Other Developer Components

Both the stability and energy of developing solutions depend upon their alkalinity (pH) on the pH scale, 7 is neutral, numbers lower than 7 represent acids, and numbers above 7 represent alkalis). Thus an alkali may be added to function as an accelerator in the solution. In general, the more alkaline a developer solution is, the more active, but the shorter its life. Many developers, such as Dektol and D-72, contain an alkali (usually sodium carbonate) that has a buffering action that...

Printing For Reproduction

The present state of reproduction processes makes it possible to interpret fine original photographs with astonishing accuracy. We must remember, however, that a reproduction in printer's ink is only a simulation of the silver image of the photographic print. The factors leading to a fine photomechanical reproduction are numerous, and quite different from those of photography itself. Considerable expertise is required of the engraving and printing technicians to simulate the visual and...

Mounting And Overmatting

Mounting the print serves to protect it and facilitate handling, as well as allowing us to present the print to the viewer under optimum conditions, isolated visually from its surroundings. There are various opinions on the most efficient and ''safe means of mounting. One method is to attach the untrimmed print to a backing board by corner tabs, and then prepare an overmat cut to the desired proportions. Some museums and archives prefer this system as it leaves the print free for later...

Focusing Magnifiers

Optimum focus is assured for an enlargement when the grain of the negative is focused sharply over the entire image area. Focusing on the grain requires the use of a focusing magnifier such as the Omega. This device rests on the easel, and a mirror diverts a small part of the projected image to an eyepiece for viewing. The dimensions of the magnifier are carefully controlled so that when the grain is sharply imaged in the eyepiece it is also sharply imaged on the easel. Some magnifiers do not...

Dektol And Selectolsoft

Selectol Soft

I recommend working with these developers especially at first until their potential is fully grasped. A number of others are available, but in my opinion these two developers can be adjusted to match almost any other formula by using one or the other alone, or by using them together in varying quantities. Dektol is a metol hydroquinone formula comparable to D-72 that gives full, rich prints with fairly neutral color it is an excellent general-purpose print developer. I consider development in...

The Darkroom

Darkroom Sink

The basic arrangement of the darkroom should, as discussed in Book 2, provide for all wet-side processes to occur in one area of the darkroom, with the dry side reserved for enlarging and contact printing, film loading, and other operations that must be protected from chemicals and moisture. It is a fundamental rule of darkroom operation never to allow anything wet wet trays, film tanks, prints, or wet hands to intrude on the dry side. The simplest layout is a continuous worktable on the dry...

THE 8 x 10 Enlarger

8x10 Horizontal Enlarger

For negatives larger than 4x51 have had built a horizontal enlarger from an old 11 x 14 studio portrait camera. It is often far more economical to build an 8 x 10 enlarger than to purchase one, since the basic structure can be an 8 x 10 or 11 x 14 camera without impairing its use as a camera . The camera and lamp assembly can rest hori- Figure 2-9. The 8x10 enlarger. My enlarger was adapted from an old 11 x 14-ineh studio portrait camera in 1936, and has been improved and added to over the...

The Workroom

The workroom should include provision for print drying racks, paper cutter, dry-mount press, densitometers, and sufficient table area to accommodate trimming, mounting, mat-cutting, spotting, etc. For drying prints, I prefer horizontal racks with screens made of plastic window-screen material. These will not rust or absorb chemical contaminants, and they can be hosed off at frequent intervals to remove dust and possible accumulation of chemicals from insufficiently washed proof prints, etc. For...

Enlargers

8x10 Bench Enlarger

The enlarger is a photographer's most important piece of equipment next to his camera and lenses. Many fine enlargers are available for 35mm, 120, and 4x5 negatives,- an 8 x 10 enlarger can often be asset-page 26 sembled rather than purchased, as discussed below. lt Several important considerations arise when choosing an enlarger, including Size. The enlarger should be chosen for the largest negative you expect to use in the foreseeable future. A 4 x 5 enlarger is probably a worthwhile...

Darkroom Design and Equipment

Sandor Salgo, Conductor, Carmel, California. I made this portrait on a very ioggy day at Point Lo-bos. The subject was placed against an eroded rock in a rather narrow and shaded cleft of the seafront. The light was principally from above. The camera was a Hasselblad with 150mm Zeiss Sonnar lens and no filter. I used Kodak Tri-X film, developed in Kodak HC-110, and printed on Ilford Gallerie Grade 3. Personal preferences should dominate in making decisions about the facilities of...