Reciprocity Failure

Reciprocity refers to the interrelationship between shutter speed (time) and aperture (amount of light). As you know, for example, you obtain the same exposure with each of the following combinations 1 125 at 716 . . . 1 250 at ll . . . 1 500 at f 8 . . . 1 1000 at ft5.6. This interrelationship breaks down, unfortunately, when the shutter speed is either extremely fast or extremely slow. Typically, with black-and-white films the breakdown called reciprocity failure occurs at exposure speeds...

Developing Step By Step

You need an absolutely dark place for this. If you don't have a darkroom, a closet is usually the best bet. Test the room you have in mind by standing in it in the dark for three minutes. If you can't see even the faintest crack of light by then, it's all right to use. If you see cracks of light, black them out by covering them with towels or other fabric. Loading the film onto the spool is the only tricky part of developing. You don't want to make mistakes...

Chemicals For Developing

These chemicals are all available in pre-packaged or bottled form 1. Developer. You can get developer in powdered form dissolve the powder in water according to the manufacturer's instructions), or in liquid form (dilute developer according to instructions). There are scores of different developers on the market. Some are for general use others are for special effects. If you go into your photography store and try to choose a developer from the vast array on the shelf, you may well develop a...

Setting Up For Film Development

Later we'll show you how to set up an all-purpose darkroom. But you don't need that now. You can handle film developing in any room with running water the kitchen, the bathroom, or the laundry room. Cover the floor with newspaper or a plastic tarpaulin if it's carpeted. Photographic chemicals leave stains. Keep plenty of paper towels handy for drying your hands and your utensils. Line up your chemical solutions in the order in which you'll use them. Lay out the utensils so they're easily...

Common Problems In Development

Developing Film Problems

If you follow the step-by-step procedures we have outlined, your finished negatives should be problem-free. But mistakes are easy to make, and they can ruin your negatives. In this section we will examine some common imperfections, identify their causes, and tell you how to avoid them. 1. Fog From Exhausted Developer Or Overage Film. Cause If your negative has a gray cast that dulls the image and extends out into the sprocket or edge areas a problem called o< 7 the culprit is tired developer...

Selecting A Developing Tank

There are several common types of developing tanks available. Here are the most common types Stainless steel. While costing- more than other types, they offer advantages that far outweigh the slightly higher initial cost. They are easy to clean, durable should last a lifetime with reasonable care , and their construction provides easy chemical flow during agitation procedures you will learn. Depending upon film size, they enable you to process up to 8 rolls of film at one time, and they can be...

Evaluating Your Negatives

Underexposed Overdeveloped

We've already told you how important it is for you to be able to judge your negatives accurately by eye so you can understand and correct any errors in exposure or development, and so you can compensate for non-normal negatives when printing. Let's review all the possibilities. We'll tie them into a single package that should be easier for you to understand and remember. When you make an exposure, there are only three broad ranges into which a given exposure can fall either it's a normal...