Self Check Quiz

This brief Quiz is designed to enable you to check your understanding of the information in this lesson. Answer all the questions in this True-or-False Quiz. Then check your answers on the bottom of this page. Next to each answer, you will find the page reference on which the relevant material is discussed in this lesson. If you get one item wrong, read the page relating to your wrong answer. If you get two or more wrong, read the appropriate pages, then reread the entire lesson. Then take this...

Equipment You Need

Everything you need for developing film appears in this picture. There isn't much to buy, and you can get all of it at your local camera store for a small investment. 1. Daylight Developing Tknk. This is a plastic or metal tank with three parts a. The tank body, which holds the chemicals. b. A reel or reels on which you wind your film. c. A lightproof lid and removable top through which you can pour chemicals in and out. 2. Darkroom Timer. You need an accurate timer. Get one with a large,...

Storing Negatives

There are two simple objectives in storing your negatives to protect them and to find them quickly when you need them. For protection, they should be stored in glassine or translucent plastic sleeves that you can purchase at your camera store. Do not use shiny acetate sleeves. While acetate is chemically safe for the film, there is a risk that the emulsion will suffer local ferrotyping. This means that contact with the shiny acetate will cause glossy spots on the emulsion, which will print as...

Developing Sheet Film

Sheet film can be developed in several ways depending on the particular facilities and equipment that are available. For occasional development, where a darkroom is available, tray processing is quite satisfactory. Be sure to check manufacturer's instructions here, since agitation times differ from those recommended for tank development. Where the work load requires more sophisticated equipment, and where a darkroom is available, the most satisfactory method involves the use of sheet film...

Viewing A Negative

(Top) Viewing negatives by light from a light-box is the best way. (Bottom) Viewing negatives by light reflected from a white surface is satisfactory. At first, when you peer at your developed negative, you may find it bewildering. The tones are all reversed what was light is dark and vice-versa. You can see the general outline of your subject in this reversed image, but what does it mean What can you learn from your negative before you print it You can learn a lot. The negative contains a...

Storing Chemicals

It makes sense to mix more chemicals than you will need for one developing session. You'll want to store the rest. Here's how to keep your stored chemicals fresh as long as possible. 1. Use dark or opaque bottles. Light can break down some photographic chemicals. Be sure the bottles are thoroughly clean. 2. At one time, many pros favored glass bottles over plastic. Tbday, you can use either with equal assurance. In fact, you may find that glass bottles have gone the way of the dodo perhaps only...

Standardize

The key to consistently good development is to standardize. Use one film and one developer as your standard combination. Expose consistently and develop accurately every time. By becoming completely familiar with one film-and-developer combination, you assure yourself of high-quality results every time. Keep records of the exposures and development of each roll of film. Study the quality of your negatives and prints. When you feel confident that you...

Intensification

Developed negatives that are slightly underexposed or underdeveloped may be corrected to a large degree by a chemical process called intensification. Intensification increases the density of a negative either by adding more silver to the existing silver deposits, or by depositing some other dense metal such as copper, mercury or chromium which combines with the existing silver to produce additional density. In other words, intensification is a process that builds up the density of the exposed...

Reciprocity Failure

Reciprocity refers to the interrelationship between shutter speed (time) and aperture (amount of light). As you know, for example, you obtain the same exposure with each of the following combinations 1 125 at 716 . . . 1 250 at ll . . . 1 500 at f 8 . . . 1 1000 at ft5.6. This interrelationship breaks down, unfortunately, when the shutter speed is either extremely fast or extremely slow. Typically, with black-and-white films the breakdown called reciprocity failure occurs at exposure speeds...

Developing Step By Step

You need an absolutely dark place for this. If you don't have a darkroom, a closet is usually the best bet. Test the room you have in mind by standing in it in the dark for three minutes. If you can't see even the faintest crack of light by then, it's all right to use. If you see cracks of light, black them out by covering them with towels or other fabric. Loading the film onto the spool is the only tricky part of developing. You don't want to make mistakes...

Chemicals For Developing

These chemicals are all available in pre-packaged or bottled form 1. Developer. You can get developer in powdered form dissolve the powder in water according to the manufacturer's instructions), or in liquid form (dilute developer according to instructions). There are scores of different developers on the market. Some are for general use others are for special effects. If you go into your photography store and try to choose a developer from the vast array on the shelf, you may well develop a...

Setting Up For Film Development

Later we'll show you how to set up an all-purpose darkroom. But you don't need that now. You can handle film developing in any room with running water the kitchen, the bathroom, or the laundry room. Cover the floor with newspaper or a plastic tarpaulin if it's carpeted. Photographic chemicals leave stains. Keep plenty of paper towels handy for drying your hands and your utensils. Line up your chemical solutions in the order in which you'll use them. Lay out the utensils so they're easily...

Common Problems In Development

Developing Film Problems

If you follow the step-by-step procedures we have outlined, your finished negatives should be problem-free. But mistakes are easy to make, and they can ruin your negatives. In this section we will examine some common imperfections, identify their causes, and tell you how to avoid them. 1. Fog From Exhausted Developer Or Overage Film. Cause If your negative has a gray cast that dulls the image and extends out into the sprocket or edge areas a problem called o< 7 the culprit is tired developer...

Selecting A Developing Tank

There are several common types of developing tanks available. Here are the most common types Stainless steel. While costing- more than other types, they offer advantages that far outweigh the slightly higher initial cost. They are easy to clean, durable should last a lifetime with reasonable care , and their construction provides easy chemical flow during agitation procedures you will learn. Depending upon film size, they enable you to process up to 8 rolls of film at one time, and they can be...

Evaluating Your Negatives

Underexposed Overdeveloped

We've already told you how important it is for you to be able to judge your negatives accurately by eye so you can understand and correct any errors in exposure or development, and so you can compensate for non-normal negatives when printing. Let's review all the possibilities. We'll tie them into a single package that should be easier for you to understand and remember. When you make an exposure, there are only three broad ranges into which a given exposure can fall either it's a normal...