Start a Profitable Photography Business

Turn Your Photography Hobby Into Income

Turn Your Photography Hobby Into Income

Do you enjoy taking photographs? Are you the kind of person who brings the camera everywhere you go? Do you never miss an opportunity to take a picture? How good are your photographs? If you possess some skill at camera work and love doing it, then you have a marvelous opportunity in front of you if you wish to take it.

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How to Start a Profitable Photography Business

This ebook guide will teach you how to turn your photography skills into a profitable and money-making business, even if you have no prior business experience! All that it takes is for you learn and apply the simple steps in this book; once you start, you can make up to $720 PER WEEK, by working only part-time! You don't have to go out and get a business loan, you don't need a finance major, and you don't even need to be the entrepreneurial type in order to benefit from this! All that it takes is some small amount of skill on the camera (you don't have to be an expert; you can easily get better!) and you are ready to get started making money from your pictures! You will have the freedom to make money any time that you want, without having to worry about being to work on time or having people tell you what to do; do what you love for a career, for a change!

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Paths to the Photo Business

There are many paths that lead to the photography business, but they tend to fall into three basic categories Because people's objectives in life vary, there is no correct path into the photo business. One person may want to just have fun and pull look at commercially successful pictures and say, I could have done that. But this isn't what makes you successful. It's having business sense. It's knowing what to bother shooting, and how to sell it to someone. You could probably make a good living shooting shoes for catalog companies, but is that what you really want to do Because of the nature of the business and your lifestyle goals, the first thing you need to do is envision what you want out of photography, then what you want out of a photography business. Here is my last quote on the subject A costly mistake that people make about the photography business is, unlike other capital-intensive businesses (that require cash to start), you can't buy your way to success. There is usually...

Advantages of a Career in Photography

Photography as a profession can offer immense personal enjoyment and satisfaction. You can use it for the enjoyment of your whole family while on vacations, in your home, during spare time, in another business, as a hobby, and on your job. Flexibility is another key asset for any photographer. Peter Gow-land has reminisced on occasions how he photographed weddings, made passport photos, and took anything he could get while he developed his flourishing, nationally known photography business. A well-known portrait photographer, who built a multimillion-dollar business, got started in photography while working as a streetcar conductor. A freelance commercial photographer roams the world furnishing photographs for travel agencies, airlines, passenger ships, magazines, and advertising agencies. He moved from San Francisco to Hawaii. Any number of success stories could be mentioned to illustrate opportunities in this field. Other chapters in this book cover the varied fields of...

Five Truisms of the Photography Business

Whether you believe that the solidarity model or the free-market model is the more effective for building your career, there are certain realities about the industry today that you will have to contend with. I have categorized these realities into a series of axioms that I call The Five Truisms of the Photography Business. These are not proposals, nor are they subject to broad agreement or voluntary consensus, nor are they terms that you can accept or reject based on your own business models. They are simply factual statements about how the industry works. To what degree you incorporate them into your own career planning is up to you.

Commercial Photography

Separating the type of subjects or activities done by the commercial, portrait, or industrial photographer is difficult because there is a natural overlapping of each category. Even the equipment used can be similar, if not identical. In general, the commercial photographer photographs inanimate objects or things the portrait photographer is more involved with people. Many smaller studios have only one or two photographers who wear many hats and produce quality images of both objects and people for their clients. Commercial photographers produce images of many subjects. Typical subjects would be The commercial photographer is, in effect, a salesperson through photographs. Since he or she will be called upon to photograph a variety of subjects, the photographer must be versatile, quick to understand how the product works in order to photograph it intelligently, and able to exercise ingenuity. Learning all about a client's products and operation is important to hold an account for a...

Equipment For The Freelance Photographer

This chapter is adapted from Photography Your Way by Chuck DeLaney, the dean of the New York Institute of Photography (, America's oldest and largest photography school, and a freelance photographer and writer based in New York City, He is a frequent speaker at professional photography seminars across the country.

DeMyth ifying the Photo Business

The IRS and other legal entities use certain metrics to determine whether you're a bona fide business or just an enthusiastic hobbyist, or possibly even a criminal trying to evade taxes. Assuming you're not a criminal, the greatest concern you should have about the IRS is that it determines that you only have a hobby, not a business. Difficult as it may be to believe, there are those who spend a lot of money on photography, call it a business, and use their expenses as deductions against other income. There's nothing wrong with having a photography business while you have other income the IRS just wants to make sure you're

Photography Business Software

Vertical software can be very expensive for two reasons. One is that there is a small market so the costs of programming, revising, and supporting the software has to be spread out over a small customer base. Another reason is because they, unlike regular office software, are customized for the photography business. Customization always costs more.

Characteristics Of Assignment Photography Market Segments

The publication photography market is divided into advertising, corporate, and editorial segments. Advertising is the highest fee-paying segment, corporate is second, and editorial is at the bottom. The editorial segment is the closest to having a system for pricing photography. That is because publishers find a system to be to their advantage because of the high volume of assignments they make when compared to photography users in the other two segments. Publishers' budgets are based upon an annual business plan for specific publications. Long before they assign a photographer to do any work they have set aside an allotment for that work based upon their projected revenues and expense. An assignment pricing system helps them stay within budget.

Advertising Photographers

The following comments from PDN (Photo District News), a leading trade journal for professional photographers, are an excellent summary of advertising photography Over recent years, advertising was opened up to include a wider range of styles and techniques that let the handiwork and the humor of the photographer shine through. Slick ads were out, soft-sell was in, and new, more emotive and experimental styles of photography were showing up in national ads. The following comments are from a recent edition of PDN. Advertising photography can represent both good advertising and good photography. The best will balance the sensibility and self-expression of the photographer with the demands of the client, the agency, and the marketplace. Advertising photographers may work on location around the country (or the world) or in a controlled studio setting or both. Some of the major areas in advertising photography follow.

Working as a freelance photographer

The skills required by a photojournalist are somewhat different however. This type of photography is less structured and more immediate. It tends to be predominantly 35 mm format or equivalent and there is a much greater emphasis on candid images, seizing the moment and being in the right place at the right time. Where editorial and advertising photography will often involve an entourage of people in any one shoot, the photojournalist works mainly on their own. There is not the time available as there is in more formal photography, for images to be retouched, possibly by someone else. The photojournalist these days works mainly using digital equipment from capture to output, with a laptop to retouch the images and transmit them wirelessly as important a part of their everyday kit as their camera. The skills required are more geared towards this way of working. This type of work requires them to think on their feet and to be able to constantly adapt as a situation changes or a news...

Careers In Photography

This chapter is adapted from Photography Your Way by Chuck DeLaney, the dean of the New York Institute of Photography (, America's oldest and largest photography school. A freelance photographer and writer based in New York City, he is a frequent speaker at professional photography seminars across the country.

The Serious Photographer

Many drop out by that time, so if you do get that far, you've achieved that level of a few dollars, you'll believe that just a little more effort can yield considerably better returns. It's sort of like buying a soft drink in a movie theater the smallest cup you can buy is ridiculously expensive, but for just a couple of quarters more, you can get twice as much. That's what the photography business feels like. And by the time you learn that a little more work is really a lot, you've graduated to the insanely serious photographer. An example of this is the postcard business you can make some money, but just getting to the point of generating revenue requires work and time that, if invested in other areas, would yield more profit. Is that payoff worthwhile For the amateur looking to tool around in a car visiting gift shops in town or in a vacation spot, the experience alone is often appealing enough. But, don't expect to raise a family on this strategy without having expanded into...

The Insanely Serious Photographer

The Moderate Supporter of Photography School When it comes to younger people considering college for a commercial photography track, I'm sort of in the middle. You definitely get a good education and hands-on knowledge of how to do things like configure studio lighting, put together a portfolio, send out marketing postcards, and various and sundry tasks associated with running a business, but these are things you can learn on your own. Photography is a formidable and honorable career, and the networking on the inside can be useful for the top students in the class (thus the benefit of school). Yet, competing in the outside world, where you also have to compete against nonaca-demic types who compete tooth and nail in ways that school doesn't teach you that's another thing.

Migrating to Photography

If you're past college age, chances are that a career in photography is a migration path from another job. The majority of the population (and probably most readers of this book) have taken pictures, and a huge percentage of them are very good at it, despite having had no formal training in photography. This is partially why many people feel that a migration to the photo business is an arm's length away. For these people, it's an alluring prospect to give up the day job, or enter into retirement, and pick up photography as a full-time job. What isn't expected, however, is that 90 percent of this business is not taking pictures and living a romantic life it's managing your business. Because of reasons like this, the majority who try drop right back out.

He Five Truisms of the Photogrhphy Business

Above all else, the main purpose of this book is to get you to think critically and analytically about business. Critical thinking is a discipline that challenges you to examine all sides of any issue or postulate. Business changes so rapidly that what was true yesterday may not be true today, and today's lessons may not apply tomorrow. As conditions change (the marketplace, pricing, technology, economics), different decisions should be made, based on current circumstances. Anyone who says, This is the way the photo business has always worked and always will, is viewing the world too simplistically. All too often people merely react to a given business condition by applying preprogrammed mantras, or by blindly following others. To make sound, intelligent decisions about how and where to spend capital, to predict what people will buy and when, to effectively price products or services, and, most of all, to know what to do when things go wrong, one needs to see how all of it fits in the...

Differing Business Models

Anyone wishing to enter the photography business as a serious endeavor must recognize that there are two polarized views about this industry's business climate, each offering an opposing philosophy on how to approach your business.We will examine both views closely and ascertain from those strategies which may be more pertinent to today's environment. The two paradigms under consideration are the historical model that has traditionally been part of the photography culture, and the freemarket model, where most businesses operate in a capitalist economic system. We'll discuss each in depth, but let's start by defining them in terms of how they apply to the photography industry.

The Professional Photographic Community

Commercial Photography Commercial photographers use assistants, more than any other group of photographers. These photographers commonly obtain work from advertising agencies, graphic design firms, and larger companies. The resulting image is then used in some form of commercial endeavor, such as a magazine advertisement, brochure, Web site, or annual report. The field of commercial photography isn't precisely defined and holds the potential to expose the assistant to every kind of shooting experience. Commercial work differs from wedding and portrait photography, where the general public is buying the product. Editorial photography and photojournalism aren't considered commercial work because the photography is not directly involved with selling something. Product photography is a branch of commercial photography, essential to many businesses and photographers alike. When the objects are small, it's often referred to as tabletop or still-life photography. Whatever you call it, you...

Take Advantage Of Whats Available

Many photographers continue to learn and build valuable business relationships by being involved with professional organizations. Local branches of the American Society of Media Photographers (ASMP) and Advertising Photographers of America (APA) have regular meetings, which are open to nonmembers for a small charge. These expose you to a variety of topics, while introducing you to the local photographic community. Try volunteering.

Illustrationpeople For Advertising

Top advertising photographers who can shoot models in elaborate setups convincingly are highly paid. Individuals have widely differing styles and favorite subject matter. See their work in national magazines and, of course, also in sourcebooks such as the Workbook, published in Los Angeles, which can be found in libraries. These days, you don't have to live in New York or L.A. or Chicago to work for great ad agencies, because many highly creative shops are now located in Atlanta, Dallas, Minneapolis, Seattle, and other major cities around the United States and the world. Advertising is an image-conscious business you will need a great portfolio, an attractive studio, good equipment, and at least one assistant to be convincing. Almost everyone works up to this level gradually. Learn by working for an established advertising specialist. Mostly, these folks are choosy about assistants, and hire graduates of good photo schools. A computer whiz has a good chance landing a job with a...

Longterm versus Shortterm Strategies

When newly emerging photographers enter the market, they come from a wide range of backgrounds. Some come from school, others migrate from other careers, and still others drift into the craft, often unintentionally. (Photography being one of the most popular hobbies in the United States means that the idea of starting a photo business may cross one's mind at some point.) However it is that you came to photography, we can assume that if you're reading this book, you've got a sense of your subject of focus.

Forms Of Doing Business

However, you have to consider other possible forms in which your photography business can be conducted. Your expert advisors may decide that being a corporation, partnership, or limited liability company (LLC) will be better for you than being a sole proprietor. Naturally, you want to understand what each of these different choices would mean. One of the most important considerations in choosing between a sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and limited liability company is taxation. Another significant consideration is personal liability whether you will personally have to pay for the debts of the business if it goes bankrupt.

The Highend Advantage

That said, QuickBooks Pro (from Intuit, the same company that makes Quicken) will import the financial data files produced by Quicken, and has most of the bookkeeping power all but the largest photography business will ever need. If you choose MYOB as your entry-level bookkeeping software, you can upgrade to MYOB AccountEdge for a small fee the software manufacturer will upgrade your data files. You can also buy software that converts QuickBooks files into MYOB files (but at press time you cannot convert in the other direction from MYOB to QuickBooks). Not surprisingly, each of these grown-up accounting packages cost more than their entry-level cousins 249 each (with additional charges if you need specialized versions that accommodate multiple concurrent users).

Specialized Photo Management Software

Meeting the challenge of higher-volume image and client tracking documents and more complex delivery memos or licenses, a number of high-end programs are specifically designed for busy professional photography businesses. For wrangling the reams and reams of paperwork associated with a tremendously successful photo business, nothing beats having relational technology at your fingertips. Using general-purpose software, address information from one invoice is not automatically carried over onto, say, a delivery memo . . . nor are the images listed on a delivery memo automatically copied over to a follow-up image license form. The general-purpose workaround is to use the system's cut-and-paste functions to copy variable information from one document to another. But type once and then cut-and-paste becomes rather tedious at the end of the month when there is a load of documents to pound out.

Deciding Your Business Type

Most freelance photographers typically consider themselves self-employed or sole proprietors and file a Schedule C on their tax returns to reflect business expenses and income. Anyone, doing any kind of business, can be a sole proprietor, including bookkeepers, construction contractors, videographers, journalists, independent cooks, contractors, or Web designers. One can even form a partnership with one or more people and still maintain sole proprietorship status on his personal tax returns. However, such relationships are better managed through another vehicle, the limited liability corporation, which is discussed later. The sole proprietor method is preferred mostly because it has the lowest administrative overhead, and the tax filings are not much different procedurally from how individuals normally do them. If your photography business is profitable, or if you don't plan on selling the business in the future, this may be the simplest form of business. There are caveats (listed...

Caveats to Business Types

When faced with the decision whether to become a sole proprietor or one of the corporation types, the issues become complex, especially when you consider factors beyond just taxes. There are matters of legal liabilities, protections, and other financial concerns as well. So, let's compare each of these as they pertain to photography businesses. For sole proprietors, one caveat with filing a Schedule C on your tax return is that it is also a commonly used method of tax evasion.The IRS usually finds high-income wage earners or those with significant investment income (dividends, bond interest, etc.) using Schedule C filings to offset that income that they would otherwise have to pay tax on. A photography business with very ambiguous deductions and very little income (or sales) clearly looks suspicious, and it is a common way for people to avoid paying taxes. In fact, Schedule C filers are 50 percent more likely to be audited than those who use alternate reporting methods. (Put in...

Primary Market Research

Most of this research for commercial photography clients will be done at your public library or online. The business reference section and librarians will be most helpful when you can tell them what you are looking for. From manufacturers to advertising agencies to book publishers, there is a directory for every market Before you spend hours at the library copier with a pocketful of change, check with the publishers to see if the directory is available on CD or online. Then, you can download the information into your personal computer and use the information for making sales calls or mailing labels. Another note Watch for directories that have some kind of qualifier for a firm to be listed. When you are looking for new clients, you want to work with the highest level of information possible. For example, some directories will list book publishers simply because they exist, while others will list only book publishers that answer an annual survey of what kinds of photography assignments...

Building And Presenting Your Portfolio

Ifthis is your first attempt to put together a portfolio, congratulations You will not be burdened with a lot of preconceptions of what works and what does not work in a portfolio. If you have been in the photography business any length of time, this is probably the part where you ask, Who changed the rules and how come no one called me For all photographers, your portfolio still provides the focus and direction for your photography business, but, because it is so personal, it is hard to be objective. Just because you are tired of looking at an image does not mean it will not do the job and stimulate the people that see it to give you work. So let's start by redefining the term portfolio. A mixed assortment of images is not a portfolio. All the images you have are not a portfolio. Your image files make up a body of work. Whether you are a consumer or commercial photographer, out of this body of work come various portfolios that are customized by jour marketing message for viewing by a...

Push and Pull Two Approaches to Marketing

The objective behind marketing is to yield the most prospective clients who pay the highest price for your product at the lowest possible cost. The process of marketing can be separated into two categories you contact them first, or you entice them to contact you first. For example, all of these strategies should be pretty well known to anyone in the photo business Despite the challenges, one fact is clear not using the Web can actually be harmful, not just because of the lost opportunity, but also because it can give the impression that you are not the professional your clients expect you to be. Would you hire a lawyer who still used a typewriter because he didn't understand word processors Because this subject is so big, I've dedicated an entire chapter to it chapter 7, Running a Photography Business on the Web.

The Web Site As Marketing Tool

Besides showing your photography, your Web site should be the culmination of lots of soul searching and market research. One of the first things to determine is exactly what you're selling and then who's buying. Are you a budding commercial photographer hoping to work with advertising agencies and graphic designers Are you going after portrait and wedding jobs Other important areas to consider are editorial or magazine assignments, selling fine art prints, school portraits, sports, and stock photography. Even though you don't want to be too specialized, there are some broad distinctions in the photo industry. Your average art director or designer isn't going to hire someone showing predominantly wedding or sports photography. Conversely, your general consumer isn't going to feel comfortable hiring a photographer after viewing a series of still lifes or annual report images. If you want to sell stock, call yourself a stock agency and list what subjects you have. I began my photographic...

The Randomness Factor

If you flip a coin 100 times and call heads randomly, you may be right 50 percent of the time, but that doesn't mean you had insight. You'd get the same results by choosing heads every time.This is easy for us to see because we know that coin flipping predictably yields heads close to 50 percent of the time. When evaluating (or learning) marketing strategies, many people often look to established professionals to see what they did. The question is, are they really successful because of something they did Or was there some luck involved We know that coin flipping is 50 50, but we don't know the degree of randomness in the photo business because it's not as simple a system. As discussed in chapter 3, Photography and Business Sense, luck does play an unfortunate role in the photography business. But it's not just luck it's a matter of degree. We know that over the course of time, success trumps luck. But early on, luck can play a great role in positioning someone to be successful. As the...

Negotiating Contracts

Richard Weisgrau followed his twenty years as a professional photographer by holding the post of executive director of AS MP, American Society of Media Photographers. He has written and lectured on many topics of the photography business with a strong specialty in negotiating.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In the event the commercial photographer plans to go into business for her- or himself, it would be wise to consider some of the disadvantages of this area of photography. There are long hours, lastminute rush assignments, deadline pressures, large investments in equipment, and the risks that any person takes when going into a business. However, some of these disadvantages do not exist if the photographer is an employee of a large commercial studio. On the other hand, there are compensations and much personal satisfaction in this type of photography. It takes a particular kind of business acumen to operate a successful commercial photography studio. There is the challenge of dealing directly with other successful businesspeople who come to you with various assignments. The work is challenging and diverse, because no two jobs are alike. A chance to travel and the opportunity to learn firsthand about many different types of businesses and products are some other advantages of commercial...

Images Online Promote Them

In keeping with the spirit of the previous section, here's the lesson When it comes to promoting yourself, your greatest asset is your photography. Use it to promote yourself. As you will soon learn, I am rather liberal about how I allow my images to be used on the Web, including allowing people to download my images, and I make no attempts to stop this. Don't get me wrong I am not suggesting that you don't need to protect your images or make an effort to stop unauthorized use. (I'll address that later.) I'm just saying that, in the grand scheme of things, there are tradeoffs that must be considered before choosing to keep your images in a locked box. Before going further, I strongly recommend copyrighting your images. This is an amazingly simple process, discussed in chapter 4, Starting a Photography Business. So, I started linking my low-res images to higher-res versions, placing my copyright mark on the side (See chapter 4, Starting a Photography Business, for more on how and why...

The Stock Industry in the Digital

The historical reasons for the development of photography agencies is thoroughly discussed in chapter 2, The Five Truisms of the Photography Business. That is, stock agencies were virtually the only option for most photographers to make a viable living on their own as independents, unless they shot weddings and portraits and the like.That business model held steady for nearly fifty years, until technology revolutionized the means of distribution. Today, a digital camera, a computer, and the Internet are all that are necessary for most photographers to get their images into distribution and make a living independently. In fact, that's exactly what happened, and the result is oversaturation. There are so many images in the market now, the challenge is just getting noticed.

Keeping track of your photos

If you're still working with traditional film, you're going to find a lot of overhead that your competition doesn't have.The stock industry has moved toward digital faster than it has toward any other technological advance in the photo business. Whether film or digital, you still have to keep track of your clients, your photos, and who has what and what their issues are. Doing this with physical film requires infrastructure, not to mention the financial overhead of materials and postage, but you may also need to pay an assistant. Worst of all is getting clients to return images they have. With digital, that's not so much a problem, but it's equally frustrating just keeping tabs on who is considering what.

Society for Photographic Education

In recent years there has been an increased awareness among SPE members, and among almost all photography studio owners and their professional associations, of the importance of advanced and professional-directed training for preparing graduates for both instructional and professional photography careers. One result has been the increasing number of director of education titles appearing on staff listings of photographic manufacturers and professional photography associations.

Associations and Societies

Advertising Photographers of America P.O. Box 1309 Los Angeles, CA 90036 Advertising Photographers of New York 27 W. Twentieth St., Ste. 601 New York, NY 10011 http International Freelance Photographers Organization P.O. Box 777 Lewiston, NC 27023

General Considerations For Web Sites

Visit other Web sites, both to see how they're designed and to see what kind of photography is shown. Go to a major search engine like Google and type in photographers. The top listings are the top professional photo organizations. One of the very best is the American Society of Media Photographers ( Also try (Advertising Photographers of America). Once there, you can search for photographers by location and specialty. There are active links directly to members' Web sites. This lets you look at many Web designs, see what established professionals show, and check out your competition.

Freelance Photography

Freelance photographers work on their own instead of serving as employees of a business or nonprofit organization. Typically they work for a variety of clients. Most freelancers are on the go most of the time that is, if they are in the top income bracket and their work and names have become prominent enough to make businesses, agencies, photo editors, and syndicates want their photographic services. Some freelance photographers have their own darkrooms and spend time at the home base doing their own processing and printing, but most arrange with custom laboratories to handle these processes. So even while the photographer is away on another assignment, film can be sent in with instructions to be processed, Making contacts with the art directors and photo editors of advertising agencies, photo syndicates, newspapers, and magazines is a move in the right direction. After the freelance photographer has established several accounts, he or she can become selective or specialize in a...

Me First

I'm talking about the photography business. While photography is something that everyone is familiar with, the business of photography is a mystery.You probably can't talk to your parents about it, and people on the Internet may just tell you rumors that aren't true. Talking to other photographers often doesn't help most will try to talk you out of it, warning that it's a saturated market and there's no way to make a living at it anymore.You may have already learned that pros are reluctant to share their secrets, or provide much useful advice on what to do and how. Of the photographers I e-mailed when I was learning, few replied, and of those that did, none gave any useful advice (one even tried to sabotage my efforts, since my goal of pursuing travel photography encroached on his turf).

Learning the Craft

Dependability is another key to success. In the photographic profession, many appointments and deadlines must be met and completed on time. Willingness to give service is most important in choosing photography as a profession. Working long hours, late at night, weekends, and some Sundays and holidays is often necessary to become successful in many fields of photography. Attendance at conventions and seminars, as well as taking advantage of refresher courses, is important to keep up with trends, new products, and technical developments in the photographic world. Introduction to Visual Communications Introduction to Photoshop Introduction to Photography Introduction to QuarkXPress Introduction to Illustrator Lighting Techniques Basic Processing and Monitoring Copy and Restoration Introduction to Custom Printing Machine Printing Systems Custom Color Printing Portrait Photography Introduction to Digital Imaging VisCom Career Portfolio Development Commercial Photography Digital Photography...


For the sake of simplicity, we can organize the myriad of freelance choices into a few large categories commercial photography, retail photography, and fine art photography. These categories differ mainly in the way images are marketed and sold, by the way, and less by image content, talent, or skill. Examples of commercial photography include annual reports, freelance editorial, advertising, fashion and lifestyle, and product illustration. It is a very diversified field. Photographers who choose a commercial photography career do not usually deal with the general public. They most often market and sell their work to art buyers and art directors, graphic designers, and editors. being an unlicensed profession). Commercial photographers can shoot weddings or sell work through fine art galleries, for example. Retail photographers can shoot commercial assignments and exhibit their work in galleries and museums. Fine art photographers often accept commercial assignments and traditionally...

Choosing A Program

Obviously, the decision to become a freelance photographer is more complex and interesting than it may at first seem. In fact, one strong argument for a structured academic education in photography is the time it affords a photographer to comprehend, appreciate, and find reliable answers to important career questions and issues. School provides time to examine what kind of images you want to make (and learn how to make them). There is time to explore, experiment, grow, change, and refine your thinking and career ambition ideally, with the help and guidance of good teachers. You are looking for an education thatwill fuel your ambitions by challenging assumptions, refining technique and aesthetic judgment, strengthening your work ethic, and establishing a critical dialogue about photography thatwill mature over the long and sustained arc of your career. The first decision about a formal education in photography is to determine what kind of program is best for you. The way photography...

Learning Communities

The process of learning how to do everything else right that Ghouinard refers to is a simple but powerful description of the training and experience a good education can provide a freelance photographer. Learning communities generate and sustain a critical dialogue essentially, a disciplined conversation that lasts for years and extends beyond graduation. This dialogue inevitably reflects one's education and values. Students, discovering that they belong to a group sharing a common agenda and goals, stimulate and challenge each other. It is empowering to be surrounded by people dedicated to learning the same craft, technique, and language of light that you are. From working through a common agenda, students find their own unique and irreplaceable voice. They develop a personal aesthetic and acquire the technical skills to express their vision through the images they make. This is particularly valuable to a freelance photographer. A freelancer is constantly faced with the challenge of...


Equipment requirements for a commercial photographer can vary considerably from those of photographers engaged solely in portraiture. The commercial photographer will be required to photograph anything from a photomicrographic specimen to the biggest building in the city from a helicopter. Thus, the commercial photographer may need a much greater initial financial outlay than the portrait or industrial photographer. To have a complete studio, 50,000 to more than 100,000 could be needed. The industrial photographer working for a company would have equipment furnished that is suited to the specific fields covered. The commercial photographer would have to own The commercial photographer needs a varied selection of cameras and lenses ready to go at a moment's notice. Digital cameras and film cameras in the 8 X 10, 4 X 5, 2lA X 2lA, and 35mm sizes all have uses on different jobs, along with an assortment of lenses suitable for each of them. Commercial photographers rely on electronic...

My Business Model

One could say that from the beginning my business has always been a Web-only concern, where most of my revenue comes from online sales. This doesn't mean that I don't engage in other offline marketing or promotional activities as well. I do. But the main goal is to bring that target audience to my site. So, my main checklist item is if there are stock resale opportunities. Because my site is all I need, my marketing activities do not include sending mass mailings to unknown clients, or unsolicited portfolios to photo editors or art directors, or mailing postcards directly to buyers in hopes of getting new clients. For me, the cost benefit never justified those efforts or expenses (see chapter 5, Photography Marketing ). I repeat for me. Because the Net was already doing such good business for me, I didn't have the need to spend the time and resources in other ways. Most of my business is so saturated that it has never been a matter of getting enough business it is more a matter of...

Licensed Images

Selling images for licensing is called stock photography, and that's an enormous subject to cover. For more on this, see chapter 8, The Stock Photography Business. The price points for stock photography is also a bigger, more complex subject, which is addressed in chapter 6, Photography Pricing. I made reference to the expression well known. The reason some photographers can get 10,000 assignments is because they are well known in their market segments fashion, for example.To get there, part of the business strategy has to be name-brand generation, as I discuss in chapter 5, Photography Marketing. This is not a simple thing to do, but it's also not out of reach for people. I happen to choose a business model that doesn't require name recognition because I don't do well with notoriety. There's a personality style necessary to go along with that, and I don't have it. If you value this benefit and your personality allows you to develop fame in that way, you might choose a business...

Studio Location

Seek the best location available that will be within your estimated operating budget. You should have a good idea of what this should be after talking with other professional photographers and your banker. Also confirm that local zoning ordinances allow a photography studio at the location you select. Although you may start by renting a space, it would be advisable to keep in mind that you may someday, after building a successful photography business, want to own the location for your business. Parking, a good display window, and a place for a sign are other necessities to make a speedier beginning in business. As your business grows, parking space will become more and more important. Take into consideration, also, that the farther you are from a main street or downtown shopping area, the more you will have to spend on advertising and promotion to keep your name and location constantly in the mind of the buying public.

Business Competition

All successful people and businesses face competition. This should be met with an open mind and a favorable attitude. Competition is not limited to others in the portrait photography business. It can be the jeweler, drugstore, gift shop, or appliance store down the street. Each family has just so much money to spend after paying for food, clothing, and housing. Every other business is after the same extra dollars that will be spent for luxuries. To be successful in the portrait field, it is necessary to promote, sell, publicize, advertise, and present your photographs. Making the buying public conscious of your studio and desirous of owning what you have to sell is what will make the real difference in the amount of sales you total up at the end of the year. pictures with the purchase of her dress. The addition of a wedding shop has substantially increased the studio's wedding photography business.

What You Show

For further assistance, try checking with your local professional photography associations. Many of them sponsor annual portfolio reviews, where you can get your photography portfolio critiqued and evaluated by reps or photography clients. Not being an official sales presentation, this review can be the most honest and open source of feedback you can find.

Historical Context

Odd as it may sound, the historical barrier to entry into the photography business has not been marketing so much as it has been distribution. As discussed in chapter 2, The Five Truisms of the Photography Business, the old days of getting photos to a wide base of clients was costly and time consuming, and one needed a critical mass of product and customers to be profitable. Most individuals never had that kind of distribution capacity, so they relied upon employers or agencies to do sales for them because they were large enough (with enough images and clients) to enjoy those economies of scale (i.e., it's more profitable to represent a hundred photographers than just ten . . . or one).

The Status Pyramid

As illustrated by the story about Coca-Cola and its lesson in public relations, brand recognition is the brass ring that everyone strives for. It is the hardest to achieve but also the most stable and long lasting. It carries the most weight of any other status level, and with it great benefits it even has financial value, also called good will (see chapter 4, Starting a Photography Business ). The scope of this recognition can also vary. Coca-Cola may have a strong brand when it comes to soft drinks, but they pale to the Nike swoosh logo when it comes to clothing (according to each company's income statements, which are available online). Applying your goodwill only works when directed properly. A well-known travel photographer is unlikely to compete as effectively in the fashion photography world and vice versa. The lesson here is not to let your head get too big when trying to broaden your target market.

Contract Forms

The contracts in this chapter are reproduced by permission from Business and Legal Forms for Photographers by Tad Crawford. Business and Legal Forms for Photographers has a large number of forms, all on CD-ROM for ease of use, as well as explanatory text and negotiation checklists. The forms selected for this chapter meet the basic needs of commercial photographers, wedding and portrait photographers, and fine art photographers. This chapter has the basic contract forms you need to get started, whether you are a commercial photographer, wedding or portrait photographer, or fine art photographer. While the needs of the disciplines differ, the photographer must always balance what the client needs against what the photographer is willing to give. This may be an issue of reproduction rights or of ownership of physical objects, such as prints. Designed for the commercial photographer, this form serves multiple purposes. If the box for estimate is checked, then the form is an estimate by...

Work For Hire

However, a freelance photographer may also be asked to do assignments on a work-for-hire basis. This treats the photographer like an employee for copyright purposes, but doesn't give the photographer any of the benefits employees normally receive. The American Society of Media Photographers and many other professional organizations representing creators have condemned the use of work-for-hire contracts with freelancers. So, for a freelance photographer to do work for hire, four conditions must be satisfied (i) there is a written contract (2) the parties agree that the assignment is to be done as work for hire (3) both parties sign the agreement and (4) the assignment falls into one of the categories shown here in which the copyright law allows work for hire. Unless all four of these conditions are not satisfied, the resultant work will not be deemed a work made for hire. In the 1980s there was some confusion as to whether a freelance photographer could do work for hire even if there...

Moral Rights

Has very limited application in the world of commercial photography, and it is therefore still important to contractually protect your right to a credit line and the publication of your work without distortions. With respect to moral rights and fine art photography, see Legal Guide for the Visual Artist by Tad Crawford.

Scope of Discussion

This chapter addresses the nuances of the stock photography business. I'll begin with an analysis of the stock photo business model and the roles of its players buyers, photographers, and agents. The next chapter addresses the intricacies of working directly with a stock agency. I have worked with stock photo agencies in the past, but I currently do not work with one. I have instead chosen to represent myself, selling images directly to buyers. (You can read more about this in chapter 7, Running a Photography Business on the Web. ) This does not mean I am biased against agencies it only means that I have found that my skills, interests, and business objectives serve me better as an independent agent.

The Armed Forces

One option is going to one of the military photography schools and utilizing military time to build a good foundation for a lifetime photography career. Some leading photographers got their start in the military service. There is no end to the number of civilian employees working in commercial, industrial, portraiture, photojournalism, and other related fields who received their first photographic training in one of the branches of the military.

Photo Buyers

Before you can appreciate the stock photo business, you must have a sense of who's buying images and why. If you think it's hard to get noticed in the market as a photographer because of oversaturation, think about the people who have to look for images. This saturation affects them as well. Stock images (as they are called because it's like any other inventory that's held in stock ) requires a huge amount of time to sift through. The more images there are, the more likely the buyer may suffer from search fatigue, where all images end up looking the same. This ends up having a curious effect on the perception of value that the buyer has for the image he's looking for, as illustrated by this excerpt from an e-mail message I received from a client

Working with Stock

As discussed in the previous chapter, the stock photo business involves your selling pictures you've already taken to new clients. There are three ways to do this you can sell direct to the buyer you can work with an agency that handles your images for you or you can choose a hybrid of these two options. If you've determined you want to try working with an agency, this chapter explores pragmatic ways for finding the right one and working out a mutually beneficial relationship (which is a euphemism for saying that you must set realistic expectations for yourself of what you're going to end up with).

Informal Referrals

If you have a family attorney, that person should either handle whatever legal issue you face or refer you to a specialist. If you don't have an attorney to ask, ask a friend, another photographer, or your uncle who won that lawsuit the summer before last. A person usually knows when he or she has received good legal service. If your problem is similar, that person's lawyer may be right for you. You certainly know other professionals in the photography business. If you start asking them, you'll probably come up with a good lead.

Pricing Photography

This chapter is adapted from Pricing Photography by Michal Heron and David MacTavish. Michal Heron, a New York-based photographer, works on assignment for editorial and corporate clients, is actively involved in stock photography, and is the author of How to Shoot Stock Photos That Sell and Stock Photography Business Forms. David MacTavish worked as a photographer for twenty-two years and is now an attorney specializing in intellectual property law specifically, copyright, art, entertainment, trademark, computer, and Internet law. If you are in the business of making images for sale to customers, you can nonetheless benefit from considering the factors that go into setting fees for photographers whose goal is publication. Especially the consideration given to overhead, salary, and profit in this chapter are important for all photographers to keep in mind. Studios will usually create price lists for wedding and portrait photography. The prices for wedding photographs will usually be...


Purchasing all-new equipment to start a portrait studio is expensive. This type of small business has an unusually high number of failures, so be cautious. Sometimes you can find an established studio that is for sale because the owner is retiring or moving. Purchasing an existing facility with most of the equipment you will need, and a list of customers, often can be the best way for a younger photographer to get started. Check the classified ads in the back of publications such as The Professional Photographer, The Rangefinder, and Studio Photography and Design for current listings of studios and equipment for sale.

The Status Switch

Photographers are usually at the short end of the status stick because the supply exceeds the demand (see Truism 1 in chapter 2, The Five Truisms of the Photography Business ). This is especially true for those trying to break into the business. There is an indirect negative effect from this population because, even though inexperienced photographers may be inert, they are a mass with gravity nonetheless, meaning that those who hire photographers have to deal with them. It's sort of like having a store full of people who never buy anything it's hard for the merchant to deal with the real customers simply because they have to deal with the distractions of the masses. Figuring out who those real customers are is hard because they all claim to be. The one reason the masses hurt professional photographers is because the client's perception of most photographers falls to the lowest common denominator the masses . Here, you have to try harder or be more compelling than you'd otherwise need...


Finding the right price points for selling photography or bidding on an assignment is the Holy Grail of the photography business. What do you charge for licensing an image for an ad in a magazine, a billboard, or for a local merchant's Web site What about pricing a photo shoot of a parade for one of the corporate sponsors How about a wedding No matter what the product or service, pricing is the most daunting problem facing all photographers in their first years, and it seems there is no sure-fire method to finding what works. The natural thing to do is research price charts or guidelines, but as the industry has evolved and competition has grown, such data points are no longer reliable. What's more, it's not that simple. Even veteran professionals get frustrated by the volatility in pricing, not just among different clients but in the way the same product can vary dramatically from one case to the next.

Pricing Summary

Pricing is the hardest part of the photo business.You start with a target market segment, then create your marketing strategy, and then you go through the sales process. In each of these steps, you're going to fumble around a bit before you get it right they do not have to be executed to perfection before you go to the next step. What you'll find, if you play it smart, is that successful pricing is the result of knowing your client's business model and the subtler nuances in their negotiating styles. So, let's review in chapter 2, The Five Truisms of the Photography Business, as these will help you maintain a business mindset and perspective.

Stock Images

Stock picture agencies are always looking for fresh sources of quality photos. However, this is not a get rich quick type of photography. Unless you have a quite unusual and visually different photograph that will sell immediately, you should be prepared to furnish several hundred photographs or slides and possibly wait a year or more for any sales to develop. It is, however, a good source of extra income from photography and should be seriously considered by many individuals.

Home Page

However, the design also determines if search engines can find your Web site. Search engines look for text and keywords, not photos. A title and block of text loaded with carefully selected words will help search engines find you. Web sites are written in HTML (hypertext markup language). Two important portions of the code are and . Software for Web design will usually have the ability to include words into these two portions of the code. Many photographers make the mistake of not having text on their Home page and throughout their site. If possible, attach carefully chosen keywords to photos. For instance, a commercial photographer showing a bowl of fruit would do better using the words still-life photograph and studio, while a stock shooter would use stock photograph, fruit, apples, and agriculture.

Communication and design

In the context of communication and design there is no right or wrong, only good and bad relative to the styles and tastes of the day. Unlike most other genres of photography the inspiration for a studio photograph has to be preconceived. Studio photographers cannot observe, compose and interpret by pointing the camera at the world around them. In a darkened studio there is no world around them. The studio photographer has to create or obtain everything appearing in front of the camera. Compared to other forms of photographic illustration this could be seen as a disadvantage. In actual fact it is a major advantage as the photographer has total control over all aspects of the photographic process. Studio photography is not a random process. It should be highly pre-produced and previsualised. Studio photographers, especially in the area of still life, do not capture images. They construct images. This enables the photographer to compose and design a photograph almost without...

Markets for professional photography

On the other hand, you may want to specialize only in one type of commercial photography. Large commercial industrial studios dealing with a lot of public relations commissions may offer a total communications 'package'. This teams up photographers, graphic designers, advertising and marketing people and writers. The result is that a complete campaign, perhaps from the launching conference (announcing a new product to the client's sales force), through press information, general and specialist advertising to brochures and instruction manuals for the client's customers, can all be handled in a coordinated way 'in-house'. Development of electronic imaging encourages ever-larger amounts of brochure and catalogue photography to take place within graphic design studios. Here, it is conveniently fed direct through desktop publishing channels into layouts for the printed page (see Chapter 14). Editorial and advertising photography Advertising photography is much more restrictive than...

Roles within a photographic business

Perhaps you are a one-person freelance or one of the team in an independent studio or in-house photographic department. Every professional photography business must combine a number of skills, and for each skill you might require an individual employee, either on the payroll or 'bought in' (by using an outside custom laboratory, for example). For the lone freelance several or all of the following roles have to be filled by one person.

Showbiz Photographer

XZHOW BIG WAS THE SHOOT Well, there were six actors, two stylists, their two assistants, two people for hair, and two for makeup. I had five photo assistants. My art director had a crew of four guys, there was a producer and a production assistant, and two people from TV Guide. Plus, two ofthe actors had personal assistants.

Ucr Extension Matthew Bamberg

Kris Krug is a fashion, music, and portrait photographer, a technologist, and an author based in Vancouver, BC, Canada. He is owner Static Photography, a photography studio in Vancouver, BC. He is also a teacher and consultant for new media and the Internet. Krug brands himself as a techartist, quasi-sage, cyberpunk anti-hero from the future. For three years, he was the editor-inchief of the online magazine *spark, a culture and technology monthly with a philosophical bent. He was the coauthor of BitTorrent for Dummies (Wiley, 2005). As a photographer, his photos have been published in National Geographic, Rolling Stone, BusinessWeek, Financial Times, USA Today, LA Times, PBS, and many other online and print publications.

Establish Your Business

As I mentioned in the introduction, there is money to be made in photography. Still, I think it's fair to say that the photography business is not an easy way to make a living. For that reason, it only makes sense to be smart about your business, implementing policies and strategies designed to give you an edge on the competition. These basic techniques apply not just to team and sports photography, but to the operation of all types of studios. Additional techniques will be covered in chapter 9. Before you start your journey into sports photography, or any other ambition for that matter, stop and think about where you want to be with your new endeavor several years from now. Without a plan or road map, your chances of reaching your goal are slim. Starting with the end in mind is one of many concepts I learned in 1997 at a Stephen R. Covey seminar. For those of you who have never heard of him, Mr. Covey is an extremely successful lecturer and writer. His concepts and ideas are used...

Describe your background

I got hooked on photography at age fourteen when a friend with a darkroom showed me how to make prints. The rest of my career has been finding ways to make a living as a photographer. My degree from Kent State was in photojournalism and philosophy the latter was very useful. I moved to New York City and learned more about commercial photography. My on-the-job skills included casting models, building sets, and collecting bills. Assisting Annie Leibovitz, I lugged heavy cases, met many celebrities, and sometimes worked seven days a week. I quit after a year over a salary dispute and was a sought-after freelance photo assistant with photographers like Mary Ellen Mark and Michael O'Brien. In 1982, I decided to open my own studio in New York City.

Make everything reflect your image

Making your clients feel special is a very important factor in running your photography business. Having lots of sizzle in your operation will set you apart from your competition. In the photography business, you are dealing (for the most part) with peo-MAKEs Them wANT To BUY. ple who are spending discretionary income they may want pictures, but they

The Origins of Retouching and Compositing

Retouching is the touch up of images to make them look better, but without creating a whole new image. The goal of simple retouching is often to remove defects from a photograph. Of course, a defect is often in the eye of the beholder (if not in the bags underneath). A high school senior portrait (male or female) showing less than silky-smooth skin is sometimes viewed as a disaster by those who have just traversed the rocky roads of puberty. On the other hand, removing the character lines from the face of a 60-year-old corporate chief executive would provoke outrage. Emphasizing that steely glint in the eye may be much more important. In advertising photography, the product must be presented just so, and 20 hours of retouching can be a lot less expensive than reshooting a photo when locations, props, models, and well-paid photographers are involved.

Bob Barclay Explains How Critical Timing And Fast Reactions Are The Secret To Brilliant Trackside Shots Gemma Padley

BOB BARCLAY worked as a top Fleet Street photographer for more than 30 years, but left photojournalism in 1998 to set up his own studio and photography business in Surrey. During his career, he has covered news assignments in the UK and abroad, and got the first picture of the QE2 in mid-Atlantic as it brought troops home from the 1982 Falklands War.

Should you be keeping

Operating a photography business offers all of these challenges, plus the challenge of manufacturing the product. You are not buying your pictures from a supplier wholesale and selling them retail, you are creating or manufacturing them As a result, you have many more variables to calculate into the price of your product cameras, lighting equipment, props, flash cards, computers, lab bills, and all of the other elements that go into creating your product. And don't forget to add in the value of your education the amount of time and money you have spent learning photography.

He realized he was at the mercy of other hairstylists and makeup artists

When Jerry graduated, he was able to cut hair every day in the evenings, he ran his kung-fu school. This went on for about ten years. He eventually became what is known as a platform artist, giving demonstrations and workshops to other designers at trade shows and other events. He worked for a number of different companies, but didn't really get into the makeup end of styling until he had established his photography business.

Italian Photographer Shot Dead In Bangkok Riots

Fabio Polenghi has been shot dead in Thailand while covering the violent confrontations between the army troops and anti-government protesters. The 48-year-old freelance photographer died when Thai military forces launched a violent offensive against a Red Shirt protesters camp. The Associated Press reports that Polenghi was wearing a bulletproof vest and helmet when shot in the stomach. Polenghi had been in I hailand for several days covering the violence for an European magazine. The freelance photographer, who worked with Grazia Neri on several assignments, has been published in Vanity Fair, Vogue, Marie Claire and Elle among many other publications. He died after being carried to a Bangkok hospital He had a solo show in Paris at the Cit des Sciences et de l'Industrie and also worked as a documentary filmmaker.

Photographers Imagemakers

A good example is Gary Goldberg, a new Toronto resident (from Florida) who covers a lot of bases in the digital game. He's a commercial photographer now shooting all-digi-tally and working with ad agencies, record companies, and other types of businesses to create his portrait, fashion, and advertising images. However, he also photographs weddings, does digital restorations of damaged photographs, and markets his own fine-art prints at art shows and through online services. And it's those last two job categories, in addition to printing his portfolios, that put his several inkjet printers to most use.

New Look For Visions 2001

Understanding of the basic photographic techniques relating to underwater photography. Living in North Wales, he is a great enthusiast for diving in British waters as well as warmer parts of the world. He has been a freelance photographer for over 11 years and works in industrial and illustrative photography, produces stock landscape, environmental and underwater images and writes illustrated articles.

Bob Barclay Shows Three Ap Readers How To Use Fillik Flash To Create Unforgettable Beachside Images Gemma Padley Reports

BOB BARCLAY worked as a top Fleet Street photographer for more than 30 years, but left photojournalism in 1998 to set up his owr studio and photography business in Surrey. During his career, he has covered news assignments in the UK and abroai, and got the first picture of the OEZinmid-Atlinticasit brought troops home from the 1982 Wands War.

Corrective Lighting Makes the Sale

Jeff Smith's portrait photography business bases its success on creating flattering portraits of real people and carefully crafted lighting is an integral part of the process. Jeff Smith's portrait photography business bases its success on creating flattering portraits of real people and carefully crafted lighting is an integral part of the process.

Photographs Usage Value

In the end there is only one truth the client determines the value of your photography by its willingness to pay. If you understand that, you understand that the fees for photography are most often determined by the client setting a fee, as in editorial photography, or by the mutual agreement of the parties, as in corporate and advertising photography. In the latter group, the principle of pricing according to what the traffic will bear is the norm. For the good salesperson and negotiator this can present the opportunity to make greater revenues. If you are waiting for the industry to adopt some kind of value formula, please practice your sales and negotiating skills while doing so. Some day you will realize that the formula is never going to exist. Then, if you studied and practiced, you will be ready to engage in the business like a businessperson. Then you can start on the path to making more money by working the business rather than having it work you.

The Behavior of Light

This rule also has applications in product and commercial photography. For example, when lighting a highly reflective object like silverware, knowing that the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection tells you that direct illumination will not be the best solution. Instead, you should try to light the surface that will be reflected back onto the shiny object's surface.

Chapter Three Shooting Weddings Like a

If you're living your life and you think to yourself, Ya know, I've got it pretty easy, then it's time to shoot a wedding. Don't worrythis isn't something you're going to have to go looking forif you've got even one long lens (200mm or longer), it will find you. That's because in a lot of people's minds, if you have a long lens, you're a serious photographer. It's true. Seriously, try this show up at an event with a 200mm to 400mm lens on your camera and people will literally get out of your way. They assume you've been hired by the event and that you're on official photography business, and they will stand aside to let you shoot. It's the equivalent of walking into a factory with a clipboardpeople assume you're legit and they let you go about your business. Add a photographer's vest and it's like having an official press pass to anything (try this oneyou'll be amazed). Anyway, if you have a long lens, before long someone you know will get married but they won't have a budget for a

Wo Rds Matt Golowczynski Picture Tom Mackie

'Once I got into high school I did a photography course, and really enjoyed it.' His passion then took him to study at the Hawkeye Institute of Technology in Iowa, where he majored in commercial photography. 'After graduating I left for Los Angeles where I worked for about six years, as an industrial photographer, in photography labs and also assisting another photographer. In my spare time I travelled throughout the west, taking landscapes.'

Wetpixelcom Photo Contest with Significant Prizes also runs a Photo of the Week contest for amateur photographers just getting started in underwater photography. Winners are published on's home page and receive a 30 credit at for lightjet printing or other digital photographic services.

Choosing a capture medium

There has been a shift towards digital image capture in recent years as it has the advantage of producing an image almost immediately (no processing required). It creates image files, downloaded to a computer, suitable for desktop publishing. A limiting factor has been the expense of digital cameras capable of providing the quality suitable for large commercial illustration (see 'Essential Skills Digital Imaging'). Commercial photography reproduced in magazines has traditionally been produced using positive or reversal (transparency) film. The advantage of reversal over negative film has been that it is a one-step process to achieve a positive image. A negative film emulsion will give you, within its limitations, an image opposite to that seen through the viewfinder. It is only when a negative is printed that it becomes a positive image. The advantage of negative film is its greater 'latitude' and ability to handle higher subject contrast levels than positive film.

Words And Pictures Tim Gartside

Indispensable to many areas of photography, flash adds extra light into a situation where light levels are low. It can also be a means of adding creative lighting for a more dramatic shot. Most studio photography including still-life, fashion and portraiture is created using large flash systems that are generally not very portable. Photographers on the move require a smaller, lighter design giving a powerful light source, and use one or several flashguns in synchronisation to add a bit of sparkle to their shots. Wedding, portrait, fashion and press photographers all use small flashguns for location work, while travel photographers always have a small gun to help out in low-light portrait interior situations.

The Notman Studio Morgue

One of the largest and most complete archives of a single nineteenth-century photography studio is that of the William Notman studio. This collection of photographic portrait albums presents a particular sight (and site) of later nineteenth-century Montreal society, one which has been described by Collard as diversity without incongruity. 4 Four hundred thousand carte-de-visite (2.5 x 3.5 inches) and cabinet (4 x 5.5 inches) photographs of Montrealers and visitors to the city who attended Notman's for portrait sittings are mounted and labelled with a negative number and the sitter's name, one after the other,

Have your children influenced your business

I am the primary breadwinner in the family, and it's not easy to run a busy photography studio and be a good mom. I am constantly aware of how I must balance my time and attention, and I make an effort not to let work interfere with play or quiet time together. On weekends, we do fun things at home or we go out. I neutralize most mom guilt by giving my children lots of attention and positive reinforcement.

Underwater Photography

Underwater Nude Photography

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How do you promote your studio

I have a display booth every year at the local Junior League's holiday market, which attracts many new clients. Baby fairs at hospitals are also great for getting your name known. Presentation and branding are crucial for a successful photography studio. I have my logo on everything.

Please Use Block Capitals

I earn no more than 10 of my total annual income from photography (tick to confirm)D Please return my entry. I enclose an SAECi OR I do not need my entry returnedd (tick one to confirm). This entry has not previously been published in a national UK photography magazine1 (tick to confirm). Amateur Photographer, published by IPC Media Ltd ('IPC'), will collect your personal information to process your entry. If you would like to receive emails from Amateur Photographer and IPC containing news, special offers and product and service information and take part in our magazine research via email, please tick here -.' Amateur Photographer and IPC would like to contact you by post or telephone to promote and ask your opinion on our magazines and services. Please tick here if you prefer not to hear from us.D IPC may occasionally pass your details to carefully selected organisations so they can contact you by telephone or post with regards to promoting and researching their products and...

The Notman Enterprise

The photographic portrait was the premiere means of visual representation of the late nineteenth-century bourgeoisie. The Canadian manuscript censuses of 1860 61, 1871, and 1881 gathered under the rubric of industrial establishments the exertions of commercial photographers such as William Notman.1 Such classification assigned photography and the photograph a particular and productive relationship with society. As a new industry and commodity in the equally new age of industrial capitalism in North America and Europe, an age that trumpeted the idea of progress and prosperity, the relationship was tightly entwined. Not only was a photograph manufactured meaning was also made once that photograph entered circulation. The project in this chapter is to formulate an idea of the time and place in which the commercial practices of the Notman photography studio, accounted for in the census of 1871 as an industrial establishment, took place and the nature of the Notman studio commodities that...

Variations On A Theme

My fascination with letters has enabled me to put together five complete alphabets, with each letter in each alphabet being entirely different. Some may ask. Why would anyone need not one but five complete alphabets Strictly speaking as a commercial photographer, these letters do have value in the marketplace, particularly in the graphic design community. But hey, if nothing else, at least I'm ready should the need ever arise to put together one heck of a ransom note

OEMs The Empire Strikes Back

So how does color management work for black-and-white photographers Have we finally escaped from the shadow (no pun intended) of the much larger color photography market In terms of hardware cameras, scanners, monitors, and printers we've never had it so good. Calibration, profiling, and raw file conversion tools enable accurate descriptions and rendering of grayscale images throughout most stages of the workflow. Can we make a print that matches what we see on-screen Well, the devil is in the details, as they say, and the degree of control you have over the final output still depends a great deal on your choice of printing software. In the following section, I'll briefly compare three options available to black-and-white photographers with regard to color management. I will revisit the available options in much greater detail in Chapter 6.

Student Representative Handbook for Effective Rewards

As a student representative of Ellie Vayo Photography, you will be given a senior yearbook that contains approximately thirty prints in a variety of poses that you will use to show around your school. You will also be given photo business cards to pass out that offer your classmates 10 off their portrait order. This is a great way to get people excited about their senior portraits We will call you about two weeks after your session to tell you that your prints and photo business cards are in. At that time, please make arrangements to come in and spend 15-30 minutes with us to go over sizes and prices. Remind them to bring your photo business card with them when they come in for their appointment. No card, no credit We will not verbally award you a 15 credit. Tell them that this is our way of knowing that you are doing a good job, and also a tool to evaluate whether the student representative program was effective or not. 6. You can also hand out your photo business cards to friends...