Photography Masterclass Online Course

Photography Masterclass

Photography masterclass program has gone through a trial, testing and the results, later on, have proven that this program works efficiently and give 100% positive results at all times. This program has an upper advantage as compared to other programs which claim to help you capture best pictures because the creator has taken a further step to give you 29 videos which are easy to follow and apply. The 29 videos are in four modules which help you to with ease in referencing the lessons you will learn. The creator of this program has ensured that the program is risk-free by providing a 60-day money refund guarantee to any member who feels not satisfied with the services provided in the program. Through the program, you will learn how to make stunning photographs on your own, and this will, in the long run, increase your self-esteem and enhance your photographs marketability. Continue reading...

Photography Masterclass Summary

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Contents: Videos, Ebooks
Author: Evan Sharboneau
Official Website: photographymasterclass.com
Price: $59.00

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Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this e-book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

Olympus Pen Macro Lens

Email amateurphotographerffipcmedia.com amateurphotographer.co.uk Email amateurphotographerffipcmedia.com New Sony DSLR, page 6 Semi-pro digital SLR out next month New 18MP sensor and new AF Canon reveals EOS 7D digital SLR CANON has announced the EOS 7D, a mid-range digital SLR featuring a new 18-million-pixel CMOS imaging sensor (APS-C size) and eight frames per second shooting. The company says it has 'completely redesigned' the autofocus system to include a separate processor to handle AF calculations. 'This, along with Al Servo II AF, enables the EOS7Dto offer accurate, reliable and continuous shooting at 8fps claimed a spokesman, The new imaging sensor features 'condensed circuitry', yet with 'improved sensitivity', according to Canon, which claims to have increased the capacity of the photodiodes and used 'gapless microlenses' that have been moved closer to them. SIGMA is gearing up to launch its latest digital SLR, the SD15, but it is still unclear when it will be released...

Editing Stage 1 Camera

Before you get into Photoshop, make sure you've done everything possible in Camera Raw to give yourself a good foundation. Remember, everything you do in Camera Raw is nondestructive, so you want to do as much as possible before you move on. You want to make your image look as gorgeous as you can in regard to color balance, dynamic range, cropping and leveling, lack of fringing and noise, and controlling contrast within specific ranges of Brightness with the new Curves tab. If you don't mind spending the money and taking the time to work outside of Photoshop, you might want to do even more on your RAW files with a third-party application such as Phase One Capture One or Pixmantec Raw Shooter Premium. The Camera Raw workflow is covered in Chapter 4.

Why Buya Dslr And Use Oneiensp

The beauty of having a DSLR is that you can easily swap between a series of lenses, so I don't understand why so many people choose to buy a superzoom lens such as a 28-200mm and stick with it for every shot. If you're worried about getting dust in your camera by changing the lens, or don't want to carry a bag full of lenses, buy a creative compact. The extreme focal lengths of superzoom lenses mean you're not getting the best results either, as shorter zooms - or even primes - are much better optically. I love the freedom of a DSLR but there are times when I want to travel light. For these times I always use myTamron 18-250mm lens. It means I can still be prepared for just about any shot, without having to carry around a full kit bag. And if I'm just going away for a weekend it can make a huge difference. I know the quality won't be up to that of professional lenses but for what I need the images look great and mean that I'm not cursing that fact that I can't zoom in for detail or...

Using the Current Value for Preset White Balance

To set white balance to the value currently selected for preset white balance Highlight Preset in the white balance menu ( 49) and press the multi selector to the right. Highlight Measure and press the multi selector to the right to set white balance to the current value for preset white balance and return to the shooting menu.

Getting To Grips With Your Digital

While every camera brand designs digital SLRs in their own way, there are many similarities in the control layouts of most models. We've highlighted the key functions that you should get to know as soon as possible, as understanding how your DSLR works will help you to capture great pictures with ease Press the shutter release button halfway down to activate the autofocus and exposure systems then fully to take the picture. Some cameras sport a Fn (Function) button for fast access to regularly selected functions, such as ISO rating, White Balance, AF modes or the drive function. Inside a DSLR IMAGE SENSOR At the heart of your camera is the image sensor, which boasts millions of light-receptive pixels that make up the image. Most budget DSLRs have between ten and 12-megapixels. SENSOR CLEANING There is a risk when changing lenses of dust entering the camera body and settling on the sensor. Anti-dust systems vibrate the sensor and shake any particles from its surface. This is the...

The Sigma Dpi A Full Spec Compact Digital Camera With All The Power Of Dslr

The built-in SLR-sized 14-megapixel image-sensor is 7 to 12 times tagger than that of an ordinary compact digital camera The FoveonS direct image sensor captures al the RGB data on every pixel. The 16.6mm F4 lens uses Iarge-diameter04 5mm) asphencal glass molds for superior high-resolution and high-contrast performance. And the brand-new TRUE image-processing engine delivers new Insight Measuring ust W 113.Jmm x H 59 5mm x 0.50.3mm and weighing just 250a the SIGMA DPI is the world's first and only integral-lens high-performance compact digital camera with SLR specifications. It's designed to deliver pure creative control and ignite your creativity.

Improving Your Photography with a dSLR

The differences between digital SLRs and the camera you were using before you saw the light will depend on where you're coming from. If your most recent camera was a point-and-shoot digital model, you know the advantages of being able to review your photos on an LCD an instant after you took them, and you also know the benefits of fine-tuning them in an image editor. If you're switching to a digital SLR from a film SLR, you are likely a photo enthusiast already and well aware that a single lens reflex offers you extra control over framing, using focus creatively, and choosing lenses to give the best perspective. And, if you're making the huge leap from a point-and-shoot non-SLR film camera to a digital SLR, you're in for some real revelations. A digital SLR has (almost) all the good stuff available in a lesser digital camera, with some significant advantages that enable you to take your photo endeavors to a new, more glorious level of excellence. Certainly, you can take close-ups or...

Pentax Announces Dslr Firmware Updates

Ricoh has announced the development and release of the new CXR camera unit Ricoh Lens P10 28-300 mm f 3.55.6 VC. The lens features a high-magnification 10.7x (28-300 mm) optical wide-angle zoom. This camera unit has a back-illu minated CMOS sensor and an advanced noise reduction function as well.The 10.7x optical zoom expands image-creation possibilities from wide-angle through telephoto. The RAW mode enables high-speed continuous shooting at about 5 frames second enables the photographer to catch the desired scene. And the noise reduction function and back-illuminated CMOS sensor together give high imaging performance in low-light shooting. Also included are a 1280 x 720 pixel HD movie function, the dynamic range double shot mode function, a macro function capable of close-up shooting at 1 cm, and many other enhanced functions for diverse and effortless enjoyment of shooting from 28 mm wide-angle to 300 mm telephoto. Nikon has announced the release of the AF-S Nikkor 200-400mm f 4G...

Understanding White Balance and Colour Temperature

We have all taken photographs where the colours of the scene are totally false. You download it onto the computer and it has a garish colour cast. The reasons behind this will be connected to the white balance function on your digital camera. All light has a specific colour associated to it, which is measured in degrees Kelvin (K). Take for example sunlight. Throughout the day the colour temperature of sunlight differs because of its position in the sky and the surrounding atmospheric conditions. During early morning and late in the evening the sunlight takes on a warm golden hue. Photographers refer to these times of the day as 'magic hours'. Whilst our eyes may recognise changes in colour at sunrise and sunset, for most of the day our brain compensates and we fail to notice the colour of light. This is the purpose of White Balance. A digital camera has to take into account the colour temperature of a light source and we must remember that this is both indoors as well as out in the...

Getting the Most Out of Your Zoom Lens

As discussed in Chapters 1 and 2, your digital camera probably comes with a zoom lens that allows you to vary the focal length from a wide-angle or normal perspective all the way through some moderate telephoto length. As you probably recall, focal length is just a measure of the magnification that the lens provides. A larger focal length produces greater magnification hence long focal length lenses are great for capturing fast action or enlarging objects that are moderately far away. You can see the effect of a zoom lens on magnification in Figure 3-13. A key fact to remember, however, is that the focal length of the given lens also affects the camera's angle of view. Because a telephoto lens magnifies distant objects, it has a very narrow angle of view. As you reduce the magnification and zoom out toward smaller focal lengths, the angle of view likewise increases. You can see this graphically in Figure 3-14. At the extreme end of the scale specifically, wide-angle lenses the image...

Working with White Balance

One of the magic tools of digital photography, white balance enables the photographer to control the filtering of the light with a button set on the camera. This is one area where shooting digital is vastly superior to film. Years ago, on assignment for a magazine, I used film to photograph the president of a major railroad. I scouted the location as usual and found the conditions abysmal, to be polite. The main light source was faded-out sodium vapor lights. This required several gel filters over the camera lens to bring the source at least close to daylight, which reduced the exposure by several stops. Attempting to shoot on a slower speed film wasn't possible, because of the loss of light the gels created, so I had to use a higher speed film, with its inherent quality sacrifice. Plus, I had to shoot Polaroids to check how he looked, and a lot of these folks give you a minimum of time. Now, if this had been on digital, I could have walked in, done a white balance by pointing the...

Using lenses created for 35 mm systems on DSLRs

I ne of the advantages of digital SLR cameras is their ability to accept interchangeable lenses from existing 35 mm film SLR systems. If you currently own a 35 mm SLR film camera and are considering upgrading to a digital SLR system (or have already done so) you may be wondering if your existing collection of lenses can be effectively used on your digital SLR system. Manufacturers of DSLR systems, will fit lens mounts to their cameras that accept older lenses for film based 35 mm cameras in an effort to persuade existing users to stay with the brand. In most cases lenses designed for 35 mm cameras can be interchanged with DSLR camera systems, however, the following issues need to be considered.

Set The Correct White Balance

White balance correction is the process of rendering accurate colors in your final image. Most people don't even notice that light has different color characteristics because the human eye automatically adjusts to different color temperatures, so quickly, in fact, that everything looks correct in a matter of milliseconds. When color film ruled the world, photographers would select which film to use depending on what their light source was going to be. The most common film was balanced for daylight, but you could also buy film that was color balanced for tungsten light sources. Most other lighting situations had to be handled by using color filters over the lens. This process was necessary for the photographer's final image to show the correct color balance of a scene. Luckily, you don't need to have a deep understanding of color temperatures to control your camera's white balance. The choices are given to you in terms that are easy to relate to and that will make things pretty simple....

Shoot at Your Lens Sharpest Aperture

Another trick the pros use is, when possible, shoot at your lens' sharpest aperture. For most lenses, that is about two full stops smaller than wide open (so the f-stop number you use will go higher by two stops). For example, if you had an f 2.8 lens, the sharpest apertures for that lens would be f 5.6 and f 8 (two full stops down from 2.8). Of course, you can't always choose these apertures, but if you're in a situation where you can (and we'll talk about this later in the book), then shooting two stops down from wide open will usually give you the sharpest image your lens can deliver. Now, that being said, this isn't true for all lenses, and if that's not the case with your lens, you'll find your lens' sweet spot (its sharpest aperture) in short order if you keep an eye out for which aperture your sharpest images seem to come from. You can do that by looking at your photos' EXIF data (the background information on your shots embedded by your digital camera into the photos...

How Autofocus Systems On Digital Slrs Work

Digital SLRs use what is called a passive autofocus system (also known by its more technical name - phase-detection system), a highly accurate and incredibly quick form of focusing, regardless if the subject is a few feet away or towards a distant horizon. It works by using a beam splitter to direct light on to a sensor, that measures what is known as the phase difference to determine the subject's distance from the camera. It's a very accurate system in most circumstances, but struggles in certain situations, such as when working with low-contrast subjects or photographing in low-light conditions.

Opening and Developing a RAW Format or Digital Negative with GIMP

GIMP can open most but not all RAW file formats offered by camera manufacturers. As a start, you can use GIMP for editing these images directly, but only with a color depth of 24 bits (8 bits per channel). However, if you want to develop your digital negatives with the original color depth of 16 bits per channel (rather than 8 bits) in order to make fine-tuned corrections and or print a higher-quality photo, you'll have to depend on the RawPhoto or UFRaw plug-in. Once you've integrated one of these plug-ins into GIMP, it will automatically become active when you open a RAW file with GIMP. Let's first take a look at the UFRaw plug-in since it can be installed at a later point in time, as described in section 1.4.5. UFRaw can be used in three different ways. If used as a GIMP plug-in, when you open a RAW file in GIMP, the UFRaw window will automatically open. You can set corrective options for color and brightness values in the preview window. This lets you develop and correct your...

White Balance Settings

Auto Also known as AWB is perhaps the most popular setting as it uses thousands of algorithms programmed into your camera to best work out the white balance for your particular photograph wherever you may be. Auto setting as been developed over the years. Since the third edition of this book was published, and for underwater use, I use 'Auto WB' 70 of the time for the other 30 I use Preset White Balance. A White Balance setting which I have yet to discuss is the preset function. Underwater, we have the most intense and predictable colour cast of all. You guessed it, the colour blue As sunbeams pass through the surface, underwater colours are absorbed at different depths. Warm colours of red and orange are first to vanish and by the time we get to 25 metres the light spectrum is strongly biased towards blue. White Balance Preset PRE has the symbol of 'Pre' or 'Kelvin'. Locating the custom preset white balance function varies from one digital camera to another so check your camera...

Use a Macro Lens to Get Really Close

If you've ever wondered how the pros get those incredibly close-up shots (usually only seen by bees during their pollination duties), it's with a macro lens. A macro lens (just called macro for short) lets you get a 1 1 view of your subject and reveal flowers in a way that only macros can. A macro lens has a very shallow depth of fieldso much so that when photographing a rose, the petals in the front can be in focus and the petals at the back of the rose can be out of focus. I'm not talking about an arrangement of roses in a vaseI'm talking about one single rose. By the way, you must (see how that's set off in italics ), must, must shoot macro on a tripod. When you're really in tight on a flower, any tiny bit of movement will ruin your photo, so use every sharpening technique in Chapter 1 to capture this amazing new world of macro flower photography. Turn Your Zoom Lens into a Macro Zoom It's easyjust add a close-up lens (like we talk about on the next page) onto your regular zoom...

Image Sensors and Colors

One major breakthrough was James Clerk Maxwell's 1860 discovery that color photographs could be formed using red, green, and blue filters. He had the photographer Thomas Sutton photograph a tartan ribbon three times, each time with a different color filter over the lens. The three images were developed and then projected onto a screen with three different projectors, each equipped with the same color filter used to take its image. When brought into register, the three images formed a full color image. Over a century later, image sensors work much the same way.

Converting Camera RAW Image Formats under Windows Mac OS X and Linux Freeware and Plug Ins

Highest Quality Format Gimp

If your digital camera uses a proprietary file or RAW file format to capture images, you should use it. Taking photos as digital raw data will result in a higher-quality image after correction, particularly when compared to photos taken in the highest-quality JPEG format. Saving images in their native camera or RAW format will also ensure that you'll get the best possible quality when you archive the originals. Since version 2.2.6, GIMP supports RAW formats, so you can directly open and edit RAW formats with the program. Unfortunately, GIMP does not work with all proprietary camera RAW formats, so you'll need to make sure it can read your camera's format. At the end of section 5.6, you will find a list of RAW formats GIMP can read. If GIMP can read the RAW format your camera uses, the images will be available with a 24-bit color depth (8 bits per color channel). Remember to save the finished image in a high-quality standard format, such as TIFF or PNG. RAW formats offer more than a...

Olympus Evolt E500 Dslr

Camera company knows that better than Olympus-official sponsor of Manhattan's Fashion Week. The fickle fashion industry may have influenced the company's decision to shelve the flat-top design of the Evolt E-300 ( 620 street, body only, reviewed November 2004) and dress its replacement, the new Evolt E-500 DSLR ( 699 street, body only) more traditionally. Instead of the side-swivel porro mirror system that helped create the Evolt's signature profile, the E-500 returns to the flip-up mirror and the familiar prism-box hump found on most other SLRs and DSLRs. It also has a more centered optical viewfinder, and a normal pop-up flash and hot-shoe arrangement. But can this new camera compete in a category that already has its share of supermodels If size is important to you, the E-500 has an edge. It's billed as one of the smallest and lightest DSLRs, just about the same size and weight as the petite 6MP Pentax *ist DL body. The preproduction E-500 we examined felt light enough to be made

Ccd And Cmos Image Sensors

Until recently, CCDs were the only image sensors used in digital cameras. Over the years they have been well developed through their use in astronomical telescopes, scanners, and video camcorders. However, there is a new challenger on the horizon, the CMOS image sensor that may eventually play a significant role in some parts of the market. Let's compare these two devices. Image sensors are formed on silicon wafers and then cut apart. Courtesy of IBM. Image sensors are formed on silicon wafers and then cut apart. Courtesy of IBM.

Shooting with Video on a dSLR

In 2010, Ken Rockwell (kenrockwell.com) declared that the dSLR market was mature, meaning that DSLRs are as good as they are going to get. He described that there will be a small improvements in the cameras, but that with each of these comes more fussy settings that clutter operations. Without any more authentic still photography enhancements to dSLR cameras, what will keep people buying new models Rockwell claims it's the video, live view, HDR, and GPS options that are being added on to dSLR cameras. Those features are opening new doors of opportunity for manufacturers to expand their customer base. The recently released Canon EOS 5D Mark II includes HD video, a capability that has caught Hollywood's attention. In the article Hollywood Comes Knocking by Daniel Etherington in the British Journal of Photography, Hollywood cinematographer Shane Hurlbut says of the video capabilities of dSLRs, I started playing with the thing and said, 'Oh my God, this is going to change everything.' He...

Dslrs Survive Csc Mauung

Trveor Moore Ceo Jessops

THE SUCCESS of compact system camera (CSC) sales is hitting the compact camera market, not DSLRs, claims Nikon. Simon Iddon, product manager for DX DSLR at Nikon UK, said that CSCs have not had an impact on the Vm's DSLR sales In an interview with AP, Iddon said that Nikon currertly has a complete ine-up and does not need to fill any qaps in its product rarge with a compact system offering 'We have all points covered with a complete range of cameras from entry- The CSC market will not divert sales from the DSLRs, according to Iddon, because 'if you want a DSLR, you want what a DSLR stands for', and that isn't a compact system camera. The company has 44 models of DSLR for use, along with 61 lenses, 105 compac cameras, 17 compact system cameras and other gear such as camcorders. THE ROYAL family has voiced Tea is that press photographers are harassing members of Kate Middleton's family in the run-up to her marriage to Prince William. Clarence House issued a 'private advisory notice' to...

Cleaning the DSLR Sensor

At some stage, you will get foreign matter such as specks of dust on the low-pass filter that protects the sensor in your digital SLR camera. Annoying spots will appear on your images, especially in clear areas such as sky, so the sensor will have to be cleaned.You can send the camera to the manufacturer or an appointed tech rep take it to a pro camera store that offers a cleaning service or do it yourself. In the field, the DIY option is the most practical and you should learn how to do basic cleaning.Your camera's manual will have instructions on holding the mirror up to give you access to the filter and other advice. This is a very fragile component of the digital camera, and it should be cleaned very carefully. Some photographers use a blower brush as a small vacuum remove the brush, depress the bulb, and suck the offending particles out. Special small vacuums are also made for this task. Other methods include swab and liquid cleaners such as methanol this is popular with...

Understanding How Lenses Work

Most digital cameras have zoom lenses, which have very complex optical systems with 8, 10, 20, or more elements that move in precise ways to produce a continuous range of magnifications. Zoom lenses must be carefully designed to avoid bad things, such as stray beams of light that degrade the image bouncing around inside the lens. For that reason, when choosing a digital camera with a zoom lens, you need to pay attention to the quality of the image. All 4 1 zooms are not created equal one vendor might produce an excellent lens with this range, whereas another might offer a lens that is less sharp. Among digital cameras with similar or identical sensors, lens quality can make the biggest difference in the final quality of an image. You'll discover how to select the best lens for your needs as we go along.

A dSLR Works tike a camera

Another reason why digital SLRs have improved performance is that they're easier to use, so you, as the photographer, can work faster while you shoot. Most point-and-shoot cameras have to be configured for consumers who are more interested in grabbing a quick snapshot than investing some artistry in creating a photograph. Digital SLRs, on the other hand, are always designed by a team of engineers with extensive photographic experience. They know which controls are essential and which can be buried away in the menus because you access them when setting up the camera and maybe once a month (if that) thereafter. Digital SLR designers know that you don't want to go three levels deep into a menu to set the ISO sensitivity or adjust white (color) balance for the type of illumination you're using. You want to press an ISO or a WB (white balance) key and dial in the setting without giving it much thought. You don't want to activate an onscreen display to set shutter speed or aperture you want...

Development of the photographic lens

Many thousands of lens designs have been produced to meet the demands of photographers for lenses of ever-larger aperture, wider field angle and extended performance. When introduced, most represented state-of-the-art designs, and ranged from the simple to very complex in configuration, the number of elements not necessarily being related to performance. Photographic lenses can be grouped into categories related to nineteenth-century lens design. By the beginning of the twentieth century, lenses were available (albeit of modest aperture and field angle) which were virtually fully corrected for all the primary lens aberrations. Since that time, progress in lens design has largely been dependent on the availability of improved optical materials, lens-coating techniques, computer-assisted calculations, advances in lens production technology and more appropriate means of lens testing and evaluation. It is useful to describe briefly the development of the photographic lens, the outstanding...

Wide angles and digital SLRs

A digital SLR with interchangeable lenses doesn't make the wide-angle problem go away. Remember that if your SLR has a sensor that's smaller than what is called full-frame size, the focal length of any lens you attach will be magnified. If your camera's magnification factor is 1.6, a super-wide 18mm lens (or zoom setting) is instantly transformed into a moderately wide 28mm lens. Extreme wide angles can be expensive in the first place, so you might be crushed when you discover that your expensive piece of glass that qualifies as an ultra-wide angle on a 35mm camera provides you with a rather ordinary wide-angle view when mounted on a digital camera. If wide-angle photography is important to you, look for a digital SLR with a full-frame sensor or Although one of the attractions of digital SLRs is the ability to recycle a photographer's existing stable of lenses, the major vendors are all introducing lenses specifically for digital cameras that do a better job, cost less, and provide...

Choosing the Right Digital SLR Camera

Digital SLR cameras resembling 35mm SLR cameras are available in two ranges professional and consumer. In this book, I will only briefly mention the pro cameras and will concentrate on the models that target consumers (see Figure 1.14). These are quite rugged and include all the features that the majority of photo enthusiasts require. They accept numerous lenses that allow for automatic or manual focusing, are compatible with accessory flash units, and are powered by high-capacity battery packs or (less commonly) by rechargeable AA batteries. At the time of this writing, most are 5 or 6 megapixel cameras, although, the Sigma SD-9 and SD-10 incorporate a unique Foveon brand 3.43 megapixel sensor with 10.29 million color photodetectors, discussed earlier. (For more information on this technology, visit the Foveon site at www.foveon.com.) The professional SLR cameras (see Figure 1.15) are even more rugged, built like a tank to withstand pro caliber abuse. They include additional...

Know How To Override Autofocus

As good as the Canon autofocus system is, there are times when it just isn't doing the job for you. Many times this has to do with how you would like to compose a scene and where the actual point of focus should be. This can be especially true when you are using the camera on a tripod, where you can't pre-focus and then recompose before shooting (as discussed earlier). To take care of this problem, you will need to manually focus the lens. I am only going to cover the kit lens that came with my Canon T2i (the EF-S 18-55mm IS), so if you have purchased a different lens be sure to check the accompanying instruction manual for the lens.

Digital Slrs And Lenses

If you're looking for the best way into taking high-quality pictures with the maximum flexibility and creative potential, a DSLR is the only real choice. Modern entry-level models are compact and well-priced, yet still able to offer stacks of features. This chapter guides you through the ranges available from the big makers. One of the major benefits of a DSLR is interchangeable lenses - we'll look at those too. IF YOU'RE AFTER THE MOST POPULAR BRAND OF DSLR, LOOK NO FURTHER THAN CANON'S LEGENDARY RANGE. DIGITAL SLRs AND LENSES

Basic Camera Equipment

For the 35mm SLR user there is a wide range of equipment and accessories available to cover every area of photographic interest. In terms of lenses, your camera may come with a standard 50mm lens already fitted. Additionally, you should consider choosing a wide-angle lens between 28 and 35mm for shooting a broad panorama or when working in a confined area. A long-focus lens between 90 and 135mm is useful for portraits as well as more distant subjects. However, a zoom lens gives you flexibility without changing lens. A tripod guarantees sharp images of stationary subjects and may be essential to avoid camera shake during a long exposure.

Zoom lenses for compact and digital cameras

Compact cameras use both the 135 and APS formats, while digital cameras use focal plane arrays of much smaller formats, typically from 2 3 to 1 4 inch diagonal. Apart from small formats, most of these cameras do not use reflex viewfinders but rely instead on separate optical viewfinders. Both factors influence lens design in that the rear element can be very close to the focal plane, and that a useful zoom range is possible with only a few elements, especially if the maximum aperture is modest, perhaps f 4 at the most. The lens must also telescope down into the camera body for storage, to help keep the size of the camera small. For the 135 format, long range zoom lenses of 38 to 200 mm are used, although the aperture reduces to some f 11 at the long focus setting. The lenses are non-interchangeable and the collapsible telescoping barrel may cause some optical misalignment. The basis of such compact designs was the Zeiss Biogon wide-angle lens which has a very short back focal distance...

The dSLR Camera of the Future

The dSLR camera replaced the SLR camera at the beginning of the 21st century. The former has a sensor and other components that record and save an image on a memory card the latter uses film. Both have a mirror system and a pentaprism, and they accept a variety of lenses. Other than the sensor taking the place of film, not many changes in the structure of these types of cameras have been made. As you'll see in this chapter, many of the changes have been functions added to the camera, including the ability to shoot video. Just recently, dSLR cameras included live-view options on their LCD screens. Point-and-shoot models have always had live preview (also called live view), where the image is continuously shown on the LCD screen. It works electronically when the image through the lens is projected onto the sensor. Most point-and-shoot models are built simply, without a viewfinder, so that the sensor receives light from the lens to show what is being framed, which is then displayed on...

Charlie Waite Photo Trip

WDC and Amateur Photographer have teamed up with renowned landscape photographer Charlie Waite to offer an exclusive tour of the Lake District. The tour, hosted by both Charlie Waite and APs Editor, Damien Demolder, takes place between the 8th and 11th November, and will be limited to just 14 photographers for maximum tuition time. During the trip you'll stay on the banks of Lake Ullswater, while being transported around the Lakes in a private mini-bus. What's more, if you book before 30th September you'll save 65 on the price of the trip. For more information and to book your place, visit www.lightandland.co.uk

The Magic of Long Lenses the Breadth of Wide Lenses

Within our camera bags are mechanical tools we carry telephoto lenses, wide-angle lenses, and macro lenses. Each lens serves a specific purpose, enabling us to compress our photos, expand horizons, or capture the tiny details of the macro world that exist all around us. The first long lens I bought was an 85mm for my 35mm film camera, many years ago. I remember looking through it the first time and marveling at how the slight compression of this short telephoto lens dramatized an otherwise normal portrait. Shooting wide open, the background dropped slightly out of focus, yet the range of focus encompassed the nose to the ears. I thought it was magical. Small apertures are used interchangeably with the term wide open in the photographic world. These refer to the diaphragm in the lens being open to allow the most amount of light to pass through the lens to the chip. Wide open in an 85mm f2 lens would be f2.

Fine Tuning White Balance

At settings other than Preset, white balance can be fine tuned to compensate for variations in the color of the light source or to introduce a deliberate warm or cold cast into an image. Higher settings can be used to lend images a bluish tinge or to compensate for light sources with a yellow or red cast, while lowering white balance can make photographs appear slightly more yellow or red or compensate for light sources with a blue cast. Adjustments can be made in the range +3 to -3 in increments of one. Except in Fluorescent mode, each increment is equivalent to about 10 mired. White balance is fine tuned using the White bal. option in the shooting menu or by pressing the WB button and rotating the sub-command dial. At settings other than 0, a icon appears in the control panel. The White Balance Menu II n the white balance menu ( 49), highlight an option other than Preset and press the multi selector to the right. When the monitor is off, white balance can be fine tuned by pressing...

Introduction to SLR Cameras

The decision to commit to a digital SLR camera and housing is a daunting one. Financial costs can be considerable and one's aspirations as an up and coming underwater photographer may fail or succeed depending on whether you acquire the right equipment or not. Compared with compacts, an SLR offers a number of advantages, which include conditions. For instance for a photo trip to Sulawesi to shoot small subjects you will need a macro lens. For a reef and wrecks tour in the Red Sea you'll need an ultra wide angle (fisheye) lens. Keep in mind that a good quality SLR housing system will be of benefit for many years to come and will have the flexibility to meet future needs, not just your present ones. Make the wrong choice and you'll be frustrated and limited by the equipment. In this chapter I explore those features of a typical SLR camera which from experience I consider to be significant to the underwater photographer. As a typical example let's take the 'depth of field preview...

For Serious Photographers

Photographers with serious ambitions for their prints might, for many of the same reasons they choose an SLR or DSLR over a compact camcra improved image quality, greater control, faster speed, as well as expanded creative options. And, of course, BIG PRINTS. We're talking 11x14- or 13xl9-inch enlargements that make a powerful statement about your vision and photographic prowess. Sure, you can have large prints made at a custom lab, or even online, but for the most control at the lowest per-print cost, nothing beats CONTINUED ON RAGE 88

CMOS image sensor facts may drop

Here are some things you might like to know about CMOS image sensors CMOS image sensors can incorporate other circuits on the same chip, eliminating the many separate chips required for a CCD. This also allows additional on-chip features to be added at little extra cost. These features include anti-jitter (image stabilization) and image compression. Not only does this make the camera smaller, lighter, and cheaper it also requires less power so batteries last longer. It is technically feasible but not economic to use the CCD manufacturing process to integrate other camera functions, such as the clock drivers, timing logic, and signal processing on the same chip as the photosites. These are normally put on separate chips so CCD cameras contain several chips, often as many as 8, and not fewer than 3. CMOS image sensors can switch modes on the fly between still photography and video. However, video generates huge files so initially these cameras will have to be tethered to the mothership...

Keeping white balance when outdoors

Indoor and outdoor light is different each gives your picture an entirely different hue. Most digital cameras give you a setting to adjust this white balance. The function of white balance is to find a reference point for what is white and then to correct offbeat hues (based on this reference point) in your entire photograph while you shoot. Most film cameras have no white balance setting, so you have to deal with brown tones indoors and blue outdoors. Most digital cameras, however, have a manual setting for white balance that ensures the best results. (For more about white balance, see Chapter 8.) On most digital cameras, you can set white balance as follows

Sony Alpha DSLRA390A290 Roadmap

One thing that always surprises new owners of the Sony Alpha DSLR-A390 A290 is that the cameras have a total of 397 buttons, dials, switches, levers, latches, and knobs bristling from its surface. Okay, I lied. Actually, the real number is closer to two dozen controls and adjustments, but that's still a lot of components to master, especially when you consider that many of these controls serve double-duty to give you access to multiple functions. The illustrations in this book show the Sony Alpha DSLR-A390 camera. If you own the A290 model, your camera looks and operates almost exactly the same. The chief differences are that you're missing the Live View OVF (optical viewfinder) switch. The LCD on the back of your camera stubbornly refuses to tilt. But you still get the same, sharp, sparkling 14.2-megapixel images that the A390 does. Pop-up flash. This is your Alpha's internal flash. It pops up automatically when needed while using Auto, Portrait, Close-Up, and Night Scene modes, and...

Copying White Balance from a Photograph

To copy a value for white balance from a photograph on the memory card, display the white balance menu 49) and follow the steps below 'To use white balance value for current photo, proceed to Step 11. If no photo is displayed, preset white balance will be set to 5,200 K (Dir. sunlight). 'To use white balance value for current photo, proceed to Step 11. If no photo is displayed, preset white balance will be set to 5,200 K (Dir. sunlight). + Images displayed may include those created by other cameras, but only photographs created with D70 can be used as source for preset white balance. Set preset white balance to value for selected photograph.*

Technologies And Features Common To Canon Dslrs

Regardless of which dSLR you have or are considering, Canon has a long track record of employing consistent technologies within their dSLR lineup. Since digital photography came into its own, a defining characteristic of the progression of the But more importantly, as Canon's ongoing research and development continues to refine camera features, Canon has progressively applied new and improved technologies throughout its camera lineup. As a result, photographers can rely on a consistently high level of quality as well as overall similarity of features and functionality from one Canon dSLR camera to another. And as a result, as photographers move from one camera to another, the learning curve is lower, allowing quick integration of the new camera into the system. In addition, functionality that is common to multiple camera models is a boon for photographers who use more than one camera body. For example, Canon's Picture Style feature, a set of preprogrammed and customizable settings...

Figure 419 Noticeable vignetting caused by a fully zoomed out wideangle lens On the right it has been corrected by the

If you have never corrected your edges for vignettingprobably because you didn't think it existedtake a few of your widest angle photos and try correcting them by dragging the vignette slider slightly to the right. If the corners brighten just enough that the whole image looks more even, your lens probably has a slight amount of vignetting. The chances are particularly good if the lens is a 28mm or wider 35mm equivalent and has not been stopped down more than one or two f-stops.

Tip RAW Files Work Best on Powerful Computers

Processing RAW files requires lots of computing power, so the faster and more powerful your PC, the sooner you'll get the job done. This means selecting a computer with a fast CPU and lots of memory. If you are a serious shooter and RAW is your preferred file format, we suggest using Apple's Macintosh G5 with twin CPUs. Or, if you want to use a Windows machine, a 2.8GHz Pentium 4 box with at least 1GB of high-speed RAM is the minimum acceptable configuration. If you're a pro who eats, sleeps, and breathes RAW, then you're a prime candidate for a box powered by 64-bit (or even twin 64-bit) CPUs and several gigs of high-speed memory. However, most people can use typical, less expensive desktops for their digital photography.

Taking Control of Your dSLR

N terms of buttons, dials, and controls, comparing a typical point-and-shoot camera with a digital SLR is like comparing a hang glider to a Boeing 767 cockpit. Certainly, the more sophisticated option has more controls, but most people find it easier to flip a switch and shift a control than to yank on a lever, lean to the right, and pray. Because you can do so many different things with a dSLR, the learning curve is a bit steep. You might have four or five exposure modes to choose from, a half-dozen different ways to focus, and the ability to fine-tune details such as white balance, sharp- . MiiSSS ness, contrast, and color. Because you're a more serious photographer, those options are probably the reason you bought a digital SLR in the first place. If you're lazy or not up to using your brain on any given day, you can set up your digital SLR to operate much like a glorified point-and-shoot camera. Turn on autofocus, set the exposure control to Auto, and fire away. As you depress the...

Lens Aperture and Fstop

The lens aperture is controlled by a series of overlapping blades that can be opened and closed to let in more or less light. The relative size of the opening is indicated by its f-stop number the larger the number, the smaller the opening. The f-stops shown here are sometimes known as whole, or full, f-stops. When you change from one whole f-stop to another, you let in half or twice as much light, depending on whether you make the opening smaller or larger. Note that your lens may not offer a full range of whole f-stops. The f-stops on the opposite page have a special relationship to each other, one that is critical for understanding film exposure and how to control it. Changing the lens aperture setting from one of the f-stops in this list to one that comes just before or after it halves or doubles the amount of light the lens allows through, depending on whether you make the opening smaller or larger. For example, changing from f 8 to f 11 makes the lens aperture half the size, so...

Getting Your Photo from a RAW File

Unlike TIFF or JPEG, RAW files do not have a universal format. Each camera company has its own proprietary RAW, with unique names, file extensions, and software for opening, editing, and saving the files. For instance, Konica Minolta's RAW files are MRW Nikon's are NEF, Canon's are CR2 and CRW Until recently, shooting RAW meant that you couldn't open up your images on any computer that didn't have the right software for your specific camera. If you were on a trip or in someone else's studio and the PC at hand didn't have the right RAW utility installed, you were stuck, shooting blind, uncertain what pictures you had until after you processed them. This was just like the old days of film, when you couldn't inspect your shots until they came out of the darkroom. Luckily, the newest version of Photoshop now opens most RAW file formats. Better yet, Adobe has assured us that they are working on providing support for all RAW file formats as soon as possible. In addition, other software...

How Active Autofocus Makes Pictures Sharp

Active Autofocus

Photographers can't always rely on automatic focusing because it's subject to the vagaries of any mechanism that cannot see but pretends it can. For the most part, autofocus has all but eliminated pictures of relatives with fuzzy faces and blurred birthday bashes, and it's a must for action shots and subjects who won't stand still for a portrait. The implementations of autofocus are as diverse as the minds of the ingenious engineers who invent them. We'll look here at two types of active autofocus found on less expensive cameras. One is akin to the echo technology of radar and sonar the other is based on the triangulation used in rangefinders. Over the next few pages, we'll also take a look at passive autofocus designs and the motor that makes them all work. Echo Active Autofocus This type of autofocus works with subjects no more than about 30 feet from the camera. With any subject farther than that, the returning light is too faint to register. In that situation, the camera sets the...

Should I Use Photoshops Camera RAW or the Camera Companys RAW Converter Continued

Of course, using Photoshop isn't a second place option. Adobe has some of the best imaging scientists in the world, and their interpretation of color, tone, and all the other aspects of digital photography is no less than superb. But don't bother taking the camera off default (except with regard to -stops and shutter speeds) when shooting RAW files that you'll be bringing into Photoshop via Adobe's Camera RAW conversion utility. Of course, if you use your digital camera's conversion software, you can still edit the image in Photoshop or any other photo-editing program, once it's been converted to TIFF or JPEG. Figure 5-5 Using the same RAW file, we made the exposure and color corrections in the Konica Minolta RAW utility before converting it to TIFF Notice the detail of his shirt pocket and of the creases throughout his white shirt. You can even see the individual stitches around his shirt pocket. This version of the same photo has far greater tonality and detail than the one that was...

Av Aperture Priority Mode

The Aperture Priority mode, or Av ( Aperture Value ), is where you choose the aperture and the camera selects the shutter speed basically the reverse of the Tv mode. This is a very popular setting for many photographers since it offers the most creative control over depth of field (how much of your image appears in focus). This is my favorite setting when I'm not shooting in the Manual mode, and I have a feeling that you will find it just as useful. In Chapter 2 I discussed the basics of how the aperture works, so you should know that a large aperture (smaller number) equates to more light coming through the lens, and vice versa. The Av mode allows the camera to select the shutter speed. When you use a large aperture, you will end up with a faster shutter speed, and since a smaller aperture allows less light in through the lens, the camera will give a slower shutter speed to compensate. Once you have a solid understanding of how aperture and shutter speed work together, you will have...

Normal lenses and digital cameras

One of the factors that determines what is a standard lens is the size of the film or sensor in relation to the focal length of the lens. As most digital cameras have a sensor size that is smaller than a 35 mm frame, normal lenses for these cameras tend to have focal lengths shorter than 50 mm. This is even true for the SLR digital cameras that use the same lenses as the film camera version. To accurately compare the perspective of digital camera lenses, look for values that indicate the lens's '35 mm comparative' focal length. This converts the actual lens size to its equivalent on a 35 mm film camera. In addition, knowing the Lens Multiplication Factor for a specific DSLR camera will enable you to calculate the difference in angle of view that results from using a sensor that is smaller in physical dimensions than a 35 mm frame. For instance, the multiplication factor for Nikon DSLR cameras is 1.5. This means that if I attached a lens that would be considered standard when shooting...

Touring through a Digital SLR

Now is the time to explore the innards of your digital SLR as a way to better understand how to use all the nifty features your digital shooter includes. At best, these sections give you a better handle on why, sometimes, the results you get when you press the shutter release aren't exactly what you expected At worst, you can find more convincing excuses to give when you goof. In some ways, the basics of a dSLR have a lot in common with the conventional film SLR, or indeed, any film camera. All these picture-grabbers share some fundamental components, which I list in the general order of their arrangement inside your camera, as shown in Figure 2-4 Some of these components for film and digital cameras, especially lenses, are very similar. Indeed, many digital SLRs can use the same lenses built for their film counterparts. So, in this guided tour of the dSLR, I concentrate on the pieces and parts that are different. In the sections that follow, I explain each component listed here.

Figure 427 The Camera Raw workspace set up as I like it while winnowing

When you see an image that is unacceptably unsharp, hit the Delete key. The thumbnail will stay in place until you leave Camera Raw, but a red X appears in the upper corner of the affected thumbnail. If you change your mind about eliminating that image, simply click on the red X to deselect the image for deletion. You can zoom out by double-clicking the Hand icon. All the images will appear in the Preview window, scaled to fit. Now you can review the images for unacceptable characteristics, such as too much lens flare, an embarrassing facial expression, awkward pose, or the unexpected appearance of someone in front of the lens just at the moment of click. Now that you've eliminated a lot of wasted file space and processing time, you can save even more time by adjusting whole groups of images simultaneously.

Tweaking Camera Raw Adjustments in Sync

You had a taste of synching in the Using the Calibrate Tab Settings section earlier in this chapter. But the best part is that you can actually perform all the Camera Raw adjustments simultaneously on all of the open images 2. The selected images will open in Camera Raw. Camera Raw is technically a Photoshop plug-in, so Photoshop will open first, with Camera Raw inside it. 6. When you're done making adjustments, note that the labeling of the Save and Open buttons has changed to reflect the number of files that are currently selected, minus those that have been selected for deletion. After making all the adjustments in Camera Raw, save all your images to Photoshop format by clicking the Save button. The Save dialog, shown in Figure 4-28, appears. Now is a good time to rename your images so that you can readily identify the subject and shoot.

An Entrylevel Dslr To Replace The 060 And An Update To The Popular D300 Model

Elt's another busy month for camera releases as Nikon rolls out two more DSLRs the first, an update to the powerful D300, the D300S and the second, a brand new entry-level model, the D3000. The D3000, though not a direct upgrade, will replace the current entry-level offering, the D60, at the budget end of the range. The D3000 is, in essence, a stripped-down D5000. It shares the same body chassis and basic design. It features a smaller 10.2-megapixel sensor (from the D60) and the latest EXPEED processor with an ISO range of 100-1600, and +1EVfor an ISO 3200 equivalent. The focusing is care of the Nikon Multi-CAM 1000 sensor module and offers an impressive 11 focus points, including one cross-type sensor, and an AF-assist illuminator, while the TTL exposure metering uses a 420-pixel RGB sensor with 3D colour matrix, centre-weighted and spot options. There are six scene modes on top of the Auto, Program and Manual

Customizing your white balance

For instance, what seems like a simple portrait taken in your lounge could have the subject partially lit by the incandescent lamp stand in the corner, the fluorescent tube on the dining room ceiling and the daylight coming through the windows. Because of the mixed light sources a specific white balance setting is not appropriate. Instead, you should use the customize, or preset, white balance option in your camera. This feature works by measuring the light's combined color as it falls onto a piece of white paper or gray card. The camera then compares this reading with a reference white swatch gray card in its memory and designs a white balance setting specifically for your shooting scenario. With the process complete you are now set to shoot your portrait secure in the knowledge that you will produce cast-free images. Always remember though, because this is a customized process, if you decide to turn a light off, or move your subject to another position in the room, then you will...

Applying Camera Raw Settings in Adobe Bridge

If you have more than the suggested 16 images to process simultaneously or just don't need to have all the files open as you process the first one, this is the fastest way to apply the same settings to any number of RAW files 1. Open the first, best, or most typical of the group in Camera Raw and do all the processing recommended in this course. 2. Click the Done button at the bottom of the Camera Raw dialog. Clicking Done closes Camera Raw and at the same time applies all the settings you've made to the currently opened image(s). 3. Now you're back in Adobe Bridge. Simply Cmd Ctrl-click each image to which you want to apply the last settings made in Camera Raw. 4. Ctrl Right-click any of the selected images. From the resulting in-context menu (Figure 4-29), choose Previous Conversion. Since Camera Raw is closed, processing happens more quickly. And while it's processing you can do other thingssuch as selecting the next group of images you want to process.

Telephoto lens King of the sports world

Even with big telephoto lenses, there are still lots of times when I'm just standing on the sidelines because the action is taking place too far away. Still, a good telephoto (and many digital point-and-shoot cameras these days have powerful telephoto capabilities) can improve your chances of making a shot. So can a second camera. Many pros carry more than one camera when they shoot an athletic event. For instance, if I'm on the sideline of a soccer or football game, I usually have one camera with a long lens on it (300mm or longer) and another with a modest zoom (28-70). This way I can follow more distant action with the telephoto yet still be able to grab the camera with the short zoom and bring it up to shoot a play coming toward my sideline. (Of course this is the moment when sane people start running away from the action.)

Medium zoom lens Shooting indoor sports

A medium zoom is usually considered to be a range of focal lengths running anywhere from 24mm at the wide end to about 135mm at its longest telephoto. This is a handy optic for many indoor sports, such as cheerleading, basketball, volleyball, and wrestling. The biggest problem with such lenses is that most of the affordable ones (at least for DSLRs) are too expensive for the typical amateur user. More and more point-and-shoot digital cameras are offering this range of focal lengths at reasonably fast maximum apertures, but be sure to check what the maximum aperture is at the extreme end of the lens. Telephoto lengths usually have smaller maximum apertures than wide angle ones.

The days of mediumformat cameras being used exclusively for fine photography seem to be at an end Fast versatile zoom

Frames-per-second, amazingly accurate autofocus lens performance, and incredible developments in digital imaging technology have led to the 35mm DSLR (digital single-lens reflex) becoming the camera system of choice for today's top professional photographers. Professional 35mm digital camera systems include a full array of lenses, dedicated TTL flash units, and system accessories. Currently, there are seven companies manufacturing full-fledged DSLR systems Canon, Nikon, Olympus, Fuji (which uses Nikon autofocus lenses), Pentax, Konica Minolta, and Sigma (which uses the radically different Foveon X3 image sensor). Each manufacturer has several models within their product line to meet varying price points. Many of the pre-digital lenses available from these same manufacturers for their film cameras also fit the new digital cameras (although often with a corresponding change in focal length). In addition, a number of third-party lens manufacturers also make AF lenses to fit various...

Opening and Adjusting Multiple RAW Files in Photoshop CS2

When you have multiple images that have the same exposure, brightness range, contrast, and color balance, you should open them all at once in Camera Raw. Then click the Select All and Synchronize buttons so the settings applied to any one of the images will apply to all of them. This situation especially applies to product, fashion, journalism, and event photography where many photographs are taken of the same subject to ensure capturing just the right moment. You do not want to spend time adjusting each photo individually, since it could unnecessarily add hours to your processing time. You have to start in Bridge to get into Camera Raw. If you jumped ahead to this chapter out of a rabid curiosity about Camera Raw, jump back to the Applying Camera Raw Settings in Adobe Bridge section earlier in this chapter and familiarize yourself with the steps you ordinarily take in Bridge. Then, if you're following my workflow rules as religiously as I dogmatically demand, you have already...

Attaching Filters and Accessories to Your Lens

Most lenses have threads that can be found inside the outer front rim. (See Filter Threads in Chapter 2.) These threads can be used to attach filters, close-up lenses, add-on optical attachments such as fisheye adapters and lens hoods. Some extra-wide-angle lenses, optics with curved front surfaces, as well as those with extremely large front diameters or other characteristics that make ordinary filters and lens attachments problematic, may not have these threads. In such cases, as I noted in Chapter 2, filters may be built-in or inserted into a slot at the rear of the lens.

Six Great dSLR Features

All digital SLRs have six killer features that make your job as a photographer much easier, more pleasant, and more creative. The perspective through a dSLR's viewfinder is larger and easier to view than what you get with any non-SLR's optical window, back-panel LCD, or internal electronic viewfinder (EVF). With a dSLR, what you see is almost exactly what you get (or at least 95 percent of it), although you might need to press a button called a depth-of-field preview if you want to know more precisely what parts of your image are in focus. The dSLR's viewfinder shows you a large image of what the lens sees, not a TV-screen-like LCD view. (See Figure 1-1.) If you have your heart set on using an LCD, you can still review the picture you've taken on your dSLR's LCD after it has been captured. Figure 1-1 A dSLR viewfinder gives you a big, bright view of your scene for easy composition and focus. Figure 1-1 A dSLR viewfinder gives you a big, bright view of your scene for easy composition...

Using Camera Raw for Creating Effects

Most of your adjustments in Camera Raw will be for changing brightness, contrast, and other overall characteristics (such as noise, sharpness, and vignetting) using a tool that is completely nondestructive. Most effects processing is terribly destructive, which is why it is placed toward the end of the book and workflow (Chapter 11, to be specific). However, there are a few effects that you can at least begin in Camera Raw. After all, the more nondestructive processing you can do for an image, the better.

Making Multiple Exposures in Camera

Now that you know how to use and make adjustments in Camera Raw, we've come to one of the more creative benefits of using the programto use the RAW files' larger range of brightness as multiple exposures. There are basically two reasons you might want to do this to create an especially interesting interpretation of the image by exporting the image as a particularly high-key or low-key interpretation (see Figure 4-34 and the next two sections of this chapter, Increasing Dynamic Range by Making Multiple RAW Renditions and Increasing Dynamic Range Using the HDR Command ) or to create exposures that can be combined to show detail in both the extreme highlights and shadows (see the two sections on HDR techniques later in this chapter). Figure 4-34. Three different exposures of the same image, all made approximately two f-stops apart in Camera Raw and opened in Photoshop. Of course, as long as you haven't obviously under- or overexposed the image recorded by the camera, the difference in...

If Shooting JPEGs Use a Preset White Balance

If you're shooting with your digital camera set to RAW format, you don't need to worry about the white balance (leave it set at Auto White Balance, you can always change it later, in Photoshop), but if you're like many pro wedding photographers, you're shooting in JPEG Fine format (so you can take more shots and write to the memory card faster). If that's the case, then you're better off choosing a preset white balance in the camera that matches the lighting situation you're shooting in (that way, the overall color of your photo looks balanced for the light). If you don't set the right white balance, your photos can look too yellow or too blue. Luckily, choosing a white balance is easier than you'd think, and it will save you loads of time later when you're processing your photos in Photoshop. Just go to the menu on your digital camera, scroll to the white balance control and choose Incandescent if you're shooting in a standard reception hall, or Daylight if you're shooting an outdoor...

Six dSLR Drawbacks You Can Live With

Although dSLRs can do many things that non-dSLRs can't, they do have some limitations. However, I think you'll find that those limitations make a worthwhile trade-off, considering all the additional capabilities you gain with a digital SLR. Where's my preview That's the number-one question asked by new dSLR owners who started out using conventional digital cameras. Except for one scientific model offered by Canon and a line of cameras from Olympus, no digital SLR offers a live preview of the image you're about to take on the back-panel LCD. That's because the mirror and shutter of a dSLR block the sensor from receiving light until the moment the picture is actually taken. So, you generally must be satisfied with viewing your image on the LCD only after it has been taken, as shown in Figure 1-2. A dSLR can't provide the real-time exposure chart, called a live histogram, that many non-SLR cameras display on the rear LCD, either, although you can view this chart after the photo is taken...

Using histograms to perfect your white balance

When you're using a split-level histogram, you'll see that your colors are reading differently across the histogram. That's fine - if they were all perfectly stacked, that would mean you have a grayscale photograph. However, if you can see three trends (say, three bumps which fall in sequence) it is the sign that your white balance might be off. If the bumps are roughly equal like in Figure 3-6 your white balance is spot-on . You can use the split-level histogram to your advantage to set your white balance. To do so, set your camera to manual white balance, and pick a kelvin value that you feel might be just about right. Take a test shot and look Figure 3-7 A split-level histogram can help you get your white balance right in your photos. at the histogram. If the right-side of your histogram is primarily red, your images will have a red cast, so your photo is 'running hot'. To adjust this, you have to tell the camera that the light is warmer than you had expected so reduce the kelvin...

How Digital Photographers Remain Masters of Their Domains

Despite the sophistication and the artificial intelligence found in digital cameras, there still are circumstances when the photographer must assert the human capacity to understand things that even today's intelligent machines do not. Digital features let photographers give a nudge-nudge to their cameras' very best judgments, and the prospect of taking a badly exposed photo shrinks to nonexistence. How Bracketing Gives Digital Photographers Insurance The second choice is how much each of those extra exposures should vary from the original settings. Some cameras permit overexposures and underexposures as small as a third of a stop, which lets a third more or a third less light reach the image sensor. The maximum compensation per bracket is usually one stop, which doubles or halves the light. Within a range of one stop above and below a camera's reading, a photographer is almost always certain to find the perfect exposure. How Photographers Use Exposure Compensation How Photographers...

Working without a Zoom Lens

Using a camera without a zoom lens requires that you be creative when working with settings and subjects objects. For example, if you are a candid photographer who shoots people without them knowing it, a zoom lens works well because you can shoot people from a distance. You'd think that if you take a picture without having a zoom lens, it would be kind of hard to photograph people without them knowing it, but the opposite is true. When you hold up your iPhone camera in front of someone to photograph them, it can appear that you are texting someone or just playing with your phone. Most of the time, they won't even notice you. Whether you decide to photograph people without their permission is up to you. It's not always the best thing to do however, some of the most famous photographers have done it.

How Digital SLRs Work

I show you in general how digital cameras work in Book II, Chapter 1. But, as you might expect, there are some differences in the way digital SLRs capture pictures. Knowing a little of the inside dope on these cameras can help you understand how best to use their features. Like their non-SLR counterparts, digital SLRs rely on sensors composed of an array of pixels. But because the sensors are larger in a dSLR, the pixels are larger, too, so most 8-megapixel dSLRs produce sharper and more noise-free results than 8-megapixel non-dSLRs. Some dSLRs even outperform other dSLRs with greater resolution because of the quality of the sensors, lenses, or electronic circuitry. So, with dSLRs as with other types of digital cameras, the raw number of megapixels is only a guideline, even though more pixels is quite often better. It's important to remember that you might not actually need all that extra resolution, especially when you consider that every million pixels you stuff into a digital SLR...

Telephoto Zoom Lenses

Numerous telephoto zoom lenses are available to choose from. Many sports photographers carry a 70-200-mm f 2.8 zoom lens for relatively close action. This type of lens comes in handy during a football or soccer event, when the teams get close to a scoring opportunity. While you are 20 or 30 yards away from the action, these lenses work well to get you close enough to the action, but not too tight, like a 400 mm might be under the same circumstance.

What Is White Balance

The color of light reflected off any object is determined by the color of the light source. Your eyes, in combination with your brain, automatically adapt to the changing colors of the light source and as a result, white objects appear white regardless of whether they are in the shade, in bright sunlight, or under a florescent lamp. Digital cameras attempt to operate in much the same manner, by determining the color of the light source and processing the information from the camera's sensor to correct the color information. The feature of your camera that adjusts the image captured by the camera's sensor to compensate for the different colored light sources is called white balance.

So what is in a RAW file

It is helpful to think of a RAW file as having three distinct parts (see Figure 16.8) Image data which, though recorded by the camera, can be changed in a RAW editing program such as Adobe Camera RAW (ACR) and the settings chosen here directly affect how the picture will be processed. Changeable options include color depth, white balance, saturation, distribution of image tones (contrast), noise reduction and application of sharpness.

White Balance And Colour

Left in its AWB mode, the Samsung NX11 performs well in natural light. Under tungsten lighting it does little, if arything, to reduce the tungsten cast. However, switching to the tungsten white balance setting produces completely neut'al results Metering system Exposure comp White balance White balance bracket Drive mode

Overcoming Quirks of the dSLR

If you're entering the digital SLR world from the realms of film cameras or non-SLR digital photography, you'll note some significant differences that can only be called quirks. They're idiosyncrasies of the dSLR that you must compensate for or grudgingly put up with. Some might even drive you crazy. The following sections offer some advice for contending with these quirks. Every time you remove your dSLR's lens to replace it with another, you could be admitting tiny specks of dust that might, if you're unlucky, find their way past the shutter when it opens for an exposure, and thence onto the sensor. It might take a few weeks or a few months, but eventually, you'll end up with artifacts on your sensor. So, if you own a digital SLR, you can plan on the need to clean your sensor from time to time. It's not particularly difficult, and cleaning kits are available at camera stores and online. Some tips to remember include 1 Point your camera downward when changing lenses to reduce the...

Looking At The Canon Dslr Lineup

Lining up the Canon dSLR models on a camera store counter creates an impressive array of choices. If you put the lenses of your choice on each camera body, the lineup quickly becomes a photographer's ultimate toy store. Each camera presents a unique opportunity that satisfies the shooting needs, requirements, and credit limit of one or another photographer. This section gives you an overview of Canon's dSLRs, with insights that you're unlikely to learn while browsing at a camera store. In the last year, I've shot with each of these cameras, and I've talked to other photographers who have or are currently shooting with them.

Step 4 Choose Autofocus Setting Mode And Focal Points

Many digital cameras allow you to choose an autofocus frame, which is an area of the composition where the camera focuses. The default focus frame is in the center of the LCD monitor or viewfinder. This center focus frame works just fine when you want to focus on a subject that is the center of the composition. However, if you want to focus on a subject to the left or right, or anywhere else, another approach is required.

Automatic White Balance

Your digital camera has a feature called Automatic White Balance (AWB) that attempts to adjust the color balance settings automatically for the color temperature of the scene being photographed. In most cases, using the AWB is your best choice. However, in some situations, AWB doesn't correctly read the color in the scene. For example, when you are shooting a photo of someone lit by an incandescent lamp, like the

Understanding White Balance

The good news is that you don't have to remember these numbers in order to make a good photograph. They're good to know, but not knowing won't adversely impact your photographs. What's important to know is that whichever light source you're shooting under, if you don't set the white balance correctly on your camera, your colors may not be as accurate as they could or should be.

Telephoto Lenses and Extenders

Long telephoto lenses such as 300-mm f 2.8 400-mm f 2.8, 500-mm f 4, and 600-mm f 4 are practically required for photographing sporting events. The reason for this is quite simple You typically are far away from the action, and you need to bring the action closer to you. The most frequently used lens in field-event sports is the 400-mm f 2.8 lens. A new Nikon or Canon lens of this length could cost you 6,500 or more. An alternative is to purchase a less expensive 300-mm f 2.8 lens and add a 1.4X or I don't recommend using a 2X converter because you tend to lose a lot of sharpness in your images, and it slows down the tracking of the auto-focus mechanism in the camera. The 1.4X is not as severe in this situation and is fairly common in the industry. I do, however, recommend purchasing the same brand converter as your lens. They might be higher in price, but you will definitely notice the difference in sharpness and auto-focus speed. Although these usages might prohibit you from using...

Making a Black and White Image in Camera

There are many ways to make black and white and other types of monochrome images in Photoshopso many in fact that it could almost become its own separate science. Bet you didn't know you could do quite a decent job and do it a lot faster (although with slightly less flexibility) using Camera Raw.

Dslr That Makes Stepping Up Simple

FACING TOUGH competition from 12- to 15-megapixel DSLRs from Canon and Nikon, Sony's new 14.2MP Alpha 380 ( 850, street, with 18-55mm f 3.5-5.6 SAM lens) comes up somewhat short. It has a couple of big strengths. Live-view shooting is the best we've used on any DSLR to date. It offers built-in wireless flash control all too rare in consumer-level cameras. And its controls, from the placement of buttons to the made-for-beginners display interface, are very well designed. At the brightest part of our autofocus speed test, the Sony proved extremely fast for this class. Once the light

Choosing the dSLR Thats Right for

You might have studied the explanations of digital SLR technology in this chapter because you're pondering which dSLR to buy. Because technology changes so rapidly, it's unlikely that the camera you buy today will be your last. On the other hand, even the least expensive dSLR is a major investment for most of us, particularly when you factor in the cost of the lenses and accessories you'll purchase. You want to make the right choice the first time. Even among modern digital camera vendors, you have important SLR manufacturers that were late to the party (Konica Minolta, for example) and others with now-you-see-it now-you-don't products, such as the Contax N Digital, a 6MP digital SLR announced in July, 2000, but later withdrawn from the US market. You can be certain that Konica Minolta is in the digital SLR fray for the long term, but can you be that confident about all the other players in the game Digital SLR decision makers often fall into one of four categories Serious...

Aperture Priority and Shutter Priority

Digital SLRs have four main shooting modes, commonly known by their traditional initials MASP, for Manual, Aperture Priority, Shutter Priority, and Programmed. Many entry-level dSLRs also have an additional set of modes called Scene modes, with names like Landscape, Portrait, Night Scene, or Children. These are highly automated settings fine-tuned for specific types of photography no brainer modes that make basic settings and may even lock out particular options, such as the use of certain shutter speeds or your camera's internal electronic flash. As photographers gain experience, they usually eschew Scene modes, as well as a mode called Auto, which may be even more restrictive of options, while not flexible enough to handle common shooting situations. For most of us, MASP does the job. We can choose M (Manual) to set exposures (usually based on exposure information supplied by the camera), Aperture Priority Aperture Priority This is the mode to choose when you want to choose a...

Mastering Your dSLRs Controls

You'll learn about automated exposure modes, using histograms, working with f-stops and shutter speeds, and selecting the right scene options. I'll also cover some of the quirks of working with automatic focus systems, too. I'm not going to waste pages on some of the easier controls, like the shutter release, or on setup options such as white balance settings you make using your menu system. The emphasis here will be on the most important controls you use for everyday shooting.

Photographers Commentnotes on Margarita

If you don't have a window In your studio get one Or, open your door, shoot In your house, or go on location for drink or liquid shots. You can't control the weather but it really doesn't take much daylight to get the effect. I have warm-colored walls in my shooting area around my windows. This warms the entire set. Again, I have used a small Chimera lightbank for fill, high and to the side. No fill cards were used because they can cause reflections in the glass. The Hasselblad H3D with telephoto lens is the perfect choice for this kind of shot.

Figure 446 Left a color portrait after adjusting Exposure Shadows Brightness and Curves Right a black and white

That is, you probably can but won't know until you try. There are two ways that Camera Raw lets you change the tonalities in the image. This is done in analog photography by choosing film or using filters that make the film more sensitive to different colors of light. You can do a similar thing in Camera Raw by changing the Temperature and Tint settings. You can then go one step further by changing the color sensitivities using the Calibrate tab. All of these actions will change the tonalities in the monochrome image without actually bringing any color back into the image. To create a black and white image 1. Make the color version of the image look as good as possible in Camera Raw by using the steps described earlier in the Adjust Tab section.

Using Aperture Priority A Mode To Isolate Your Subject

One of the benefits of working in Shutter Priority mode with fast shutter speeds is that, more often than not, you will be shooting with the largest aperture available on your lens. Shooting with a large aperture allows you to use faster shutter speeds, but it also narrows your depth of field. Let's look at how to use depth of field to bring focus to your subject. In the previous section, I told you that you should use Shutter Priority mode for getting those really fast shutter speeds to stop action. Generally speaking, Shutter Priority mode will be the mode you most often use for shooting sports and other action, but there will be times when you want to ensure that you are getting the narrowest depth of field possible in your image. The way to do this is by using Aperture Priority mode. So how do you know when you should use Aperture Priority mode as opposed to Shutter Priority mode It's not a simple answer, but your LCD screen can help you make this determination. The best scenario...

Setting White Balance

Color accuracy is critical for the work I do. Although I have a lot of flexibility and control in my editing software, it all has to begin with what's happening with the camera. If I nail the color when I make the image, I make considerably less work for myself. Get it wrong, and I have to spend way too much time trying to make it look right. Color accuracy begins with white balance. Auto White Balance (WB) is the default setting for all digital cameras. And though the word auto holds a lot of promise, the camera's Auto WB isn't the universal balm people would like to think it is. Though Auto WB does occasionally produce decent results, it isn't the best if you want the highest color accuracy. Why Because Auto WB can be fooled. It works by evaluating the colors in a scene and tries to recognize what the light source is. If you're shooting people wearing a variety of colors on a sunny day, it'll likely produce an accurate white balance. But if the scene includes subjects or objects...

Using zoom lenses in the field

The advantages of zoom lenses over fixed lenses can be huge when it comes to making images. While leading a photo safari in Kenya's famous Masai Mara, Barbara's driver spotted a lioness carrying a cub directly at her landrover. It was still a hundred yards away so she had time to put her Nikon 80-400 mm f 4.5-5.6 zoom on her camera. She zoomed out to 400 mm and waited for the lion to march within range. As the lioness filled the frame, she put her autofocus sensor right on the forehead and let continuous autofocus track the cat producing sharp images. As the lioness continued to approach, she kept zooming to a shorter focal length and shooting until she was all the way to 80 mm when the huge cat ambled past her landrover only a few yards away. She managed to get three dozen shots off and nearly all of them were sharp and well composed. If she had a fixed focal length lens such as a 300 mm, she would have only shot a few images between the time the lion was big enough in the frame till...

Digital Lenses for 35mm Photographers

The frame size of 35mm film is nearly always 24x36mm, so lenses of a particular focal length produce images with size relationships that are well known and familiar. Lenses with focal lengths of 18mm or less produce ultrawide views focal lengths of 20mm to 35mm are considered wide angles normal lenses are usually 50mm to 58mm short telephotos range from 85mm to 135mm and true long lenses start at about 180mm. Similarly, a lens with an f 1.2 to f1.8 maximum lens opening is considered fast (although longer lenses need a bit less of a maximum aperture to qualify) f2.0 to f2.8 is considered a fairly slow lens and maximum f-stops from f3.5 to f5.6 are considered acceptable only for specialty optics, zoom lenses, and longer telephotos. All that conventional wisdom goes out the window when you're talking about lenses for digital cameras. First, the size of the sensor in a digital camera is smaller than the 35mm frame size. One high-end digital model based on a 35mm SLR camera body uses a...

Other Autofocus Modes

Better digital cameras often offer several autofocus options. They give users greater versatility, but also require more diligence in actual use. Here are some of the focusing modes your digital camera may feature, plus how and when to use them Spot autofocus Like spot metering, in which a very small portion in the center of the viewfinder is used to determine exposure of the entire frame, spot focus uses a tiny spot (smaller than the usual center area) to determine the autofocus point. Spot focus is especially useful when there is a very important small section of the subject (perhaps a piece of jewelry around a model's neck, or the silver hood ornament on a car) that you absolutely, positively need to have in sharp focus. Predictive autofocus A handful of semi-pro and pro cameras allow you to select a predetermined focus point (such as the open gate on a fence or the finish line at a racetrack). When the subject reaches that point, the camera will automatically take a picture....

Fix WB Later Using Raw Format

To understand the advantage of the raw file format, it is first necessary to understand a little more about how a digital camera processes an image before saving it to the memory card. When the image is captured by the camera sensor in any mode other than raw, the computer in the camera processes the sensor data before saving it to the memory card. White balance, exposure, tonal corrections, sharpening, and other adjustment are applied to the image before it is saved. If the camera saves images in raw format, the data from the unprocessed charge-coupled device (CCD) or complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor data is saved using a proprietary format that is maker models specific, such as Nikon's NEF, Canon's CRW, and Kodak's DCR. These formats are loosely based on the TIFF format, except the resulting image file size is smaller than an uncompressed TIFF image. Figure 6-13 shows the Nikon version of the software that works with raw files. Called NikonCapture, this software...

Processing camera RAW

Adobe released a camera RAW plug-in for Photoshop 7 in 2003 and this plug-in became a standard feature with the release of Photoshop CS. The RAW file is opened into a camera RAW dialog box where the user can, amongst other things, set the white balance, optimise the histogram, apply image sharpening and select the colour profile and bit depth before opening the file into the Photoshop interface. If the user selects the 16 Bits Channel option, the 12 bits per channel data from the image sensor is rounded up - each channel is now capable of supporting 32,769 levels.

Working with Raw Files

When a raw image is opened using one of the applications that provide raw file processing, you can use your computer to do the processing that is normally done by the camera at the time of the shooting. This means that when you take a photo with the camera set to raw, the unprocessed data from the camera sensor is saved on the memory card. When the raw file is opened on your computer, you can change the WB setting, exposure, and many more settings on your computer just as if you were back at the scene shooting the photo and changing the camera settings. The major difference is that you are viewing the photo on a large monitor and your computer is several hundred times more powerful than the dedicated processor in your digital camera. The only two factors of a photo saved in raw format that cannot be corrected are focus and shutter speed. For example, if the photo is out of focus or blurred because of incorrect shutter speed, it cannot be saved in this format. The disadvantage of using...

Medium Telephoto Lenses

Portraits because they offer extra working distance and the smaller angle of view makes it easier to isolate the subject from the background. They work well for landscapes and wildflowers. Most nature photographers don't own prime lenses in this range anymore because so many quality zoom lenses cover this range and more. These focal lengths are important to have, but we cover it with 70-200 mm zoom lenses. There are many zoom lens choices that cover this range so take your pick. Some zooms such as the 28-300 mm lens cover an extremely wide range of focal lengths. While it is appealing to cover so many focal lengths with one lens, you are out of luck if the lens malfunctions. If you go on expensive photo trips, it is wise to have a couple lenses with overlapping focal lengths so you can keeping shooting should problems arise.

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