Photography Masterclass Online Course

Photography Masterclass

Photography masterclass program has gone through a trial, testing and the results, later on, have proven that this program works efficiently and give 100% positive results at all times. This program has an upper advantage as compared to other programs which claim to help you capture best pictures because the creator has taken a further step to give you 29 videos which are easy to follow and apply. The 29 videos are in four modules which help you to with ease in referencing the lessons you will learn. The creator of this program has ensured that the program is risk-free by providing a 60-day money refund guarantee to any member who feels not satisfied with the services provided in the program. Through the program, you will learn how to make stunning photographs on your own, and this will, in the long run, increase your self-esteem and enhance your photographs marketability. Continue reading...

Photography Masterclass Summary


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Highly Recommended

The author has done a thorough research even about the obscure and minor details related to the subject area. And also facts weren’t just dumped, but presented in an interesting manner.

Purchasing this e-book was one of the best decisions I have made, since it is worth every penny I invested on it. I highly recommend this to everyone out there.

The Sigma Dpi A Full Spec Compact Digital Camera With All The Power Of Dslr

The built-in SLR-sized 14-megapixel image-sensor is 7 to 12 times bigger than that of an ordinary compact digital camera. The Poveon direct image sensor capturesallthe RGB data on every pixel. The 16.6mm F4 lens uses large-diameter< 14.5nniT0 aspherical glass molds for superior high-resolution and high-contrast performance. And the brand-new TRUE image-processing engine delivers new insight. Measuring just W 113.3mm x H 59.5mm x D 50.3mm and weighing just 250gr the SIGMA DPI is the world's first and only integral-lens high-performance compact digital camera with SLR specifications. It's designed to deliver pure creative control and ignite your creativity.

Olympus Pen Macro Lens

Email Email New Sony DSLR, page 6 Semi-pro digital SLR out next month New 18MP sensor and new AF Canon reveals EOS 7D digital SLR CANON has announced the EOS 7D, a mid-range digital SLR featuring a new 18-million-pixel CMOS imaging sensor (APS-C size) and eight frames per second shooting. The company says it has 'completely redesigned' the autofocus system to include a separate processor to handle AF calculations. 'This, along with Al Servo II AF, enables the EOS7Dto offer accurate, reliable and continuous shooting at 8fps claimed a spokesman, The new imaging sensor features 'condensed circuitry', yet with 'improved sensitivity', according to Canon, which claims to have increased the capacity of the photodiodes and used 'gapless microlenses' that have been moved closer to them. SIGMA is gearing up to launch its latest digital SLR, the SD15, but it is still unclear when it will be released...

Image Sensors Capturing the Photograph

The Development of the CCD Image Sensors and Pixels Image Size Resolution of Digital Devices Image Sensors Image Sensors and Colors Area Array and Linear Sensors CCD and CMOS Image Sensors Unlike traditional cameras that use film to capture and store an image, digital cameras use a solid-state device called an image sensor. These fingernail-sized silicon chips contain millions of photosensitive diodes called photosites. In the brief flickering instant that the shutter is open, each photosite records the intensity or brightness of the light that falls on it by accumulating a charge the more light, the higher the charge. The brightness recorded by each photosite is then stored as a set of numbers that can then be used to set the color and brightness of dots on the screen or ink on the printed page to reconstruct the image. In this chapter, we'll look closely at this process because it's the foundation of everything that follows.

Exploring Your New dSLR

Ompared to non-SLR cameras, the digital SLR bristles with buttons and controls. Believe it or not, that's a good thing. Most of the time, you can access the most-used features of your camera by pressing a single button and twirling a command dial or thumbing a cursor key. Once you've learned where all the main direct-access buttons reside, this way of working is usually much faster than jumping to a menu. The problem, of course, is getting over that hump and learning what all the controls do. This chapter will introduce you to the key features of your digital SLR, with special emphasis on helping you understand the features and controls available with virtually every dSLR that you might not have used before if you're graduating to this more advanced camera type from a point-and-shoot film or digital camera, or a digital model with a fixed lens and an electronic viewfinder (EVF). Although each section includes a photograph of a generic dSLR, this chapter isn't intended to necessarily...

One Dslr Lets You Introducing The Amazing Nikon D

See how celebrated photographer Mark Seliger uses the extraordinary image quality and low-light capabilities of the versatile new Nikon D3S at the Baryshnikov Arts Center. With an astonishing low-noise ISO range of 200-12,800 and performance at ISO 102,400 that must be seen to be believed. The D3S has a 12.1 megapixel, FX-format CMOS sensor. A ready-for-anything speed of up to 9 FPS, coupled with a 51-Point AF system for the ultimate in precision and razor sharpness. Add outstanding HD video capabilities and legendary NIKKOR lenses, and it gives Mark a whole new set of creative tools. Mikhail Baryshnikov was photographed at dusk at 1 50 s at f 4.0, ISO 12,800.

Army Photographers Await Fate

THE BRITISH Army's team of professional photographers will learn this summer whether they are due to lose their jobs as talks continue over their fate. Last year. AP revealed that the Army plans to slash two-thirds of its professional photographers and cut all photcgraphic training for 2011 in the wake of a huge cut to Britain's dcfcncc budget. The move would leave just 15 photographers from the Army's current total of 45

Editing Stage 1 Camera

Before you get into Photoshop, make sure you've done everything possible in Camera Raw to give yourself a good foundation. Remember, everything you do in Camera Raw is nondestructive, so you want to do as much as possible before you move on. You want to make your image look as gorgeous as you can in regard to color balance, dynamic range, cropping and leveling, lack of fringing and noise, and controlling contrast within specific ranges of Brightness with the new Curves tab. If you don't mind spending the money and taking the time to work outside of Photoshop, you might want to do even more on your RAW files with a third-party application such as Phase One Capture One or Pixmantec Raw Shooter Premium. The Camera Raw workflow is covered in Chapter 4.

Why Buya Dslr And Use Oneiensp

The beauty of having a DSLR is that you can easily swap between a series of lenses, so I don't understand why so many people choose to buy a superzoom lens such as a 28-200mm and stick with it for every shot. If you're worried about getting dust in your camera by changing the lens, or don't want to carry a bag full of lenses, buy a creative compact. The extreme focal lengths of superzoom lenses mean you're not getting the best results either, as shorter zooms - or even primes - are much better optically. I love the freedom of a DSLR but there are times when I want to travel light. For these times I always use myTamron 18-250mm lens. It means I can still be prepared for just about any shot, without having to carry around a full kit bag. And if I'm just going away for a weekend it can make a huge difference. I know the quality won't be up to that of professional lenses but for what I need the images look great and mean that I'm not cursing that fact that I can't zoom in for detail or...

Digital camera equipment

Digital camera equipment is less easily classified by image format than film simply because of the huge variation in sensor size. Cameras can, however, be put into broad categories based upon the market for which they are aimed and like film cameras, this dictates the level of sophistication and cost of the equipment. 3 Small-format SLR cameras. Up to 35 mm, these fall into two classes Prosumer (or semi-professional) which are cheaper and aimed at the serious amateur, and professional SLRs based on existing film cameras, retaining their same 'front-end' features, but permanently housing a digital sensor in place of film. At the lowest end of the market are mobile phone cameras. Pixel counts of up to 5 megapixels on sensors in mobile phones are now beginning to rival and surpass those in the compact point-and-shoot cameras of a few years ago. CMOS image sensors were first used in mobile phones at the time the noise levels and low resolution associated with CMOS were unacceptable for...

Image Sensors and Colors

When photography was first invented, it could only record black & white images. The search for color was a long and arduous process, and a lot of hand coloring went on in the interim (causing one author to comment so you have to know how to paint after all ). One major breakthrough was James Clerk Maxwell's 1860 discovery that color photographs could be formed using red, blue, and green filters. He had the photographer, Thomas Sutton, photograph a tartan ribbon three times, each time with a different one of the color filters over the lens. The three images were developed and then projected onto a screen with three different projectors, each equipped with the same color filter used to take its image. When brought into register, the three images formed a full color image. Over a century later, image sensors work much the same way.

Using the Current Value for Preset White Balance

To set white balance to the value currently selected for preset white balance Highlight Preset in the white balance menu ( 49) and press the multi selector to the right. Highlight Measure and press the multi selector to the right to set white balance to the current value for preset white balance and return to the shooting menu.

Getting To Grips With Your Digital

While every camera brand designs digital SLRs in their own way, there are many similarities in the control layouts of most models. We've highlighted the key functions that you should get to know as soon as possible, as understanding how your DSLR works will help you to capture great pictures with ease Press the shutter release button halfway down to activate the autofocus and exposure systems then fully to take the picture. Some cameras sport a Fn (Function) button for fast access to regularly selected functions, such as ISO rating, White Balance, AF modes or the drive function. Inside a DSLR IMAGE SENSOR At the heart of your camera is the image sensor, which boasts millions of light-receptive pixels that make up the image. Most budget DSLRs have between ten and 12-megapixels. SENSOR CLEANING There is a risk when changing lenses of dust entering the camera body and settling on the sensor. Anti-dust systems vibrate the sensor and shake any particles from its surface. This is the...

Set The Correct White Balance

When color film ruled the world, photographers would select which film to use depending on what their light source was going to be. The most common film was balanced for daylight, but you could also buy film that was color balanced for tungsten light sources. Most other lighting situations had to be handled by using color filters over the lens. This process was necessary for the photographer's final image to show the correct color balance of a scene. Luckily, you don't need to have a deep understanding of color temperatures to control your camera's white balance. The choices are given to you in terms that are easy to relate to and that will make things pretty simple. Your white balance choices are Fluorescent Used to get rid of the green-blue cast that can result from using regular fluorescent lights as your dominant light source. Some fluorescent lights are actually balanced for daylight, which would allow you to use the Daylight white balance setting. Flash Used whenever you're...

Adjusting White Balance and ISO

If you like, you can custom-tailor your white balance (color balance) and ISO sensitivity settings. To start out, it's best to set white balance (WB) to Auto, and ISO to ISO 100 or ISO 200 for daylight photos, and ISO 400 for pictures in dimmer light. You'll find complete recommendations for both settings in Chapters 3 and 4. You can adjust white balance by pressing the Fn key and navigating to the White Balance menu. The ISO setting menu can be invoked by pressing the controller down button.

Digital SLR Photography Now and in the Future

In the latter half of 2003, Canon introduced the Digital Rebel, also known as the EOS 300D (everywhere but in the US and Japan), and Digital Kiss (Japan). It was a 6.3 megapixel interchangeable lens single lens reflex with most of the features that digital photographers lacking a fat wallet had been forced to live without for many years. It cost less than 1,000 with an 1855mm zoom lens. The unveiling of the Digital Rebel was the first skirmish in what was to become the digital SLR revolution. Nikon upped the ante early in 2004 with the Nikon D70, priced at 999 without lens or 1,299 with an 18-70mm zoom. That was several hundred dollars less than Nikon's previous entry-level dSLR, the D100, which came without a lens and lacked some of the cool features found in the D70. Other vendors scrambled to jump on the bandwagon, and by late 2004, serious dSLRs like the Olympus EVOLT, Pentax *ist DS, and Konica Minolta Maxxum 7D were available in the 600- 1,500 price range. The big news wasn't...

Interchangeable Lens SLR Cameras

A digicam with a built-in lens can be convenient, but many photographers prefer an SLR that accepts a full series of lenses (see Figure 1.8). The term Single Lens Reflex refers to the fact that you view the scene through the same lens that takes the picture. A system of mirrors in a prism reflects the image to the camera's viewfinder so there is no need for a secondary viewing lens above the taking lens. Because you view the subject through the taking lens, framing is more accurate in close-focusing without the parallax error that occurs with a separate viewfinder. The view is also bright and crisp because the viewfinder is optical and not electronic. Figure 1.8 A digital SLR system includes cameras and a variety of lens types and accessories such as flash units. Figure 1.8 A digital SLR system includes cameras and a variety of lens types and accessories such as flash units.

CCD And CMOS Image Sensors

Until recently, CCDs were the only image sensors used in digital cameras. They have been well developed through their use in astronomical telescopes, scanners, and video camcorders. However, there is a new challenger on the horizon, the CMOS image sensor that promises to eventually become the image sensor of choice in a large segment of the market. CCD Image Sensors

Improving Your Photography with a dSLR

The differences between digital SLRs and the camera you were using before you saw the light will depend on where you're coming from. If your most recent camera was a point-and-shoot digital model, you know the advantages of being able to review your photos on an LCD an instant after you took them, and you also know the benefits of fine-tuning them in an image editor. If you're switching to a digital SLR from a film SLR, you are likely a photo enthusiast already and well aware that a single lens reflex offers you extra control over framing, using focus creatively, and choosing lenses to give the best perspective. And, if you're making the huge leap from a point-and-shoot non-SLR film camera to a digital SLR, you're in for some real revelations. A digital SLR has (almost) all the good stuff available in a lesser digital camera, with some significant advantages that enable you to take your photo endeavors to a new, more glorious level of excellence. Certainly, you can take close-ups or...

Pentax Announces Dslr Firmware Updates

Ricoh has announced the development and release of the new CXR camera unit Ricoh Lens P10 28-300 mm f 3.55.6 VC. The lens features a high-magnification 10.7x (28-300 mm) optical wide-angle zoom. This camera unit has a back-illu minated CMOS sensor and an advanced noise reduction function as well.The 10.7x optical zoom expands image-creation possibilities from wide-angle through telephoto. The RAW mode enables high-speed continuous shooting at about 5 frames second enables the photographer to catch the desired scene. And the noise reduction function and back-illuminated CMOS sensor together give high imaging performance in low-light shooting. Also included are a 1280 x 720 pixel HD movie function, the dynamic range double shot mode function, a macro function capable of close-up shooting at 1 cm, and many other enhanced functions for diverse and effortless enjoyment of shooting from 28 mm wide-angle to 300 mm telephoto. Nikon has announced the release of the AF-S Nikkor 200-400mm f 4G...

Professional DSLR Cameras

What is the most notable difference between the consumer, prosumer, and professional digital camera The price tag. The professional D-SLR camera is an expensive prize. Price aside, the defining feature of D-SLR cameras is interchangeable lenses. This means when you buy the camera, you buy just the body the lenses are extra. For professional photographers, these cameras are great because they feel and act like the film cameras most longtime photographers are accustomed to. The one major difference has to do with the physical size of the sensor in the camera. Because it is typically smaller than a 35mm negative, it effects the focal length of the lens being used, often increasing the focal length by as much as 150 to 200 percent. Some D-SLR cameras have sensors that are physically the same size as a 35mm negative. They are called full-frame cameras, and because the sensor is the same size as the film negative, the focal length is unaffected.

Digital SLR Camera Pros and Cons

As the cons in the compact camera section imply, a digital SLR camera offers benefits, particularly in terms of superior image quality and versatility. Although lens adapters used with a prosumer digicam can be useful, SLR cameras accept a far more comprehensive range of lenses these also produce higher image quality than lens adapters. A digital SLR camera body is certainly more expensive than a compact camera, and it does not come with a lens. If you already own a Canon, Sigma, Pentax, or Nikon autofocus SLR camera, with suitable autofocus lenses, your lenses will be compatible with a digital SLR camera of the same brand. In that case, your investment need not be excessive. And the investment will pay off in the long run, because you'll save money on film and processing. Finally, you'll find that most of the SLR models are loaded with all the capabilities and overrides that will satisfy advanced photographers. The best cameras produce images with ultra high resolution, suitable for...

Using aperture priority mode and depth of field

If you look at the dial on most dSLR cameras, you'll probably find an Av or an A printed on it. (Canon usually uses Av, whereas Nikon uses just A.) The A stands for Aperture mode, and the Av stands for Aperture Value. Both are commonly referred to as aperture priority mode. Aperture values are also called f stops.When your camera is in Av (or A) mode, it determines the shutter speed according to what aperture you've chosen to give you the best exposure. If you have a camera that lets you shoot manually (meaning it has a manual mode, a shutter priority mode, and an aperture priority mode), then you can fine-tune just how much of your image is sharp. First, you set your camera to aperture priority mode.Then you set an aperture value.Values (or f stops) run in incremental steps starting from f 1.4 and ending at f 64 the lowest values correspond to the widest aperture openings, making less in your frame sharp, and the highest values correspond to the narrowest openings, making more in the...

Digital SLRs for the Masses

For the serious photographer, a single-lens reflex camera is the Holy Grail. Anyone who's used a point-and-shoot camera of any sort and then graduated to an advanced non-SLR camera with extra features and more control is probably still dissatisfied and is yearning for a digital SLR Whether you're shooting film or digital, if you're serious about taking pictures, an SLR is what you really want. Much of the information in this book applies equally well to owners of cameras with electronic viewfinders. If you own such a camera, don't be put off by comments that imply that EVF models are nothing more than crippled wannabes. The difference between a dSLR and an EVF camera is significant, and I don't want to minimize it. However, you'll discover that most of the topics in this book apply to your camera, as well. You'll find the discussions of anti-shake technology valuable, especially if you own a Nikon, Konica Minolta, or other EVF camera with this feature. The sections on...

Understanding White Balance and Colour Temperature

We have all taken photographs where the colours of the scene are totally false. You download it onto the computer and it has a garish colour cast. The reasons behind this will be connected to the white balance function on your digital camera. All light has a specific colour associated to it, which is measured in degrees Kelvin (K). Take for example sunlight. Throughout the day the colour temperature of sunlight differs because of its position in the sky and the surrounding atmospheric conditions. During early morning and late in the evening the sunlight takes on a warm golden hue. Photographers refer to these times of the day as 'magic hours'. Whilst our eyes may recognise changes in colour at sunrise and sunset, for most of the day our brain compensates and we fail to notice the colour of light. This is the purpose of White Balance. A digital camera has to take into account the colour temperature of a light source and we must remember that this is both indoors as well as out in the...

Objective and Subjective White Balance

There is a big difference between correct colors and pleasing colors. There are only few situations in which we want to reproduce colors completely faithfully - for example, if we are photographing textiles or products for publication in catalogs. In most other cases, we aim to produce a pleasing color composition. The most frequently discussed (and culturally influenced) aspect of color is skin tone. In Europe and the USA, people generally prefer skin tones that have been shifted slightly towards brown, whereas Asian photographers tend to prefer paler skin tones. Select a white balance setting that you like and correct contrast and color selectively and only where genuinely necessary. This might involve correcting skin tones, but can also mean changing the dull blue of a sky or the blue tones in shadows that are often produced when you shoot in bright sun. This is why many newer RAW editing programs offer multiple camera color profiles,* so that every user can select his her favor- *...

Digital Filmthe Image Sensor

Unlike traditional cameras that use film to store an image, digital cameras use a solid-state device called an image sensor. These fingernail-sized silicon chips now contain millions of photosensitive diodes called photosites. Each of these photosites records the intensity or brightness of the light that falls on it. Each photosite reacts to the light that falls on it by accumulating a charge the more light, the higher the charge. The brightness recorded by each photosite is then stored as a set of numbers that can then be used to set the color and brightness of dots on the screen or ink on the printed page to reconstruct the image. Here we'll look closely at this process because it's the foundation of everything that follows. Image sensors contain a grid of photosites that convert light shining on them to electrical charges. These charges can then be measured and converted into digital numbers that indicate how much light hit each site. Courtesy of IBM. Electronically shuttered...

Recommendation Compact Digicam or Digital SLR Camera

An SLR camera, plus lenses, costs far more than a compact digicam with a built-in lens, and an SLR is larger, heavier, and substantially more complex. Hence, this is not the right choice for everyone. But if you're a photo enthusiast who uses a 35mm SLR camera when shooting film, you'll certainly want to consider a digital SLR camera. ( 899 and up, plus lenses.) In addition to the creative and problem-solving abilities available with a variety of lenses and extra features, an SLR camera offers another significant benefit over a compact model superior image quality because it employs a larger image sensor with larger recording pixels than a compact digicam. If you will not need the additional versatility available with a wide range of (expensive) lenses and the extra capabilities available with an SLR camera, or ifyou do not plan to make very large prints, a highly rated compact digicam should meet your needs. Look for test reports on the Internet to determine which specific models are...

A dSLR Works tike a camera

Another reason why digital SLRs have improved performance is that they're easier to use, so you, as the photographer, can work faster as you shoot. Most point-and-shoot cameras have to be configured for consumers who are more interested in grabbing a quick snapshot than investing some artistry in creating a photograph. Digital SLRs, on the other hand, are always designed by a team of engineers with extensive photographic experience. They know which controls are essential and which can be buried away in the menus because you access them when setting up the camera and maybe once a month (if that) thereafter. BE I Digital SLR designers know that you don't want to go three levels deep into a menu to set the ISO sensitivity or adjust white (color) balance for the type of illumination you're using. You want to press an ISO or a WB (white balance) key and dial in the setting without giving it much thought. You don't want to activate an on-screen display to set shutter speed or aperture you...

DSLR dNext Great Digital Camera

Surprise Digital SLRs are now available in virtually every price range. It was amazing when these cameras, which as recently as 2004 cost 2,000 or more, dipped below the 1,000 price point. By 2007, dSLRs complete with a zoom lens could be had for 599 or less. And resolution has been increasing dramatically. Today, it's hard to find a dSLR that doesn't have at least ten million pixels' worth of image-grabbing sharpness. So, almost anyone can afford to make the jump to a digital SLR. If you have, you've discovered that the dSLR lets you take pictures the way they're meant to be taken. After using other film or digital cameras, avid photographers interested in taking professional-looking photos notice why dSLRs stand out l A dSLR responds to an itchy trigger finger almost instantly. Forget about pressing the shutter release and then waiting a second or two before the camera decides to snap off the shot. Unlike some sluggish point-and-shoot digital cameras, dSLRs can crank out shots as...

Getting the Most Out of Your Zoom Lens

As discussed in Chapters 1 and 2, your digital camera probably comes with a zoom lens that allows you to vary the focal length from a wide-angle or normal perspective all the way through some moderate telephoto length. As you probably recall, focal length is just a measure of the magnification that the lens provides. A larger focal length produces greater magnification hence long focal length lenses are great for capturing fast action or enlarging objects that are moderately far away. You can see the effect of a zoom lens on magnification in Figure 3-13. A key fact to remember, however, is that the focal length of the given lens also affects the camera's angle of view. Because a telephoto lens magnifies distant objects, it has a very narrow angle of view. As you reduce the magnification and zoom out toward smaller focal lengths, the angle of view likewise increases. You can see this graphically in Figure 3-14. At the extreme end of the scale specifically, wide-angle lenses the image...

Setting The White Balance

After turning on or waking the camera, select one of the shooting modes in the Creative zone such as P (you can't select the white balance when using any of the Basic modes). 2. Press the WB button on the back of the camera to bring up the white balance menu. It is the top button on the Cross keys. 3. Use the left right Cross keys to select the proper white balance for your shooting situation. 5. Check the camera display to ensure that the proper white balance is selected.

Working with White Balance

One of the magic tools of digital photography, white balance enables the photographer to control the filtering of the light with a button set on the camera. This is one area where shooting digital is vastly superior to film. Years ago, on assignment for a magazine, I used film to photograph the president of a major railroad. I scouted the location as usual and found the conditions abysmal, to be polite. The main light source was faded-out sodium vapor lights. This required several gel filters over the camera lens to bring the source at least close to daylight, which reduced the exposure by several stops. Attempting to shoot on a slower speed film wasn't possible, because of the loss of light the gels created, so I had to use a higher speed film, with its inherent quality sacrifice. Plus, I had to shoot Polaroids to check how he looked, and a lot of these folks give you a minimum of time. Now, if this had been on digital, I could have walked in, done a white balance by pointing the...

The Fast Lens Advantage

If you're just getting into using professional DSLRs, you are probably smart enough to buy your first one with a kit lens or two. After all, if you don't have any lenses to go with the camera, you might as well save a few hundred dollars by investing in a starter kit. Most of those I've tested have been very worthwhile bargains (please don't interpret this to mean that they are the best optics money can buy, however). There's one thing they lack, though an ultra-wide aperture that lets you shoot in low light or easily throw distracting backgrounds out-of focus.

Use Aperture Priority Mode or Ma nual Mode to Control Depth of Field

16 ) Aperture priority mode is an extremely powerful and creative way to control the look of your photographs. When I shoot using available light, I almost always have my camera set to aperture priority mode (the symbol for it is usually A or Av, depending on the camera model). The reason I like this mode is because I like to control the depth of field in my photos. Aperture priority adjusts your shutter speed for you based on your camera's meter readings as you change the f-stop on your camera. Manual mode puts a lot of control in your hands, and many photographers use this mode almost exclusively. For cameras that have no built-in internal meter, like the Hasselblad medium format film camera I used for the photo in this tip, you can either guess the exposure, use a hand held meter, or you can use a camera with a built-in meter to get a pretty accurate reading which you then set on the camera that has no meter. Manual mode on many point and shoot cameras is not entirely manual (many...

Using lenses created for 35 mm systems on DSLRs

I ne of the advantages of digital SLR cameras is their ability to accept interchangeable lenses from existing 35 mm film SLR systems. If you currently own a 35 mm SLR film camera and are considering upgrading to a digital SLR system (or have already done so) you may be wondering if your existing collection of lenses can be effectively used on your digital SLR system. Manufacturers of DSLR systems, will fit lens mounts to their cameras that accept older lenses for film based 35 mm cameras in an effort to persuade existing users to stay with the brand. In most cases lenses designed for 35 mm cameras can be interchanged with DSLR camera systems, however, the following issues need to be considered.

Shoot at Your Lens Sharpest Aperture

Another trick the pros use is, when possible, shoot at your lens' sharpest aperture. For most lenses, that is about two full stops smaller than wide open (so the f-stop number you use will go higher by two stops). For example, if you had an f 2.8 lens, the sharpest apertures for that lens would be f 5.6 and f 8 (two full stops down from 2.8). Of course, you can't always choose these apertures, but if you're in a situation where you can (and we'll talk about this later in the book), then shooting two stops down from wide open will usually give you the sharpest image your lens can deliver. Now, that being said, this isn't true for all lenses, and if that's not the case with your lens, you'll find your lens' sweet spot (its sharpest aperture) in short order if you keep an eye out for which aperture your sharpest images seem to come from. You can do that by looking at your photos' EXIF data (the background information on your shots embedded by your digital camera into the photos...

Using wideangle lenses creatively

Used effectively, wide-angle lenses can also help you catch people unaware. Although that's an easy thing to abuse, it can also lead to some incredibly natural looking photos. I personally hate posed photographs. It's much more important to me to show the reality of an event or gathering. Wide-angle lenses help me do that. When shooting candid shots with a wide-angle lens, remember not to violate anyone's privacy. If you're shooting for personal use, you have more leeway in terms of the shots you can get. Working pros, however, must follow stricter guidelines. Wide-angle views also help create separation between your subject and a cluttered background. Just as telephoto lenses compress apparent foreground to background distance, wide-angle lenses expand it. This can be a wonderful tool for giving your subject primacy, while still keeping enough information in the background to be useful, without being distracting (see Figure 4-2). Figure 4-2 An extreme wide-angle lens made this flower...

Working with telephoto lenses

Telephoto lenses are tremendously popular, and with good reason. Whether you're trying to photograph your kids on the athletic fields, attempting to catch a bird in flight, or want to document activities that are just a little too far away, these lenses help us get closer to the action. Just like their wide-angle counterparts, telephoto focal lengths have their own strengths and weaknesses Magnification Makes little objects bigger. This means longer focal lengths can be very effective close-up and macro lenses. Ever try photographing a spider with a short macro lens Two points to consider 2. You have to get a lot closer to a creepy-crawly than any normal person would like. If you use a telephoto for macro photography, you can keep a nice, safe distance away from the critters. Portraiture Remember how wide-angle lenses elongate and distort facial features Telephoto lenses do just the opposite. These optics tend to flatten facial features and make them look much more appealing, as shown...

How Autofocus Systems On Digital Slrs Work

Digital SLRs use what is called a passive autofocus system (also known by its more technical name - phase-detection system), a highly accurate and incredibly quick form of focusing, regardless if the subject is a few feet away or towards a distant horizon. It works by using a beam splitter to direct light on to a sensor, that measures what is known as the phase difference to determine the subject's distance from the camera. It's a very accurate system in most circumstances, but struggles in certain situations, such as when working with low-contrast subjects or photographing in low-light conditions.

Opening and Developing a RAW Format or Digital Negative with GIMP

GIMP can open most but not all RAW file formats offered by camera manufacturers. As a start, you can use GIMP for editing these images directly, but only with a color depth of 24 bits (8 bits per channel). However, if you want to develop your digital negatives with the original color depth of 16 bits per channel (rather than 8 bits) in order to make fine-tuned corrections and or print a higher-quality photo, you'll have to depend on the RawPhoto or UFRaw plug-in. Once you've integrated one of these plug-ins into GIMP, it will automatically become active when you open a RAW file with GIMP. Let's first take a look at the UFRaw plug-in since it can be installed at a later point in time, as described in section 1.4.5. UFRaw can be used in three different ways. If used as a GIMP plug-in, when you open a RAW file in GIMP, the UFRaw window will automatically open. You can set corrective options for color and brightness values in the preview window. This lets you develop and correct your...

White Balance Settings

Auto Also known as AWB is perhaps the most popular setting as it uses thousands of algorithms programmed into your camera to best work out the white balance for your particular photograph wherever you may be. Auto setting as been developed over the years. Since the third edition of this book was published, and for underwater use, I use 'Auto WB' 70 of the time for the other 30 I use Preset White Balance. A White Balance setting which I have yet to discuss is the preset function. Underwater, we have the most intense and predictable colour cast of all. You guessed it, the colour blue As sunbeams pass through the surface, underwater colours are absorbed at different depths. Warm colours of red and orange are first to vanish and by the time we get to 25 metres the light spectrum is strongly biased towards blue. White Balance Preset PRE has the symbol of 'Pre' or 'Kelvin'. Locating the custom preset white balance function varies from one digital camera to another so check your camera...

Use a Macro Lens to Get Really Close

If you've ever wondered how the pros get those incredibly close-up shots (usually only seen by bees during their pollination duties), it's with a macro lens. A macro lens (just called macro for short) lets you get a 1 1 view of your subject and reveal flowers in a way that only macros can. A macro lens has a very shallow depth of fieldso much so that when photographing a rose, the petals in the front can be in focus and the petals at the back of the rose can be out of focus. I'm not talking about an arrangement of roses in a vaseI'm talking about one single rose. By the way, you must (see how that's set off in italics ), must, must shoot macro on a tripod. When you're really in tight on a flower, any tiny bit of movement will ruin your photo, so use every sharpening technique in Chapter 1 to capture this amazing new world of macro flower photography. Turn Your Zoom Lens into a Macro Zoom It's easyjust add a close-up lens (like we talk about on the next page) onto your regular zoom...

White Balance Control

All digicams include an Auto White Balance feature that automatically adjusts for the type of ambient light sunny, cloudy, household lamps, and so on. The automatic systems do not always provide ideal results, and some images will have an undesirable color cast. Consequently, most cameras include specific settings to match common lighting conditions. The more options, the better. Simply select the one that best matches the lighting, and you should get excellent images without a color cast. A few prosumer cameras also offer a Custom or Manual Preset White Balance option that allows you to teach the camera to render whites as white in a difficult lighting condition under the sodium-vapor lamps found in some sports arenas, for instance. This feature is most useful if you often photograph under uncommon lighting conditions.

Converting Camera RAW Image Formats under Windows Mac OS X and Linux Freeware and Plug Ins

Highest Quality Format Gimp

If your digital camera uses a proprietary file or RAW file format to capture images, you should use it. Taking photos as digital raw data will result in a higher-quality image after correction, particularly when compared to photos taken in the highest-quality JPEG format. Saving images in their native camera or RAW format will also ensure that you'll get the best possible quality when you archive the originals. Since version 2.2.6, GIMP supports RAW formats, so you can directly open and edit RAW formats with the program. Unfortunately, GIMP does not work with all proprietary camera RAW formats, so you'll need to make sure it can read your camera's format. At the end of section 5.6, you will find a list of RAW formats GIMP can read. If GIMP can read the RAW format your camera uses, the images will be available with a 24-bit color depth (8 bits per color channel). Remember to save the finished image in a high-quality standard format, such as TIFF or PNG. RAW formats offer more than a...

Olympus Evolt E500 Dslr

Camera company knows that better than Olympus-official sponsor of Manhattan's Fashion Week. The fickle fashion industry may have influenced the company's decision to shelve the flat-top design of the Evolt E-300 ( 620 street, body only, reviewed November 2004) and dress its replacement, the new Evolt E-500 DSLR ( 699 street, body only) more traditionally. Instead of the side-swivel porro mirror system that helped create the Evolt's signature profile, the E-500 returns to the flip-up mirror and the familiar prism-box hump found on most other SLRs and DSLRs. It also has a more centered optical viewfinder, and a normal pop-up flash and hot-shoe arrangement. But can this new camera compete in a category that already has its share of supermodels If size is important to you, the E-500 has an edge. It's billed as one of the smallest and lightest DSLRs, just about the same size and weight as the petite 6MP Pentax *ist DL body. The preproduction E-500 we examined felt light enough to be made

Understanding Your Zoom Lens

Zoom lenses are wonderful for bringing what's distant closer or including more of the subject in your picture. However, you should be aware of two issues when using one Zooming will change image perspective. In other words, wide angle tends to push foreground and background areas and subjects further apart, and telephoto compresses them closer together. Perspective can add to or subtract from the quality, interest, and appeal ofyour photographs. When you want to get closer to the subject or include more in the picture, you should consider moving a few steps nearer to or further away rather than relying solely on the zoom lens.

Lens aperture and performance

If the aperture of a practical photographic lens is closed down progressively, starting from maximum aperture, the residual aberrations (except for lateral chromatic aberration and distortion) are reduced, but the effects of diffraction are increased. At large apertures the effects of diffraction are small, but uncorrected higher aberrations reduce the theoretical performance. The balance between the decreasing aberrations and the increasing diffraction effects on stopping down the lens means that such aberration-limited lenses have an optimum aperture for best results, often about three stops closed down from maximum aperture. Most lenses, especially those of large aperture, do not stop down very far, f 16 or f 22 being the usual minimum values, and diffraction effects may not be noticed, the only practical effect observed may be the increase in depth of field. With wide-angle lenses in particular a variation in performance at different apertures is to be expected, owing to the...

Four dSLR Advantages Unrelated to Single Lens Reflexiveness

Some of the strengths that accrue to dSLRs have nothing to do with the fact that they are single lens reflex cameras. Higher sensitivity and reduced noise. The images from most non-dSLRs begin to break down when sensitivity is increased to ISO 400 or more, primarily because of excessive noise. Few of these cameras have an ISO setting that's usable. In contrast, many dSLRs generate relatively low noise at ISO 800, and produce acceptable images at ISO 1600, ISO 3200, and beyond. The improved quality offered by digital SLRs is due to the larger sensors available in these cameras. As vendors pack more and more pixels into the tiny CCD sensors found in non-SLR cameras, the pixels become smaller and more prone to noise. The larger pixels in the CMOS and CCD sensors of dSLRs have much less of a tendency to produce the random grain we see as noise, and are more sensitive, to boot, producing higher effective ISO speeds. Control over depth-of-field. The larger sensors require lenses with longer...

How does the cameras autofocus operate

There are basically two autofocus techniques active and passive. In the one, by actively emitting e.g. infrared light, a light beam or sonar signal, and then receiving the returning signal, the camera is able to judge the distance to the subject and adjust the focus of the lens accordingly. This is called an active autofocus system. While it has the advantage of working even in the dark, it does have a drawback in that it cannot be used on objects that are far away or through a window. With passive autofocus systems, the camera doesn't actively emit a light beam or signal. Rather, in the contrast detection system, for example, it examines the contrast in the image captured on its CCD prior to shooting the actual shot. It then alters the focus to produce the best contrast, thereby ensuring the sharpest result. Unlike the active system, the contrast detection system can focus on far away objects. However, it does require a certain amount of light as well as scenes with some contrast (It...

Shooting with Video on a dSLR

In 2010, Ken Rockwell ( declared that the dSLR market was mature, meaning that DSLRs are as good as they are going to get. He described that there will be a small improvements in the cameras, but that with each of these comes more fussy settings that clutter operations. Without any more authentic still photography enhancements to dSLR cameras, what will keep people buying new models Rockwell claims it's the video, live view, HDR, and GPS options that are being added on to dSLR cameras. Those features are opening new doors of opportunity for manufacturers to expand their customer base. The recently released Canon EOS 5D Mark II includes HD video, a capability that has caught Hollywood's attention. In the article Hollywood Comes Knocking by Daniel Etherington in the British Journal of Photography, Hollywood cinematographer Shane Hurlbut says of the video capabilities of dSLRs, I started playing with the thing and said, 'Oh my God, this is going to change everything.' He...

Dslrs Survive Csc Mauung

Trveor Moore Ceo Jessops

THE SUCCESS of compact system camera (CSC) sales is hitting the compact camera market, not DSLRs, claims Nikon. Simon Iddon, product manager for DX DSLR at Nikon UK, said that CSCs have not had an impact on the Vm's DSLR sales In an interview with AP, Iddon said that Nikon currertly has a complete ine-up and does not need to fill any qaps in its product rarge with a compact system offering 'We have all points covered with a complete range of cameras from entry- The CSC market will not divert sales from the DSLRs, according to Iddon, because 'if you want a DSLR, you want what a DSLR stands for', and that isn't a compact system camera. The company has 44 models of DSLR for use, along with 61 lenses, 105 compac cameras, 17 compact system cameras and other gear such as camcorders. THE ROYAL family has voiced Tea is that press photographers are harassing members of Kate Middleton's family in the run-up to her marriage to Prince William. Clarence House issued a 'private advisory notice' to...

Cleaning the DSLR Sensor

At some stage, you will get foreign matter such as specks of dust on the low-pass filter that protects the sensor in your digital SLR camera. Annoying spots will appear on your images, especially in clear areas such as sky, so the sensor will have to be cleaned.You can send the camera to the manufacturer or an appointed tech rep take it to a pro camera store that offers a cleaning service or do it yourself. In the field, the DIY option is the most practical and you should learn how to do basic cleaning.Your camera's manual will have instructions on holding the mirror up to give you access to the filter and other advice. This is a very fragile component of the digital camera, and it should be cleaned very carefully. Some photographers use a blower brush as a small vacuum remove the brush, depress the bulb, and suck the offending particles out. Special small vacuums are also made for this task. Other methods include swab and liquid cleaners such as methanol this is popular with...

Single lens reflex SLR cameras

All SLR cameras have a clever optical system (as shown in Figure 8.7b), which allows you to view an image of the subject formed by the lens. It is a true 'what you see is what you get' (WYSIWYG) system. Unlike a compact camera, the shutter is not in the lens but in the back of the camera just in front of the film or sensor. Figure 8.10 Fully automatic advanced compacts with zoom lenses and built-in flashes are the most popular of all film and digital cameras. More and more models are now offering manual and semi-manual modes to cater for those photographers who want to regain a little more control of the process. Figure 8.10 Fully automatic advanced compacts with zoom lenses and built-in flashes are the most popular of all film and digital cameras. More and more models are now offering manual and semi-manual modes to cater for those photographers who want to regain a little more control of the process.

Understanding How Lenses Work

Most digital cameras have zoom lenses, which have very complex optical systems with 8, 10, 20, or more elements that move in precise ways to produce a continuous range of magnifications. Zoom lenses must be carefully designed to avoid bad things, such as stray beams of light that degrade the image bouncing around inside the lens. For that reason, when choosing a digital camera with a zoom lens, you need to pay attention to the quality of the image. All 4 1 zooms are not created equal one vendor might produce an excellent lens with this range, whereas another might offer a lens that is less sharp. Among digital cameras with similar or identical sensors, lens quality can make the biggest difference in the final quality of an image. You'll discover how to select the best lens for your needs as we go along.

What is white balance

Right Tungsten white balance setting under tungsten light. Right Tungsten white balance setting under tungsten light. With film cameras, in order to achieve optimal picture results, you have to choose a film specifically for either artificial light or daylight. If photos are taken with the wrong type of film for that particular light condition, the pictures may come out with either a blue, green or red cast. This isn't a problem with digital cameras. Almost all feature automatic white balance, which optimises the settings of the CCD for the relevant light temperature. Many also allow users to adjust the white balance themselves. As a result, it is easy to ensure shots have the true-to-life colours they need. Today, both video and digital still cameras feature automatic white balance. Simply put, it works like this the integrated light meter analyses the composition of the surrounding light. Using these measurements, the camera determines a precise colour temperature range and then...

Understanding White Balance At Night

LIGHT in all forms has a colour temperature value. This is conventionally stated in kelvin units and yo.i will find the symbol 'K' in your custom white balance setting in your camera. An incorrect white balance seting will have a necative impact on the colour cast of the images. The camera has a selection of preset white balances, but for the rear-curtain flash technique I would advise switching to a custom setting. If you are shooting a model at sunset, then I recommend using a whte balance of 5,600K to balance with the flash light output. You wart to program your camera to make the whites look white and to accurately record the colours we see with our eyes Lights in urbor street sccncs at nicfit tend to have a warmer colour temperature. Setting the custom white balance on the camera to around 3,500K adds blue into the spectum field, which creates an eye-pleas ng natural white colour The most important thing is to ensure that the model's skin tones look realistic. To anrend

Development of the photographic lens

Many thousands of lens designs have been produced to meet the demands of photographers for lenses of ever-larger aperture, wider field angle and extended performance. When introduced, most represented state-of-the-art designs, and ranged from the simple to very complex in configuration, the number of elements not necessarily being related to performance. Photographic lenses can be grouped into categories related to nineteenth-century lens design. By the beginning of the twentieth century, lenses were available (albeit of modest aperture and field angle) which were virtually fully corrected for all the primary lens aberrations. Since that time, progress in lens design has largely been dependent on the availability of improved optical materials, lens-coating techniques, computer-assisted calculations, advances in lens production technology and more appropriate means of lens testing and evaluation. It is useful to describe briefly the development of the photographic lens, the outstanding...

Working with RAW files

When the RAW format was first introduced, photographers didn't embrace it because the images needed to be processed before you could do anything else with them. The first applications to process RAW images were hard to work with, and you had to process one image at a time. Is it any wonder that photographers would rather endure a root canal instead of processing a couple of hundred RAW images The current batch of RAW processors are much better than their predecessors. They're easier to work with, and they enable you to process lots of images quickly. Photoshop Elements 7 uses a watered-down version of the Camera Raw editor that ships with the full version of Photoshop. But you can still do a lot with it. I show you how to process images with the Photoshop Elements 7 version of the Camera Raw editor in Chapter 10.

Wide angles and digital SLRs

A digital SLR with interchangeable lenses doesn't make the wide-angle problem go away. Remember that if your SLR has a sensor that's smaller than what is called full-frame size, the focal length of any lens you attach will be magnified. If your camera's magnification factor is 1.6, a super-wide 18mm lens (or zoom setting) is instantly transformed into a moderately wide 28mm lens. Extreme wide angles can be expensive in the first place, so you might be crushed when you discover that your expensive piece of glass that qualifies as an ultra-wide angle on a 35mm camera provides you with a rather ordinary wide-angle view when mounted on a digital camera. If wide-angle photography is important to you, look for a digital SLR with a full-frame sensor or Although one of the attractions of digital SLRs is the ability to recycle a photographer's existing stable of lenses, the major vendors are all introducing lenses specifically for digital cameras that do a better job, cost less, and provide...

Choosing the Right Digital SLR Camera

Digital SLR cameras resembling 35mm SLR cameras are available in two ranges professional and consumer. In this book, I will only briefly mention the pro cameras and will concentrate on the models that target consumers (see Figure 1.14). These are quite rugged and include all the features that the majority of photo enthusiasts require. They accept numerous lenses that allow for automatic or manual focusing, are compatible with accessory flash units, and are powered by high-capacity battery packs or (less commonly) by rechargeable AA batteries. At the time of this writing, most are 5 or 6 megapixel cameras, although, the Sigma SD-9 and SD-10 incorporate a unique Foveon brand 3.43 megapixel sensor with 10.29 million color photodetectors, discussed earlier. (For more information on this technology, visit the Foveon site at The professional SLR cameras (see Figure 1.15) are even more rugged, built like a tank to withstand pro caliber abuse. They include additional...

Keep Your Lenses Clean

Some brilliant soul once said, 'an ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.' They are so right. Grit and dust can ruin your camera gear and reduce the quality of your images. It's absolutely critical to protect your camera gear from the evils of dirt. Dust is a huge problem for digital photographers in many ways. First, always store camera lenses with their front and rear caps on. This prevents the expensive glass from being scratched needlessly. Make sure your lens surfaces are free of dust and smudges. Check both the front and rear glass elements to make sure nothing is on them every time you use them. Most of the time, you will need to do some cleaning. By carefully handling your lenses, These sand dunes in Death Valley National Park are fun to photograph. Be careful to keep sand out of your camera equipment and always keep the lowest leg lock on your tripod out of the sand too

Know How To Override Autofocus

As good as the Canon autofocus system is, there are times when it just isn't doing the job for you. Many times this has to do with how you would like to compose a scene and where the actual point of focus should be. This can be especially true when you are using the camera on a tripod, where you can't pre-focus and then recompose before shooting (as discussed earlier). To take care of this problem, you will need to manually focus the lens. I am only going to cover the kit lens that came with my Canon T2i (the EF-S 18-55mm IS), so if you have purchased a different lens be sure to check the accompanying instruction manual for the lens.

Are Your Batteries Charged and Is Your Lens Clean

Is your battery charged The LCD screen and zoom lens on digital cameras use a lot of power and can suck a battery dry pretty fast. Most digital cameras display an icon like the ones shown in Figure 3-4 on their LCD screen to indicate how much charge remains on the battery. Some cameras even display an estimation of how many minutes of charge are left. The accuracy of these indicators varies between manufacturers. Figure 3-5 Automatic lens covers help keep your lens clean. Figure 3-5 Automatic lens covers help keep your lens clean.

Digital Slrs And Lenses

If you're looking for the best way into taking high-quality pictures with the maximum flexibility and creative potential, a DSLR is the only real choice. Modern entry-level models are compact and well-priced, yet still able to offer stacks of features. This chapter guides you through the ranges available from the big makers. One of the major benefits of a DSLR is interchangeable lenses - we'll look at those too. IF YOU'RE AFTER THE MOST POPULAR BRAND OF DSLR, LOOK NO FURTHER THAN CANON'S LEGENDARY RANGE. DIGITAL SLRs AND LENSES

Basic Camera Equipment

For the 35mm SLR user there is a wide range of equipment and accessories available to cover every area of photographic interest. In terms of lenses, your camera may come with a standard 50mm lens already fitted. Additionally, you should consider choosing a wide-angle lens between 28 and 35mm for shooting a broad panorama or when working in a confined area. A long-focus lens between 90 and 135mm is useful for portraits as well as more distant subjects. However, a zoom lens gives you flexibility without changing lens. A tripod guarantees sharp images of stationary subjects and may be essential to avoid camera shake during a long exposure.

Advertising Photographers

The following comments from PDN (Photo District News), a leading trade journal for professional photographers, are an excellent summary of advertising photography Over recent years, advertising was opened up to include a wider range of styles and techniques that let the handiwork and the humor of the photographer shine through. Slick ads were out, soft-sell was in, and new, more emotive and experimental styles of photography were showing up in national ads. Photographers working in the advertising market may be generalists, handling a variety of types of photography, or they may specialize in one area. In a large metro area you may do well with a specialty, though in a small-market region being able to do everything will open doors to more work. For a good idea of the variety of photos needed by advertisers, just consult the ads that bombard you with messages everywhere you turn. It's easy to do the research. Make a clip file of the topics and styles you find. Advertising clients may...

Recommendation Most Important Digital SLR Camera Features

Unless you have specialized needs, I suggest a consumer grade 5+ megapixel SLR camera that includes at least the following capabilities. The camera should include a full set of operating modes, three exposure metering options, the primary overrides mentioned in the Additional Overrides section, high-speed continuous autofocus, 3+ frames per second framing rate, ISO options from 100 to 800, an Adobe RGB (1998) color space option, JPEG and RAW capture modes, a histogram display at least in Playback mode, and depth-of-field preview.

The Digital SLR Revolution

As this chapter has unfolded, I've been referencing the special needs and advantages of the digital SLR in each of the sections dealing with lenses, exposure capabilities, and other features. However, the current digital SLR (dSLR) revolution is such a great leap forward for the serious amateur photographer that I wanted to include a special section that goes into more detail about the nature of this particular beast. After all, high-end cameras in the 1,000 price range use electronic viewfinders. (Their vendors often refer to them as SLR-type or SLR-like cameras.) An increasing number of true SLR cameras are also available at the same price. Book II

Ten reasons why digital SLRs are cool

Of the many reasons why so many digital photographers are turning to a dSLRs, here are ten of my favorites (some of them a little facetious) 7. Many dSLRs can use readily available lenses, filters, flash, and accessories from the film camera realm. Your lenses and gadgets can be used with your next camera. One digital camera vendor even announced a program for replacing an older camera's sensor with the sensor provided in the latest model.

Your Next Digital Camera Is It Time for a CMOS Image Sensor

Part of the excitement of digital photography is how fast the technology is evolving. Just a few years ago, even the best consumer-level cameras were only 1 megapixel. Compare that to the release this fall of the promising and inexpensive Canon Digital Rebel 6.3 megapixel SLR, with CMOS image sensor and a mass market price tag of 1000 including lens, and you can almost feel the groundswell of another major leap forward. But should you look for a camera with a CMOS image sensor when you're ready to take the leap to your next camera

When autofocus works perfectly

Capturing a good picture of wildlife roaming free at a Yosemite National Park can be challeng-ing.The light can be iffy, the background cluttered.The deer at this national park offered an ideal photo op.The animals were not scared of people and even seemingly posed for a shot. It wasn't an accident that I got to photograph mother and offspring in an open area with the offspring's head leaning lovingly under the mother's. I had to wait around for them to get to the clearing after they walked for a while. I also was prepared as I was hiking along a forested trail. I had my camera set to its widest aperture in aperture priority mode so that I knew it would choose a fast enough shutter speed to increase the possibility of getting a sharp picture. I also was at the right place at the right time, which, although many professional photographers won't admit it, is half of what's needed for a good picture. What makes this picture just a bit better than a snapshot of a wild animal I got an...

Zoom lenses for compact and digital cameras

Compact cameras use both the 135 and APS formats, while digital cameras use focal plane arrays of much smaller formats, typically from 2 3 to 1 4 inch diagonal. Apart from small formats, most of these cameras do not use reflex viewfinders but rely instead on separate optical viewfinders. Both factors influence lens design in that the rear element can be very close to the focal plane, and that a useful zoom range is possible with only a few elements, especially if the maximum aperture is modest, perhaps f 4 at the most. The lens must also telescope down into the camera body for storage, to help keep the size of the camera small. For the 135 format, long range zoom lenses of 38 to 200 mm are used, although the aperture reduces to some f 11 at the long focus setting. The lenses are non-interchangeable and the collapsible telescoping barrel may cause some optical misalignment. The basis of such compact designs was the Zeiss Biogon wide-angle lens which has a very short back focal distance...

Digital SLR Technology Made Easy

You don't need to know anything about internal combustion to operate an automobile, and you really don't need to understand digital technology to use a point-and-shoot digital camera, either. Both devices are so automated these days that there's not a lot for the driver shooter to do other than point the machinery in the right direction and press the gas pedal or shutter release. Even if you decide to use manual controls on a non-dSLR, the only thing you must understand is that this button makes the picture lighter or darker, that one helps freeze action, and this other button changes the way the camera focuses. It's a different ballgame with a digital SLR, and most of us wouldn't have it any other way. Unlike point-and-shoot digital photography, where it's almost impossible to adjust depth-of-field, and usable ISO ratings range from ISO 100 to ISO 100, the technology built into a dSLR does allow you to make a difference creatively and technically, if you know what you're doing. And...

Correcting Images with White Balance

As I mentioned earlier, many digital cameras come with a control for something called white balance. White balance is important because different light sources have different color temperatures, meaning that a scene will appear to have a slightly different color tone depending upon how it is illuminated. Photographers and scientists have gone to the trouble of cataloging the different color temperatures exhibited by various light sources. Higher temperatures appear warm, or slightly reddish, while cooler light sources tend to add a blue tone to your pictures. It's not at all unlike the way a flame has different colors at its outside and center. Why Because those different parts of the flame are different temperatures. If your camera is balanced for one kind of light source (daylight, for instance) and you photograph a scene that has been illuminated by a very different temperature of light (such as tungsten), the resulting image won't reflect the true colors in the scene. What should...

The dSLR Camera of the Future

The dSLR camera replaced the SLR camera at the beginning of the 21st century. The former has a sensor and other components that record and save an image on a memory card the latter uses film. Both have a mirror system and a pentaprism, and they accept a variety of lenses. Other than the sensor taking the place of film, not many changes in the structure of these types of cameras have been made. As you'll see in this chapter, many of the changes have been functions added to the camera, including the ability to shoot video. Just recently, dSLR cameras included live-view options on their LCD screens. Point-and-shoot models have always had live preview (also called live view), where the image is continuously shown on the LCD screen. It works electronically when the image through the lens is projected onto the sensor. Most point-and-shoot models are built simply, without a viewfinder, so that the sensor receives light from the lens to show what is being framed, which is then displayed on...

Adjusting White Balance Presets

Most digital cameras let you choose from a small collection of white balance presets. In addition to automatic white balance selection, your camera probably includes white balance settings for conditions like incandescent lights, fluorescent lights, an external flash unit, and cloudy or overcast days. Choosing a White Balance Preset Changing your white balance setting varies from camera to camera, but the process is typically fairly simple. For the specifics on your camera model, check your camera's user guide. In general though, this is the process Find the option for white balance. Scroll through the white balance options until you find the lighting condition that best represents your scene. Measuring White Balance Yourself Sometimes these white balance presets just don't get the job done. If you are in a tricky lighting situation, such as a room that has both incandescent light and candlelight, you may need to set the white balance manually based on the actual lighting conditions...

Experiment with White Balance

Don't think that white balance is used only to get perfectly white whites in your pictures. Certainly, that is the reason most people use this mode. On the other hand, photography is an art, not a science. By changing the white balance values of your camera, you can get some creative results that you might like better than if the white balance were set properly. As one example, I sometimes like the warmer colors I can get by misadjusting the white balance when shooting portraits. By making my subject's face a bit redder, I think the photo looks richer and more lifelike. Try it yourself, and remember that photography is all about trying new things. 4. Find the white balance controls in the menu system. 5. Scroll through the white balance until you find the option to record it yourself. Select this option. 6. You should now see something on the LCD display directing you to photograph a white object. Compose your scene so that the gray card or whatever you are using to set the white...

Choosing a DSLR Camera

This next section of this hack provides ways to increase your odds of success with point and shoots. But first, if you want to cut right over to the fast lane, consider getting a digital SLR (DSLR), which has a much faster response time and performs better overall. DSLRs look and behave just like your favorite 35mm single lens reflex (SLR) cameras of years past, but they have a sophisticated image sensor instead of film. Not long ago, this wouldn't be practical advice for parents, because DSLRs were just too darned expensive. But you no longer have to choose between a camera and a college fund. Both Canon and Nikon have introduced quality DSLRs for under US 1,000, and more are sure to be on the way. The Canon Digital Rebel and the Nikon D70 are two examples of DSLRs that will help you keep up with your kids without maxing out your credit card. DSLRs have minimal shutter lag times, allow for generous sequential shooting, accept a variety of lenses, and enable you to use external flash....

Charlie Waite Photo Trip

WDC and Amateur Photographer have teamed up with renowned landscape photographer Charlie Waite to offer an exclusive tour of the Lake District. The tour, hosted by both Charlie Waite and APs Editor, Damien Demolder, takes place between the 8th and 11th November, and will be limited to just 14 photographers for maximum tuition time. During the trip you'll stay on the banks of Lake Ullswater, while being transported around the Lakes in a private mini-bus. What's more, if you book before 30th September you'll save 65 on the price of the trip. For more information and to book your place, visit

Quick Snap Guide to Digital SLR Photography

Why do larger digital SLRs have relatively more juice than smaller, less fully featured point-and-shoot digicams Part of the answer comes from the size factor alone Compact consumer digital cameras may have a tiny battery that offers perhaps 600 to 700 millampere hours (mAh) of power, compared to the 1,500 to 2,000 mAh (or more) ratings of typical dSLR batteries. Snapshooters tend to use their camera's built-in flash units more, power-hungry LCDs are often switched on for long periods to compose or review images, and the camera's battery may have to handle functions like zooming something the dSLR photographer takes care of by twisting the zoom ring on the lens. The average dSLR, in contrast, is incredibly efficient in its use of power. The LCD can't be used for composing images, and remains off except during picture review or menu access. Autofocus and autoexposure functions consume power, but will typically be switched on only for a few seconds when the shutter release button is...

Streamlining Camera

Camera Raw immediately follows image management (Chapter 3) in any workflow that aims to do as much nondestructive editing as possible before rendering the final image. The exception is if you just shot an extremely high-volume shoot, such as a sports event, or one with a digital camera that doesn't shoot RAW. In that case, just go straight to Chapter 7. One of the great benefits of working in the CS2 version of Camera Raw is that it adds quite a bit of power to your ability to adjust the image before it leaves Camera Raw. After all, the more brightness range data you have in your image when it enters Photoshop, the better your chances are for getting the exact interpretation you want at the end.

Actual Processing Begins in Camera

This is the first chapter in which you actually process an image. That's perfect positioning for a book about nondestructive image editing nothing you do in this chapter will destroy any of the original image data. The magic here is that all Camera Raw does is add instructions to the metadata that dictate how every bit of data recorded by the camera should look when it's opened in Photoshop. When you really need to go all the way back to the very beginning, you simply return to the original RAW file and change the settings in the RAW processor. Also, all Camera RAW data is recorded in 16-bit format, with the data itself typically occupying 1012 bits. JPEGs contain a maximum 8 bits of data. So you're actually working with a positive image that has five to seven more f-stops of brightness range than the analog negative that's often suggested as its equivalent.

The Magic of Long Lenses the Breadth of Wide Lenses

Within our camera bags are mechanical tools we carry telephoto lenses, wide-angle lenses, and macro lenses. Each lens serves a specific purpose, enabling us to compress our photos, expand horizons, or capture the tiny details of the macro world that exist all around us. The first long lens I bought was an 85mm for my 35mm film camera, many years ago. I remember looking through it the first time and marveling at how the slight compression of this short telephoto lens dramatized an otherwise normal portrait. Shooting wide open, the background dropped slightly out of focus, yet the range of focus encompassed the nose to the ears. I thought it was magical. Small apertures are used interchangeably with the term wide open in the photographic world. These refer to the diaphragm in the lens being open to allow the most amount of light to pass through the lens to the chip. Wide open in an 85mm f2 lens would be f2.

Color Temperature and White Balance for Digital Cameras

With digital photography, this means setting the camera's white balance to match the color temperature of the light. The manufacturers have simplified this to a large extent by incorporating a range of settings, that will get you in the ballpark, and those settings, and the approximate color temperatures for each will be described in your camera's manual. To get a feeling of what incorrect white balance looks like, shoot a series of images in daylight with the whole range of white balance settings in your camera. If you are capturing in TIFF or JPEG, the white balance selected is applied to the image so it's important to get it right. On the other hand, if you shoot in RAW, you can change white balance after the fact with imaging software.

Leveling and Cropping in Camera

We're almost all guilty (yes, even when using a tripod) of paying so much attention to the subject that we forget to carefully level the horizon line. Granted, tilted photos can sometimes be effective in making them look more spontaneous. However, most of the time tilted photos (especially if the tilt is only slight) just look unprofessional. Of course, Photoshop has some great tools for fixing this problem, but they are all destructive. For instance, you could tilt the top layer of the photo and make that layer from a flattened duplicate of the photo. However, if the original was a RAW file, that's a lot of wasted time. Straightening the RAW file can always be reversed because the data outside the crop is never deleted. Leveling and cropping are so easily done that you may be wondering why you should even bother to think about doing it in Camera Raw. There's another very good answer it's faster to turn around your work for client acceptance in a condition that makes it much more...

An introduction to image sensors

The image sensor in a digital camera converts light coming from the subject being photographed into an electronic signal which is eventually processed into a digital photograph that can be displayed or printed. There are, broadly speaking, two main types of sensor in use today. The charge-coupled device (CCD), and the complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. The technology behind CCD image sensors was developed in the late 1960s when scientists George Smith and Willard Boyle at Bell Labs were attempting to create a new type of semiconductor memory for computers. In 1970 the CCD had been built into the first ever solid-state video camera. These developments began to shape the revolution in digital imaging. Today, CCDs can be found in astronomical and many other scientific applications. One of the fundamental differences between CCD and CMOS sensors is that CMOS sensors convert charge to voltage at each photoelement, whereas in a CCD the conversion is done in a common...

Adjusting white balance

White balance is a synonym for overall color balance. There are times when accurate white balance is absolutely critical and other times when color balance is purely subjective. White balance is critical if your assignment calls for absolutely accurate reproduction of a color in the photo. This might be the case if you were photographing a company logo or catalog items that came in a selection of specific colors. Whether or not you get that color absolutely accurately in the final output is dependent on much more than how precisely you set white balance in Camera Raw. You'll have to begin by having your monitor accurately calibrated. Otherwise, you will have no way to judge if your white balance settings are accurate when compared to the colors on the card. Right now, we're focused on starting with accurate color rendition in the color negative, which is the result of the Camera Raw output to Photoshop. The best and easiest way to do that is to shoot the first image of a series in a...

Fine Tuning White Balance

At settings other than Preset, white balance can be fine tuned to compensate for variations in the color of the light source or to introduce a deliberate warm or cold cast into an image. Higher settings can be used to lend images a bluish tinge or to compensate for light sources with a yellow or red cast, while lowering white balance can make photographs appear slightly more yellow or red or compensate for light sources with a blue cast. Adjustments can be made in the range +3 to -3 in increments of one. Except in Fluorescent mode, each increment is equivalent to about 10 mired. White balance is fine tuned using the White bal. option in the shooting menu or by pressing the WB button and rotating the sub-command dial. At settings other than 0, a icon appears in the control panel. The White Balance Menu II n the white balance menu ( 49), highlight an option other than Preset and press the multi selector to the right. When the monitor is off, white balance can be fine tuned by pressing...

Tracking the Ideal dSLR

M if hen you upgrade from your first digital camera to a digital SLR, the stakes increase dramatically. A dSLR generally costs quite a bit more than any point-and-shoot digital camera, so you want to make the right purchase the first time. You also want to buy into a camera product line that has all the accessories you'll want to buy in the future. Owning a very cool digital single lens reflex is little comfort if you can't find that special external electronic flash you need, or an underwater housing you absolutely must have. The high stakes extend into the future, too. The dSLR you buy now will grow as you add lenses and other accessories, and you'll want to use those same add-ons with whatever camera eventually replaces your current pride and joy. SLR camera buyers have known for years that it's easy to get locked into a particular camera system, so selecting the right camera today is a little like choosing a spouse. If the photographic marriage doesn't last forever, starting over...

Introduction to SLR Cameras

The decision to commit to a digital SLR camera and housing is a daunting one. Financial costs can be considerable and one's aspirations as an up and coming underwater photographer may fail or succeed depending on whether you acquire the right equipment or not. Compared with compacts, an SLR offers a number of advantages, which include conditions. For instance for a photo trip to Sulawesi to shoot small subjects you will need a macro lens. For a reef and wrecks tour in the Red Sea you'll need an ultra wide angle (fisheye) lens. Keep in mind that a good quality SLR housing system will be of benefit for many years to come and will have the flexibility to meet future needs, not just your present ones. Make the wrong choice and you'll be frustrated and limited by the equipment. In this chapter I explore those features of a typical SLR camera which from experience I consider to be significant to the underwater photographer. As a typical example let's take the 'depth of field preview...

Considerations For Buying A Canon Dslr

My photography students often ask me which camera they should buy. The truth is that no one can tell you what camera to buy, but if you understand the commonalities and differences among Canon's dSLRs, then you can make informed decisions when it's time to buy a new camera, upgrade your existing camera, buy a backup camera body, or add another camera to your existing system. Image quality. What size and quality of images do you need to produce Do you need a full-frame camera, or are other attributes more critical Will a slightly lower-priced dSLR suffice so that you can spend more money on professional lenses Lens quality and selection. What mix of lenses are necessary, versus ones that you can put on your wish list Do you need a fast, wide-aperture lens that will hold its aperture at any zoom level Do you need to shoot close-up images with a dedicated macro lens, or distant images Will you benefit from a very wide aperture, exceptionally narrow-depth-of-field portrait lens Exposure....

SLR Camera Exposure Modes

I will point out from the outset that there is no right and wrong exposure mode to use underwater. In the hands of an experieced user, shutter priority, aperture priority or manual mode can all be controlled and manipulated to produce the same desired exposure of an image. This mastery of exposure modes comes not only with experience, but with the mental agility of an uw phototrapher who is in complete control of their diving and concentration to the photo task in hand. There will be more about concentration in Chapter 5 'The Mindset of the Successful Underwater Photographer'. All SLR cameras feature the following modes Aperture priority or AV in which you set the aperture (f number) and the camera automatically works out the appropriate shutter speed. Casting your mind back to the 35 mm film era. You will remember that you were unable to view the result of your endeavours for days, maybe weeks so back then Program Auto mode on SLR cameras was a popular and reliable method of...

A quick note about camera raw files and xmp sidecars

Because a raw file straight from the camera typically cannot be modified using software, any metadata applied to the file that you want to save on disk must be stored elsewhere. The most common method is the use of sidecar files in .xmp (Extensible Metadata Platform) format. A sidecar file is associated with a specific, individual image file and contains metadata changes made to the raw file in software such as Lightroom and Adobe Camera Raw. The sidecar must always accompany the original file in order for the metadata changes to be saved or read by the software. This is one reason I recommend using dng f or your raw originals instead of native camera raw files, because you can save xmp metadata directly into dng files. More about dngs la ter.

Accessorizing Your dSLR

T emember how cool it was to pick out your school supplies every August before classes began You got to choose the exact notebook and paper you wanted. You likely selected your pencils and book covers with the greatest of care. If you're younger than I am, you probably spent a lot of time deliberating over which Trapper Keeper to get. If you're my age, the big decision was which quill pen to buy. If you own a digital SLR, you can experience the same joy of buying school supplies but all year 'round That's because one of the best things about dSLR cameras is that they're almost infinitely expandable. Hundreds of different lenses are available, of course, but that's another whole level of accessorization. I'm talking about add-ons that let you focus closer, operate your camera more efficiently, hold your camera steady for long exposures, or do things that you otherwise couldn't do at all. Most digital SLRs are furnished without any memory card at all, so you need to buy one as soon as...

For Serious Photographers

Photographers with serious ambitions for their prints might, for many of the same reasons they choose an SLR or DSLR over a compact camcra improved image quality, greater control, faster speed, as well as expanded creative options. And, of course, BIG PRINTS. We're talking 11x14- or 13xl9-inch enlargements that make a powerful statement about your vision and photographic prowess. Sure, you can have large prints made at a custom lab, or even online, but for the most control at the lowest per-print cost, nothing beats CONTINUED ON RAGE 88

CMOS image sensor facts may drop

Here are some things you might like to know about CMOS image sensors CMOS image sensors can incorporate other circuits on the same chip, eliminating the many separate chips required for a CCD. This also allows additional on-chip features to be added at little extra cost. These features include anti-jitter (image stabilization) and image compression. Not only does this make the camera smaller, lighter, and cheaper it also requires less power so batteries last longer. It is technically feasible but not economic to use the CCD manufacturing process to integrate other camera functions, such as the clock drivers, timing logic, and signal processing on the same chip as the photosites. These are normally put on separate chips so CCD cameras contain several chips, often as many as 8, and not fewer than 3. CMOS image sensors can switch modes on the fly between still photography and video. However, video generates huge files so initially these cameras will have to be tethered to the mothership...

Keeping white balance when outdoors

Indoor and outdoor light is different each gives your picture an entirely different hue. Most digital cameras give you a setting to adjust this white balance. The function of white balance is to find a reference point for what is white and then to correct offbeat hues (based on this reference point) in your entire photograph while you shoot. Most film cameras have no white balance setting, so you have to deal with brown tones indoors and blue outdoors. Most digital cameras, however, have a manual setting for white balance that ensures the best results. (For more about white balance, see Chapter 8.) On most digital cameras, you can set white balance as follows

Introducing DSLR lenses

Probably the greatest advantage of an SLR camera is the enormous range of different lenses you can use. At the basic level it simply allows different focal lengths, ranging from super-wide-angle to extreme telephoto (see p27 for more on focal length). But there's more to consider than just the length of the camera focus. Maximum aperture is a very important part of a lens's specification, and the wider the maximum the more expensive - and heavier - the lens will be (see p22 for more on the effects of aperture). Swapping a DSLR lens in a compatible camera is the work of a couple of seconds-just depressthereleasebutton on the camera body, twist to free the old lens and slot the new one back in its place. digital specific lenses Many new lenses for SLRs now being released are described as being digital-specific.There are two aspects to this. Many are designed specifically for cameras with APS-C sized sensors, rather than full-frame 35mm. This is an important limitation since they're...

Tripods for Nature and Landscape Photographers

To help drive my point home, I'll tell you a little story. While out on a recent photo trip to the American southwest with my travel group, the Red Rock Five, I was shooting some scenes at Monument Valley, Utah. One scene, shown in Figure 3.1, was particularly difficult. I tried different angles, but our tour leader had a better idea get as low as you can to obtain a better angle. It was a great shot, but I got lazy and thought I had enough light for a sharp photo, even at f 22, so I hand-held the shot so I didn't have to reconfigure my tripod. Wrong I noticed after I got the photo in Photoshop and zoomed in that parts of the frame were not focused to my taste.

Sony Alpha DSLRA390A290 Roadmap

One thing that always surprises new owners of the Sony Alpha DSLR-A390 A290 is that the cameras have a total of 397 buttons, dials, switches, levers, latches, and knobs bristling from its surface. Okay, I lied. Actually, the real number is closer to two dozen controls and adjustments, but that's still a lot of components to master, especially when you consider that many of these controls serve double-duty to give you access to multiple functions. The illustrations in this book show the Sony Alpha DSLR-A390 camera. If you own the A290 model, your camera looks and operates almost exactly the same. The chief differences are that you're missing the Live View OVF (optical viewfinder) switch. The LCD on the back of your camera stubbornly refuses to tilt. But you still get the same, sharp, sparkling 14.2-megapixel images that the A390 does. Pop-up flash. This is your Alpha's internal flash. It pops up automatically when needed while using Auto, Portrait, Close-Up, and Night Scene modes, and...

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