do not mix a stronger solution than the manufacturer recommends, or it may leave an unremovable scum on your negatives. Weaker solutions (such as 1:300 for PhotoFlo) are all right.

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Digital Camera and Digital Photography

Digital Camera and Digital Photography

Compared to film cameras, digital cameras are easy to use, fun and extremely versatile. Every day there’s more features being designed. Whether you have the cheapest model or a high end model, digital cameras can do an endless number of things. Let’s look at how to get the most out of your digital camera.

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