Trick Photography and Special Effects

Trick Photography And Special Effects

Have you ever looked at professional trick photos and wondered why you are not able to get the same fantastic results from your photography? Well believe it or not, there are just a few easy tricks that you have to master in order to start taking photographs that will show the SAME level of amazing quality that professional photographers show! You actually do not need professional, expensive equipment to get that same amazing feel that great trick photos do; all that it takes is Knowledge. You will also learn how to improve your regular photography as well; your overall photographic knowledge will increase as a result of what you've learned! Normally it takes years to move from amateur to professional photographer, but with the skills that you will learn, you don't have to stay stuck in the amateur stage; you can move the professional stage very quickly! Read more...

Trick Photography And Special Effects Overview

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Exposure compensation

One camera control that helps you deal with such a situation is the exposure compensation feature. This option lets you dial in a certain amount of compensation depending on your lighting conditions. Because cameras vary, it's impossible to say exactly how to set up a specific camera, but usually this feature is labeled as Exp. comp. and provides settings in one-third increments. Manufacturers most commonly provide this feature as a control button, or you can find it by navigating through the LCD menu. Choosing negative compensation cuts exposure (increases shutter speed or aperture) while choosing positive compensation boosts it (reduces shutter speed or lens opening).

Using aperture priority mode and depth of field

If you look at the dial on most dSLR cameras, you'll probably find an Av or an A printed on it. (Canon usually uses Av, whereas Nikon uses just A.) The A stands for Aperture mode, and the Av stands for Aperture Value. Both are commonly referred to as aperture priority mode. Aperture values are also called f stops.When your camera is in Av (or A) mode, it determines the shutter speed according to what aperture you've chosen to give you the best exposure. If you have a camera that lets you shoot manually (meaning it has a manual mode, a shutter priority mode, and an aperture priority mode), then you can fine-tune just how much of your image is sharp. First, you set your camera to aperture priority mode.Then you set an aperture value.Values (or f stops) run in incremental steps starting from f 1.4 and ending at f 64 the lowest values correspond to the widest aperture openings, making less in your frame sharp, and the highest values correspond to the narrowest openings, making more in the...

High Shutter Speed Considerations

The first thing you need to know is just how brief your exposure must be to stop the action. You also need to know that the required shutter speed will increase with the angle at which the subject is approaching or going away from the camera. It is easier to freeze the action of a cyclist who's heading straight toward you than one who is passing perpendicular to you.

Exposure compensation for closeup photography

Camera exposure compensation may be necessary when the object is within about ten focal lengths from the lens. Various methods are possible, using the values of f and v (if known), or magnification m, if this can be measured. Mathematically, it is easier to use a known magnification in the determination of the correction factor for either the effective f-number N' or the corrected exposure duration t'. The required relationships are, respectively

How Shutter Speeds Depict Movement In Your Images

While apertures allow you to control the amount of the scene that appears sharp, shutter speeds determine how moving subjects are recorded. A fast shutter speed freezes action, while a slow speed records it as a blur. A very fast shutter speed freezes water movement and captures its detail. A slow shutter speed blurs movement but some shape remains. The procedure for setting shutter-priority AE is very similar to how you'd select aperture-priority AE. Turn the dial to Tv or S and then rotate the input dial to select the shutter speed. All displays only show the denominator of a fraction, so l 250sec appear as 250, while whole seconds are usually displayed with a, e.g two seconds would be 2. Shutter-priority AE is often labelled as Tv (Time value) or S on the exposure mode dial and the LCD monitor. See above for four examples. Once selected, rotate the input dial to select your shutter speed, press the shutter release halfway and the camera automatically sets the aperture. AVOID CAMERA...

Use Aperture Priority Mode or Ma nual Mode to Control Depth of Field

16 ) Aperture priority mode is an extremely powerful and creative way to control the look of your photographs. When I shoot using available light, I almost always have my camera set to aperture priority mode (the symbol for it is usually A or Av, depending on the camera model). The reason I like this mode is because I like to control the depth of field in my photos. Aperture priority adjusts your shutter speed for you based on your camera's meter readings as you change the f-stop on your camera. Shutter Speed unrecorded

Use Shutter Priority Mode to Control Your Shutter Speed

18 J Shutter priority mode is another powerful shooting mode. It allows you to keep the shutter speed at one specific value, and as you change the shutter speed, the aperture will adjust automatically based on what the meter reads in the scene. The symbol for it is usually S or Tv, depending on the camera model. The advantage of this mode is that it can help you keep your images sharp, which is important when photographing active pets, children, and others. Try setting the shutter speed to between X25 sec and X00 sec to begin. If you choose too fast a shutter speed, and if your camera can't set the aperture wide enough to expose the scene properly, everything will be too dark. In that case, add light, increase the ISO, or lower the shutter speed until your photo is properly exposed.

Deptii of Field vs Shutter Speed

All field photography involves compromise. Exactly which combination of aperture and shutter speed you should use depends on a wide variety of factors whether you're photographing static landscapes or animate action whether or not the wind is moving the subject how long a lens you're using and or the magnification rate at which you're working and how sharp or how soft you want the resulting image to be. There is no one correct answer for all situations rather, you must decide how you want the photograph to appear and then take the appropriate steps. The most basic decision of all is what shutter speed aperture combination you should use. Do you need to stop action (with a fast shutter speed requiring a large aperture), or do you need a lot of depth of field (achieved by using a small aperture necessitating a slow shutter speed) Depth of field refers to the section of a photograph that appears to be in sharp focus. While the overcast light kept the contrast down, it also meant that I...

Mastering shutter speed

Along with aperture, the shutter speed is the second setting that needs to be correct for an accurate exposure. It's actually slightly misnamed - the point isn't the actual speed that the shutter opens or closes, but the length of time it stays open for. The shutter itself is simply a mechanism that prevents light reaching the camera's sensor, opening for a predetermined time when you take a shot. Unlike the tricky concept of f-numbers with exposure settings (see previous page), shutter speed is simply expressed in seconds or, more often, in fractions of a second. Most shots are taken with a shutter speed of (one two-hundred-and-fiftieth) of a second. Like the aperture setting, the shutter speed has secondary effects on the picture besides simply determining that the correct amount of light reaches the sensor. A photo is a captured moment in time, but of course varying the shutter speed varies the length of the moment. You can use that fact to great creative effect, but you also need...

Shutter speed vs ISO speed

This is a balancing act based on achieving the best balance for minimizing noise. Joe's basic rule of thumb is that he always shoots at the lowest possible ISO setting (in order to minimize noise) depending on the working conditions. If he has a tripod, he'll shoot at long shutter speeds to minimize noise because digital capture is not subject to exposure or color-balance reciprocity problems that plague traditional film capture. Reciprocity refers to the inverse relationship between the intensity and duration of light that determines the correct exposure of film. During long exposures, film responds much more slowly than usual, and this affects both the color and the light sensitivity of film. This is why color film that is pushed in the photo lab to higher ISO settings than what it was designed for sometimes exhibits a color shift in a certain direction. The film's lightsensitive grains must be hit by a certain number of light photons within a certain time frame in order for the...

Examples of Shutter Speed Control

Stopping motion or accentuating motion is a control at your command. An old rule of thumb in sports photography goes like so To stop a player in motion, use a shutter speed of at least 1 500 of a second. Anything less will start showing some blur. On the other hand, if you're photographing a waterfall, you could slow the shutter speed down to 1 15 of a second to emphasize the motion of the water. The photo of the Olympic kayakers is an example of slowing the shutter speed down, here to about 1 15 of a second, and adjusting the aperture accordingly. Instead of an image showing the boat stopped in the wave and the motion of the paddlers' arms frozen, a fluid-looking image was the result. The power of the stroke can almost be felt in the photo. The detail of the water is softened and muted by the long exposure, focusing attention on the two boatsmen. I use this technique when I want to convey a sense of motion in the image and create a more painted look. scenarios. Photographing...

Creative exposure compensation

Exposure compensation is primarily used to achieve correct exposure. However, the creative process of photography sometimes requires an exposure that is not correct to produce the desired result. The degree of compensation is only limited by the photographer's imagination. Interesting results can be achieved by purposely under- or overexposing regardless of SBR.

Shutter speeds and movement

If you want to 'freeze' action subjects you will need a camera offering faster shutter speeds. The movements of athletes in most sporting activities can be frozen using a shutter speed of 1 250 second or faster. Cycle races and autocar events will probably need 1 1000 or 1 2000 second to lose all blur, but much depends on the direction of movement and how big the moving subject appears in your picture, as well as its actual speed. Someone running across your picture will record more blurred than the same runner moving directly towards you. Filling up your picture with just part of the figure - by shooting close or using a telephoto lens - again exaggerates movement and needs a shorter shutter speed to freeze detail. Figure 12.1 Using a fast shutter speed can freeze the movement of subjects in your photographs. Figure 12.1 Using a fast shutter speed can freeze the movement of subjects in your photographs. priority' ('Tv' or 'S'), pick a fast shutter speed and the camera will do the...

How Aperture and Shutter Speed Work Together

In photography, the term Exposure Value (EV) is commonly referred to as a move, either up or down, of one 'stop'. The difference between each aperture setting is one stop or one EV, i.e. f8 and f11 is a difference of one 'stop' or one EV. The difference in shutter speed between 1 125th sec and 1 250th sec is one stop one EV. You will see that both f numbers and shutter speeds are sequenced in a series of 2 1 ratios, and this is where the two work in harmony with each other. A setting of f8, at 1 60th sec, lets the same amount of light into the camera as a setting of f5.6 at 1 125th sec, and f4 at 1 250th sec, and so on. You will see that the latter is one f-stop lower and one shutter speed higher than the former. Shutter Speed You may recall numerous occasions when your Digital SLR camera has displayed various shutter speeds or apertures, such as f12 or f10. Likewise for shutter speeds, you may notice 1 45th sec or 1 180th sec for example. Take note that these are 'stops' in one third...

Shutter Speed Control

Shutter speeds can be controlled through the Shutter Priority mode you choose the shutter speed via the command dial, and then the camera automatically selects the aperture. Or you can set it in Manual mode. The selected shutter speed generally appears in the data-panel readout display. As the shutter speed increases, the amount of light reaching the sensor decreases. For example, a shutter speed of 1 125 of a second lets in twice the amount of light as a shutter speed of 1 250 of a second and half the amount of a shutter speed of 1 60 of a second. Slow shutter speeds will allow moving objects to blur, while high shutter speeds can be used to freeze motion. Box 3.4 Shutter Speed Rule Using a shutter speed equal to or greater than the focal length of the lens will help to ensure sharp, shake-free exposures. To avoid blurry images caused by camera shake, follow the shutter speed rule Use a shutter speed equal to or greater than the focal length of the lens. For example, when...

TTL Flash and Shutter Speed Synchronization

The flash needs to fire while the shutter is open. This is called synchronization. Flash synchronizes with the shutter over a wide range of shutter speeds, from the longest shutter speed up to a faster shutter speed traditionally referred to as X. With advances in shutter materials and designs, depending on the size of the digital sensor, many dSLR cameras can now synchronize with flash as fast as 1 250 or 1 500 sec. Refer to your camera instruction manual to find X for your particular camera. If you use a shutter speed faster than X, the flash will fire while the shutter blades are closing, resulting in a partially dark image. With vertical-operating shutters, the top portion of the picture will show a flash lit image and the bottom part will be darker. Normal flash synchronization fires the flash at the beginning of the exposure. Other flash synchronization options, such as Slow Speed Synchronization, High Speed Synchronization FP Focal Plane Flash, and Rear Curtain Sync Second...

Balancing shutter speed and depth of field

If you're good with money, one of those people who can create a budget, adhere to it, and come to the end of the month with enough money to pay the bills, well, then, you won't have a problem balancing shutter speed and aperture selection. The concept of correct exposure remains consistent throughout all combinations of shutter speed and aperture settings. Whatever the combination, whatever the shooting situation, you need to deliver a specific amount of light to the sensor to create a picture that looks good. Like a pair of sibling teenagers, aperture and shutter speed controls vie for your attention. What combination of shutter speed and aperture settings will work for that seashore scenic, the ideal one with waves crashing on the black rocks in the foreground and a freshly whitewashed lighthouse in the background You want enough depth of field to reveal both the rocks and lighthouse sharply, you want details in the rocks and on the lighthouse, and you're determined to freeze the...

Av Aperture Priority Mode

The Aperture Priority mode, or Av (Aperture Value), is where you choose the aperture and the camera selects the shutter speed basically the reverse of the Tv mode. This is a very popular setting for many photographers since it offers the most creative control over depth of field (how much of your image appears in focus). This is my favorite setting when I'm not shooting in the Manual mode, and I have a feeling that you will find it just as useful. In Chapter 2 I discussed the basics of how the aperture works, so you should know that a large aperture (smaller number) equates to more light coming through the lens, and vice versa. The Av mode allows the camera to select the shutter speed. When you use a large aperture, you will end up with a faster shutter speed, and since a smaller aperture allows less light in through the lens, the camera will give a slower shutter speed to compensate. Once you have a solid understanding of how aperture and shutter speed work together, you will have...

Shutter Speed ISO and Focal Length

One of the first considerations I make when I go out to shoot is the quantity of light that I have to work with, which determines the ISO setting I will use. As well as technically controlling the sensor's sensitivity to light, my choice of ISO has a significant impact on my choice of aperture and shutter speed, as well as on my ability to handhold the camera and expect a sharp photograph. Camera shake is the single most common reason for soft photographs, and this problem is made worse by the use of shutter speeds that are too slow. Controlling the ISO is often one of the best ways to eliminate this issue and create tack-sharp photographs. The problem, however, wasn't with the equipment it was with the shutter speeds that I was shooting at. They were often too slow. As I looked at the EXIF data recorded by my digital camera, I began to see that, because I was shooting at slow shutter speeds of 1 30, 1 15, or even slower, my images were subject to camera shake. The slightest...

Finding a way to get the shutter speed you want

As you strive to set a shutter speed that meets your vision, keep one thing in mind. The principle of correct exposure stands firm. (Well, not always. There's an exception to most rules, and below we'll see one way to bend that rule). Your camera meter measures the light reflected from the scene and indicates the amount required for correct exposure then you adjust or your camera adjusts the shutter speed and aperture opening to deliver the correct amount of light to the sensor. So what happens if the amount of light required for correct exposure prevents you from setting the shutter speed you want to use You have several options. All but one work with the principle of exposure, so that means if you want to use a slower shutter speed, you must reduce the amount of light reaching the sensor. Of if you want a faster shutter speed, you must reduce the amount of light required by the sensor or, more difficult increase the amount of light reaching the sensor. Start by setting the shutter...

Aperture Priority Mode

You wouldn't know it from its name, but Aperture Priority mode is one of the most useful and popular of all the professional modes. The mode is one of my personal favorites, and I believe that it will quickly become one of yours, as well. Aperture Priority mode is also deemed a semiautomatic mode because it allows you to once again control one factor of exposure while the camera adjusts for the other.

Understanding the Exposure Compensation Button

This control is quite easy to use once you get used to it. The compensation button is set up in stops of light just like your apertures and shutter speeds. Depending on the camera, the stops might be 1, V, or 1 3 stop intervals. The scale you see has a negative direction (less light) and a positive direction (more light). To move the pixel values to the right, you must add more light by setting positive compensation. If you are getting blinking pixels as shown by the highlight alert and clipping the pixels on the right-hand side, then compensate the exposure by setting negative values to reduce the exposure. Normally, all it takes is one or two adjustments with the exposure compensation control to get the perfect histogram.

Choosing a Shutter Speed to Stop Action

The shutter speed you select for a given photo affects two key parts of your image the overall exposure (when mated with the ISO and f stop parameters) and the relative sharpness of your image in terms of how well subject or camera motion is stopped. A high shutter speed will freeze fast-moving action in front of your camera, and potentially negate any shakiness caused by camera movement. If a shutter speed is not high enough to stop this movement, elements in your image will be stretched and blurred. Creatively, you might actually want this blur in order to add a feeling of motion to your image. So, it's important to choose the right shutter speed to stop action when you want to freeze a moment in time or to allow your subject to flow when that's what you're looking for. practical matter, a shaky camera blurs all of your photograph to more or less the same degree. Objects closer to the camera may, in fact, appear to be blurrier than those located farther away, but the distinction is...

How Shutter Speed Relates to Focal Length

When you shoot a photo on a bright sunny day at the beach, your camera automatically increases the shutter speed to some very high setting, such as 1 1000 of a second. At a high speed like this, you can take a photo while riding a mechanical bull and not get a blurred photo. (Of course, people may wonder why you were riding a mechanical bull at the beach.) The point is, at high shutter speeds, the lens is open for such a short period of time that a little hand movement doesn't hurt the image. A general rule in photography states that for hand-held shots, the shutter speed should be the reciprocal of the lens length (in millimeters). That means that if you shoot a photo using a 400mm lens, you shouldn't shoot at a shutter speed less than 1 400 of a second. Since your digital camera uses a zoom lens that doesn't have readouts in millimeters, let's rephrase the rule and just say that if your camera is zoomed out to the maximum and your shutter speed is set to a relatively slow speed...

Shutter Speeds and Stops a Balancing

Shutter speeds and f-stops work together, like a seesaw, balancing each other out. Remember, our starting point in this discussion was the need to control how much light reaches the image sensor to make a perfectly exposed picture. Therefore, an adjustment in the aperture requires an equal and opposite change in the shutter speed if you want your exposure to remain the same. To look at the same concept from the other direction, any of a variety of combinations of f -stop and shutter speed will give you the same exposure. Given a scene that can be photographed with a perfect exposure using f 8 at 1 125 of a second, the same scene can have the same equivalent exposure at f 11 at 1 60 of a second, or f 5.6 at 1 250 of a second. Choosing the right combination is one of the ways that experienced photographers take artistic control over their pictures. (See Figure 6-7.) See Table 6-1 for guidelines on balancing your f-stops and shutter speeds. Table 6-1 Balancing Shutter Speeds and f-Stops...

Quieksteps using exposure compensation

With the Mode Dial set to any mode in the Creative Zone except manual (M), press the shutter button halfway down to activate the displays, and then hold down the Av Exposure Compensation button with your thumb as you turn the Main Dial to move the marker on the exposure scale displayed in the viewfinder and on the LCD panel. 2. When done, reset exposure compensation to 0 otherwise it will be remembered even when you turn off the camera.

Tip EV Is the Acronym for Exposure Compensation

Okay, it isn't really the right acronym, unless you realize that another name for exposure compensation is exposure value. So, if you can't find the exposure compensation options on your camera, lookfor a button or icon that has EV on it orthe 0 symbol. EXPOSURE COMPENSATION All except the very cheapest digital cameras offer exposure compensation, even if you have a point-and-shoot model with no other features. Essentially, EV will open or close the aperture (the opening in the lens) to let in more light, or cut it down. Any time you suspect that the camera meter isn't reading the scene correctly, or you want to experiment with alternative exposures without changing f -stops or shutter speeds, use various EV values. Depending on your camera, exposure compensation will be implemented in a variety of ways, including the following In the menu in the LCD viewfinder, select the exposure compensation option and use buttons to increase or decrease the value. Exposure compensation is usually...

Understanding Shutter Speed Settings

Although digital cameras can select any fraction of a second for an exposure, there are a series of settings that have traditionally been used when you set it yourself (which you can't do on many digital cameras). These shutter speed settings are arranged in a sequence so that each setting lets in half as much light as the next slowest setting and twice as much as the next fastest. The traditional shutter speeds (listed from the fastest to the slowest speeds) include 1 1000, 1 500, 1 250, 1 125, 1 60, 1 30, 1 15, 1 8, 1 4, 1 2, and 1 second. Although speeds faster than 1 second are fractions of a second most cameras display them without the numerator. For example, 1 2 second is displayed as 2.

Shutter Speed and motion capture

Like with aperture, shutter speed affects more than just the amount of light. It also affects motion in a photo, which makes sense, when you think about it. Your camera chip is measuring light as long as the shutter is open. If the shutter is open for a second and if To freeze motion, then, you need to ensure that your subject moves across the frame as little as possible while the shutter is open. How far something 'moves across the frame' depends on how fast something is moving, and how wide a lens you are using. Figure 3-8 is an example where something moves very fast in the frame, but the 1 2500 sec shutter speed helps freeze the motion. It's worth noting that as far as motion blur goes, it's not just your subject which might move. If your camera moves, that also introduces motion blur also (often known as 'camera blur' or 'camera shake'). The rule of thumb for which speeds you can shoot hand-held (i.e. without using a tripod) is that your lens focal length should be the same as...

Using exposure compensation to enhance highlights

Sometimes your camera will not get the exposure right in your shot.You can correct your exposure using the exposure compensation setting that is usually controlled by a dial on the top of your camera. On most cameras you can read the values (which range from -2 to 2) on your LCD screen. In pictures where you have very bright areas, you can make sure that the highlights keep their detail by lowering your exposure compensation a stop or two. However, using exposure compensation isn't as important as it used to be. If you shoot in Raw, you can change your exposure compensation after the fact in post-processing.

Using Shutter Speed And Aperture Together

Both shutter speed and aperture affect the exposure, the total amount of light reaching the image sensor, and so control a picture's lightness or darkness. The shutter speed controls the length of time the image sensor is exposed to light and the aperture controls the brightness of that light. You, or the camera's autoexposure system, can pair a fast shutter speed (to let in light for a short time) with a wide aperture (to let in bright light) or a slow shutter speed (long time) with a small aperture (dim light). Speaking of exposure only, it doesn't make any difference which of the combinations is used. But in other ways, it does make a difference, and it is just this difference that gives you some creative opportunities. You're always balancing camera or subject movement against depth of field. This is because a change in one causes a change in the other. Let's see why. Each setting is 1 stop from the next and lets in half or twice the light of the next setting. A shutter speed of 1...

Flash Exposure Compensation

In p, s, a, and m modes, flash exposure compensation can be used to increase or reduce flash output from the level chosen by the camera's flash control system (flash exposure compensation is not available in Digital Vari-Program modes). Flash output can be increased to make the main subject appear brighter, or reduced to prevent unwanted highlights or reflections. As a rule of thumb, positive compensation may be needed when the main subject is darker than the background, negative compensation when the main subject is brighter than the background. Pressing the SU button, rotate the sub-command dial and confirm flash exposure compensation in the control panel or viewfinder. Flash exposure compensation can be set to values between -3 EV (darker) and +1 EV (brighter) in increments of 1 3 EV. At values other than 0, a 02 icon will be displayed in the control panel and viewfinder after you release the button. The current value for flash exposure compensation can be confirmed by pressing the...

The Right Shutter Speed

You must choose a shutter speed that stills both camera and subject movement. If using a tripod, a shutter speed of l5 to 1 60 second should be adequate to stop average subject movement. If you are using electronic flash, you are locked into the flash-sync speed your camera calls for unless you are dragging the shutter. Dragging the shutter means working at a slower-than-flash-sync speed to bring up the level of the ambient light. This effectively creates a balanced flash exposure with the ambient exposure. 35mm SLRs and DSLRs use a focal-plane shutter, which produces an X-sync speed for electronic flash use of V60 to 1 500 second. Using the technique of dragging the shutter you can shoot at any shutter speed slower than the X-sync speed and still maintain flash synchronization. If you shoot at a shutter speed faster than the X-sync speed, the flash will only partially expose the film frame. Outdoors, you should normally choose a shutter speed faster than 1 60 second, because even a...

Understanding Shutter Speeds

Exposure settings are made by changing either the aperture or the shutter speed. The increments at which you change these settings are normally referred to as 'stops'. When you change a setting by a 'stop', you are either doubling or halving the exposure. So for instance, changing from l 500sec to l 250sec doubles the duration of the exposure. As well as full stops, you can also vary exposure in 1 2 or 1 3 stops depending on the camera model you use. The diagram below shows shutter speeds from one second to l 4000sec.

Extended shutter speeds

If the shutter speeds are further reduced information about the subject is eventually lost and the effect of movement may disappear. The technique of very long exposures is often explored in landscape photography where the photographer wants to record the passage of weather or water. For very long exposures the camera can be mounted on a tripod and the shutter fired using a cable release. Small apertures in combination with a slow film or an image sensor set to a low ISO and light reducing filters such as a neutral density filter or polarising filter will extend the shutter speed to seconds or even minutes.

So how do I set fstop shutter speed and ISO

The exact steps you take to change your camera's f-stop, shutter speed, and ISO vary from camera to camera, of course. If your camera offers only automatic exposure, you may not even have any control over these settings. However, even if your camera is fully automatic, you may still have some input over the final exposure you may be able to request a slightly darker or brighter image through a feature called exposure compensation, for example. Keep cruising through this chapter for a look at all the possibilities and then check your manual to see what's possible. If you own a digital SRL, you can choose to work in autoexposure mode, manual exposure mode, or semi-automatic mode, where you select the shutter speed and the camera selects the appropriate f-stop (or vice versa). Some high-end point-and-shoot models also offer manual and semi-automatic exposure modes. Again, the level of control you have in the non-manual modes varies, so again, look for your camera instruction book. Also...

Shutter Speeds A Brief Technical Background

The shutter speed controls the length of time that the media receives exposure to light, or how long the passage through the aperture is open. When you activate the shutter release mechanism, a curtain within the camera opens, leaving nothing between the open lens aperture and the media (the sensor or film) so that light may enter to create the exposure. There are two basic types of shutter mechanisms leaf and focal-plane (also called curtain) shutters. Leaf shutter mechanisms are located within the camera's lens (usually in medium and large format cameras) and focal-plane (curtain) shutters are located inside the camera body just behind the lens in front of the film or sensor plane. Focal-plane shutters are most commonly found in SLR cameras. The two kinds of shutters have several different attributes that are most significant when using flash or strobe. Focal-plane shutters are limited to the flash synch speed or slower in order to record information to the entire picture plane,...

Youre trying to stop action and require a specific shutter speed

In this case, the shutter speed is your top priority, so choosing shutter-priority autoexposure is a good choice. In dim lighting, remember that you may need to raise the ISO value in order to use a really fast shutter speed. You want moving objects to be blurred so that you convey a sense of motion. When shooting fountains and waterfalls, for example, you can give the water a misty look by slowing down the shutter, as shown in Figure 5-9. The shutter speed for the left image was 1 200 second the right image, 1 20 second. Here again, shutter speed is critical to the look of your photo, so shutter-priority autoexposure is the right choice. For a very slow shutter speed, use a tripod or set your camera on something that's not moving (like a rock or a ledge just be careful that your camera doesn't fall off ). If you try to handhold the camera at slow shutter speeds, camera shake during the exposure may result in blurring of the entire scene. control depth of field is via the aperture...

Shutter Speed Effects

Although an exposure can be correct when shooting with either a fast or a long shutter speed, there is a valid reason for selecting one or the other. The shutter speed controls the effect that a moving subject produces frozen in time or softly blurred (see Figure 6.4). A very fast shutter speed, such as 1 2000 sec., freezes the motion of a fast-moving subject. Even a galloping racehorse covers little distance in the 1 2000th of a second that the shutter allows light to strike the Figure 6.4 Very fast shutter speeds render motion as frozen, as in the image on the left made at 1 1000 sec. Long shutter speeds depict motion as blurred, as in the image on the right made at 1 15 sec. while moving the camera in pace with the subject. Figure 6.4 Very fast shutter speeds render motion as frozen, as in the image on the left made at 1 1000 sec. Long shutter speeds depict motion as blurred, as in the image on the right made at 1 15 sec. while moving the camera in pace with the subject.

Exposure compensation dial

The use of an exposure compensation dial is required when the photographer wishes to continue working with an automatic metering system instead of using the manual controls. When using an automatic metering mode the photographer cannot simply adjust the exposure from that indicated by the meter using the aperture or shutter speed. The automatic mode will simply re-compensate for the adjustment. If the camera is not equipped with an exposure compensation dial, compensation may be achieved by altering the film speed. By decreasing the film speed from 100 ISO to 50 ISO the photographer will increase the exposure by one stop. By doubling the film speed the exposure will be decreased by one stop. Films are available in 1 3 stop increments so this allows compensation in 1 3 increments. The disadvantage using the film speed dial is that it is usually not as conveniently situated on the camera, may require an additional button to be depressed before it can be altered and there is usually no...

Exp exposure compensation

This option works in the same way as ordinary exposure compensation. Exposure compensation can be set to values between +2.0 EV (overexposure) and -2.0 EV (underexposure) in increments of ' 3 EV. This item has the same effect as the button changing exposure compensation in the Exp. + - sub-menu changes the value selected with the CZ button, while changing exposure compensation with the CZ button changes the value displayed in the Exp. + - sub-menu. Best-shot selection AE lock (exposure options) Exposure compensation

Shutter speed controls duration of light Set behind the aperture the shutter works

The length of time that the shutter is open is the shutter speed and is measured in seconds and so on. Shutter speeds on the E-PL1 range from 60 seconds to 1 2000 second when you shoot without flash. If you want a shutter speed longer than 60 seconds, manual exposure mode also provides the bulb exposure feature. At this setting, the shutter stays open as long as you press the shutter button. See the bullet point related to the M exposure mode in the section Adjusting aperture and shutter speed, later in this chapter, for details on bulb exposures. If you use the built-in flash, the fastest available shutter speed is 1 160 second. With some compatible external flash units, you can use shutter speeds as fast as 1 2000 second, however. The term ISO is a holdover from film days, when the International Organization for Standardization (thus ISO) rated each film stock according to light sensitivity ISO 100, ISO 200, ISO 400, ISO 800, and so on. On a digital camera, the sensor doesn't...

Shutter speed affects motion

At a slow shutter speed, moving objects appear blurry, whereas a fast shutter speed captures motion cleanly. Compare the fountain water in the photos in Figure 6-4, for example. At a shutter speed of 1 250 second (left photo), the water droplets appear more sharply focused than at 1 60 second (right photo). The additional blur created at the slower shutter speed gives the water an almost misty appearance. The shutter speed you need to freeze action depends on the speed of your subject. If your picture suffers from overall image blur, like you see in Figure 6-5, in which even stationary objects appear out of focus, the camera moved during the exposure which is always a danger when you handhold the camera at slow shutter speeds. The longer the exposure time, the longer you have to hold the camera still to avoid the blur caused by camera shake. How slow is too slow It depends on your physical capabilities and your lens. For reasons that are too technical to get into, camera shake...

Recommendation Exposure Compensation

In digital photography, ideal exposure generates an image that is as bright as possible, without loss of detail in highlight areas. After taking the picture, check the LCD monitor. If necessary, reshoot the image with a different level of exposure compensation for a brighter or darker rendition. When in doubt, err on the side of slight underexposure. Avoid overexposing digital images particu-larly photos with important highlight details because you will lose detail in washed-out areas.

Shutter Speed and Lens Sharpness

The shutter speed that you use is another factor that can enhance or limit the sharpness you can get from your lens. In practice, shutter speed has three functions as part of the picture-taking process. It works in unison with the aperture, ISO sensitivity, and the amount of available illumination to produce the proper exposure. The duration of the exposure, as determined by the shutter speed, is what freezes subject movement in your image, say, as a race car crosses the frame. The shutter speed also counters a second type of movement that of the camera itself. Shaky hands or anything else that causes the camera to wobble, jiggle, or move will certainly reduce sharpness. The focal length of your lens, its shape, and how you hold it can have a direct effect on image sharpness. I won't address the effects of shutter speed on exposure or subject motion. My only concern in this chapter (and in this book) is how shutter speed relates to the results you get with your lenses. Taming camera...

Shutter Speed with Automatic Cameras

Aperture-Priority Mode lets you select the aperture, and computer chips automatically select the shutter speed. Shutter-Priority Mode lets you select the shutter speed, and computer chips automatically select the aperture. Shutter speed to control the sense of speed and motion. But remember this You have to choose between them. As you know, aperture and shutter speed are the twin pillars of exposure. If you set one, the lighting conditions will determine the other. For example, if you decide you want selective focus, you can set a wide aperture. but you can't then also control shutter speed since it will be determined by the lighting condition. Conversely, if you decide you w-ant to express a sense of motion, you can set a slow shutter speed but you can't then also control aperture since it will be determined by the lighting condition. This need to choose can become a problem when you have an AE camera. What if you have an AE camera that provides only aperture priority You can set the...

Freezing action with fast shutter speeds or an accessory flash

Today's athletes are well trained, well conditioned, and well prepared. As a result, they're faster than ever. To freeze their movements, you need to use either a fast shutter speed or an accessory flash unit. Another consideration is the relationship between the direction in which your subject is moving and your camera's orientation. Here are some tips to keep in mind Fast shutter speed If your subject is moving toward you or away from you, you can get by with a slower shutter speed than if your subject is moving across your field of view. It's hard to say generally what a good minimum shutter speed is because the shutter speed needed to stop action varies from sport to sport, but faster is always better. Figure 5-8 shows a speedboat and water skier headed away from the camera. The action was stopped at a relatively slow 1 125 of a second. Figure 5-8 Action headed toward or away from the camera can be stopped at a relatively slow shutter speed.

Controlling shutter speed

How do you get your camera to use a short shutter speed to stop action You might have to check your camera's instruction manual to find the exact controls, but here are the options you should look for 1 Shutter priority mode In shutter priority mode, you can choose the exact shutter speed you want to use (such as 1 500 or 1 1000 of a second), and the camera's automatic exposure control will choose the f-stop lens setting appropriate for that shutter speed. Keep in mind that depending on the lighting conditions, you might not be able to use the very shortest shutter speeds at all. In dim light, for example, your camera might not be able to take a photo at any shutter speed shorter than 1 250 or 1 125 of a second because there simply isn't enough light. 1 Manual shutter speed exposure settings On some cameras, you can set both shutter speed and f-stop manually. If you can do that, it's up to you to interpret your camera's light meter to provide the correct combination of shutter speed...

Stopping action with slow shutter speeds

You can often stop action by using a slower shutter speed, too. Indeed, the effects might be more realistic than the frozen-statue look that you get when sports participants are stopped dead in their tracks. Here are some tips for stopping action at slower shutter speeds Look for momentary pauses. Many times, a sport has a moment of peak action where the action hesitates before movement returns. Think of a jumper on the ascent. At the top of the leap is a moment of stasis hanging in space before dropping back down, as shown in the bicycle shot in Figure 5-9. If you're forced to shoot at too low of a shutter speed, try to time your shot for that moment. Another example is a tennis player, just after tossing the ball to serve. If the server uses a high toss, he or she has to wait for the ball to drop before hitting it. The tennis player up at the net is another example. Although the racket and ball might be moving very quickly, the athlete's body usually isn't traveling very far or...

Adjusting aperture and shutter speed

KBEfl For still photography, you can adjust aperture and shutter speed only in P, A, S, and M exposure modes. To get started, press the up-arrow key, labeled in Figure 6-19. As soon as you press the arrow, all the current camera settings that are adjustable via the Live Control display appear, as shown in the figure. What happens next and the technique you use to adjust f-stop and shutter speed depends on the exposure mode

Exploring Shutter Speeds

Most of us have been taught that taking a good picture involves stopping all the action so that we can clearly see the subject, which means using a shutter speed of 1 125 of a second or higher. This approach is best typified by photographer Henri Cartier-Bresson's concept of The Decisive Moment (1952) in which he stated, There is nothing in this world that does not have a decisive moment. To me, photography is the simultaneous recognition, in a fraction of a second, of the significance of an event as well as of a precise organization of forms that give that event its proper expression. The decisive moment can be thought of as the height of a formal visual performance, capturing the precise single instant in which the subject reveals its essence within the defined and formalized confines of the picture space. While Cartier-Bresson was a master of this picture-making strategy, not all photographs have to be about distinctly isolated moments of time. Rather, it is also possible that...

Tweaking autoexposure results with Exposure Compensation

When you set your camera to the P, A, or S shooting modes, you can enjoy the benefits of autoexposure support but retain some control over the final exposure. If you think that the image the camera produced is too dark or too light, you can use the Exposure Compensation feature, which is sometimes called EV Compensation. (The EV stands for exposure value.) Exposure Compensation is stated in EV values, as in EV +2.0. Possible values range from EV +3.0 to EV -3.0. Exposure Compensation is especially helpful for scenes like the one in Figure 6-23, where the light comes from behind the subject and the foreground and background are very different in brightness. For this photo, the camera was set to Digital ESP metering, which analyzes the entire scene to calculate exposure. Most times, this metering mode works fine. But in this photo, the brightness of the sky and the clock caused the camera to select an exposure that left the part of the scene that was my main interest the red letters of...

Use higher shutter speeds A

Higher shutter speed typically twice or four times as fast as the rule of thumb speed can reduce the effects of camera shake. I have a front-heavy 500mm lens that simply can't be hand-held at 1 500 second, but which produces acceptable results in that mode at 1 2000 second. When I'm using a 24mm wide-angle focal length, a shutter speed of 1 125th second is usually sufficient for carefully snapped off grab shots (but I'll still use a tripod or monopod at that shutter speed for architectural or landscape photos). Unfortunately, the shutter speeds available to you are dictated by the amount of available light and the aperture you want to use. Those 1 250 or 1 500 second speeds may or may not be available to you. It's easy enough to switch from 1 125 second at f 11 to 1 250 second at f 8, when using a normal or wide-angle lens that still provides adequate depth-of-field at the wider aperture. But if you're already shooting at 1 125th at f 2.8, gaining a faster shutter speed might require...

Flash and Slow Shutter Speed

Most digital cameras have a slow sync mode, which automatically combines flash with slow shutter speeds to capture both the subject and background. Combining flash with a slow shutter speed allows you to Use your flash exposure compensation mode to increase or decrease the flash output. Usually increasing the flash output makes the main subject come forward and appear brighter. Reducing the output helps to prevent unwanted highlights and or reflections. Generally, positive compensation (+) is used when the principal subject is darker than the surroundings, whereas negative compensation ( ) is used when the main subject is brighter than the background. Using an optional auxiliary flash unit will increase your working options. A basic starting point is to cut the ISO sensitivity by one-half and use this new rating to take a normal exposure reading of the scene (ambient light). Set your flash with the same modified ISO rating. Determine the flash exposure based on the distance of the key...

Creative use of shutter speed

A neutral density filter may be needed to achieve a long shutter speed on a bright day (see pages 60-61 for ideas). For extremely long shutter speeds using the B (Bulb) setting, refer to the section on open-shutter photography on pages 166-167. A long shutter speed coupled with perfect timing blurs the pedestrian's moving body to invisibility, leaving only the one motionless foot firmly planted on the ground during his stride. Photographer Otto Steinert. A fast shutter speed freezes peak action, leaving the wrestlers forever mid-fall while the necessarily wide aperture puts the crowd into soft focus. Photographer David G Prakel. A fast shutter speed freezes peak action, leaving the wrestlers forever mid-fall while the necessarily wide aperture puts the crowd into soft focus. Photographer David G Prakel. Shutter speed gives you mastery of time instead of blurring a moving subject you could consider freezing the motion. When experimenting, it comes as a surprise how short a shutter...

Everyday shutter speeds

Shutter speeds ranging from 1 60 second to 1 250 second are like your everyday work clothes. They're serviceable but nothing fancy. Quite simply, they get the job done. And, because you'll use these shutter speeds frequently for everyday photography, you'll likely become as comfortable with this range as you are with your favorite T-shirt and jeans. Of course, just as your everyday clothes aren't appropriate for every occasion, these everyday shutter speeds won't be suitable for every photograph you take. You dress up for special times, and you'll also occasionally want to stretch your shutter speed range up, too, so it includes a setting of 1 500 second. That little bump in speed might be just enough to stop most of the everyday events that are just a bit too fast for the relaxed attitude of 1 60 to 1 250. These shutter speeds seem custom-made for everyday events and activities. They are the shutter speeds to use for snapshots at summer camp, on vacations, and for impromptu...

Adjusting Exposure Compensation Using The i BUTTON

Use the Multi-selector to move the cursor to the Exposure Compensation position and press OK. It should be noted that any exposure compensation will remain in place even after turning the camera off and then on again. Don't forget to reset it once you have successfully captured your image. Also, exposure compensation only works in the Program, Shutter Priority, Aperture Priority, and Manual modes. Changing between these four modes will hold the compensation you set while switching from one to the other. When you change the mode dial to one of the automatic scene modes, the compensation will set itself to zero. If you want to use Exposure Compensation while using the Manual shooting mode, you need to use the i button method described above to make the change. This is due to the fact that Exposure Compensation button acts as the Aperture Change button when the mode is set to Manual.

Tip Experiment with Shutter Speeds and Stops

As we explained in Chapter 6, the f-stop and shutter speed combination you choose will define how much of your photo is in sharp focus and whether or not the picture stops or blurs action. Play with the camera's controls, taking the same portrait or scene using different settings. Then, once you have the photos in your computer, study both the ones that you love and those that failed, checking their metadata (see Chapter 5) to see what shutter speed and f-stop were used for the capture. By experimenting like this, you'll learn a lot about photography, as well as increase your chances of getting one great photo out of the entire series. Professionals call this bracketing and use it as an insurance policy on important shoots. Some digital cameras have auto-bracketing capability.

Combinations of Shutter Speed Aperture and ISO

Ifour flash exposure is our dominant light source and the ambient light levels are low in comparison, we can (within a reasonable range) choose any settings and expect our TTL flash metering to give us a correct exposure. Our aperture, shutter speed, and ISO choices will affect how our available light appears in our final image. Obviously, our depth of field and noise characteristics will also change. Still, our TTL flash exposure will remain the same.

You may have to shoot at a slower shutter speed or wider lens aperture than anticipated

There are two drawbacks to using an overhead card. First, you will need to have at least one assistant along to hold the card in place over the subject. Second, using the overhead card lowers the overall light level, meaning that you may have to shoot at a slower shutter speed or wider lens aperture than anticipated.

Shutter speeds for sharp pictures while handholding the camera

You can counteract the blur from camera shake by using a fast shutter speed. How fast That depends on your steadiness, your quality stringency, and the type of lens you're using. A longstanding rule of thumb guides you to use a shutter speed equal to the inverse of the focal length of the lens. For example, with a 50mm lens, you would use a shutter speed of 1 50 second (or faster). 1. For traditional, non-stabilized lenses, use a shutter speed approximating the focal length of the lens 1 50 second for a 50mm lens, 1 200 second for a 200mm lens. 2. For a lens with image-stabilization technology, use a shutter speed of 1 4 the focal length of the lens 1 15 second for a 50mm lens, 1 50 second for a 200mm lens, and so forth. 3. To truly prevent blur from camera shake, use a shutter speed twice as fast as recommended in the first two rules. Number 3, my own rule of thumb, doesn't take chances that's because I want you to be able to make sharp enlargements. And given the exceptional quality...

How to find your personal steadiness shutter speed

Finally, test your personal steadiness quotient by taking a series of pictures at increasingly faster shutter speeds and then review them to see what shutter speed you require to get sharp pictures. Here's how. Do your test on a sunny day. Find a fairly flat, detailed subject that's at least twenty feet away. A brick wall or a large sign with sharp lettering would work well. You want a flat subject so the changes in depth of field from varying the aperture don't influence your perception of blur. Set the ISO to 200. Set your camera to Shutter-Priority. If you're using a zoom lens, set it to 100mm as a nice mid-range setting. Focus carefully. Because you're doing the test on a sunny day, you may have trouble achieving the slowest shutter speed needed for the test. If that's the case, attach a polarizing filter when you need to use a slower shutter speed. For convenience, either take notes or put a small sign in the picture denoting the shutter speed you are using. Alternatively, you...

Combining Shutter Speed And Aperture

As said before, the correct exposure is achieved by choosing the right combination of shutter speed and aperture. This is done by establishing the light level with either a hand held light meter or one built into the camera. These devices measure the amount of available light and give a reading which is a combination of shutter speed and aperture. On a hand held meter a dial shows what aperture to use if you want to use a different shutter speed than that indicated. Let's assume the given combination of shutter speed and aperture to achieve correct exposure is 1 125th shutter speed and Aperture F8 The same amount of light will fall on the film if the shutter speed were halved to 1 60th and the aperture were stopped down The effect of changing shutter speed The faster the shutter speed, the more you will be able to FREEZE the action and get sharp results of fast moving subjects. With slower shutter speeds you will have to hold the camera steadier to get sharp results.

Taming Bright Skies With Exposure Compensation

The one way to tell if you have blown out your highlights is to check the Highlight Alert, or blinkies, feature on your camera (see the How I Shoot section in Chapter 4). When you take a shot where the highlights are exposed beyond the point of having any detail, that area will blink in your LCD display. It is up to you to determine if that particular area is important enough to regain detail by altering your exposure. If the answer is yes, then the easiest way to go about it is to use some exposure compensation.

Set the shutter speed

Press the up-arrow key to highlight the shutter speed, and then press the up- or down-arrow key to adjust the value. After you select the shutter speed, the camera selects the aperture (f-stop) necessary to produce a good exposure. The shutter speed you need depends on how fast your subject is moving, so you have to experiment. Another factor that affects your ability to stop action is the direction of subject motion. A car moving toward you can be stopped with a lower shutter speed than one moving across your field of view. Generally speaking, 1 500 second should be plenty for all but the fastest subjects speeding hockey players, race cars, or boats, for example. For slower subjects, you can even go as low as 1 250 or 1 125 second. Figure 8-6 Use a fast shutter speed to freeze action. Figure 8-6 Use a fast shutter speed to freeze action. If the aperture value blinks after you set the shutter speed, the camera can't select an f-stop that will properly expose the photo at that shutter...

Shutter Speed And Camera Shake

If you can't use a tripod because of the shooting conditions, use the fastest shutter speed appropriate to the circumstances. How fast The books usually tell you not to hand-hold a normal lens under 1 60 of a second. Our advice Don't handhold a normal lens under 1 125 or even 1 250 second if you can avoid it. The safe hand-held speed also depends on the focal length of your lens. The longer the lens, the more vibration will show at a given shutter speed. The rule-of-thumb is that your slowest

Understanding Exposure Compensation

Exposure compensation is a feature of an SLR camera which allows you to adjust the exposure measured by its light meter. Usually this range of adjustment goes from between (plus) + 2 to (minus) 2 EV in one-third EV (1 3rd) increments. This means that you can adjust the exposure measured by the light meter within the camera by forcing it to allow more light in (plus + exposure compensation) or to allow less light in (minus exposure compensation). Depending on how your SLR deals with exposure compensation, it may adjust the aperture whilst maintaining the shutter speed or it may adjust the shutter speed whilst maintaining the aperture. On both Nikon and Canon SLRs, the exposure compensation button looks like a plus and minus sign (+ ). If you own a Nikon, press the exposure compensation button and turn the dial to the left to brighten up the image, whereas turning it to the right will decrease exposure and darken it. If you own a Canon SLR, it is the opposite of Nikon. Turning your main...

For nighttime city pics experiment with a slow shutter speed

Assuming that cars or other vehicles are moving through the scene, the result is neon trails of light, like those you see in Figure 8-9. Shutter speed for this image was ten seconds. The longer your shutter speed, the blurrier the motion trails. This technique also can produce some good results in city scenes that feature lighted fountains flip back to Chapter 3 and take a peek at Figure 3-13 for an example shot at 1 10 second. Figure 8-8 For misty water movement, use a slow shutter speed (and tripod).

Understanding Aperture Shutter Speed And

Exposure is the process whereby the light reflecting off a subject reflects through an opening in the camera lens for a defined period of time onto the camera sensor. The combination of the lens opening, shutter speed, and sensor sensitivity is used to achieve a proper exposure value (EV) for the scene. The EV is the sum of the components necessary to properly expose a scene. A relationship exists between these factors that is sometimes referred to as the Exposure Triangle. Shutter speed Controls the length of time that light is allowed to hit the sensor. ISO numbers for the 7D start at 100 and then double in sensitivity as you double the number. So 200 is twice as sensitive as 100. The camera can be set to use 1 2- or 1 3-stop increments, but for ISO just remember that the base numbers double 100, 200, 400, 800, and so on. There are also a wide variety of shutter speeds that you can use. The speeds on the 7D range from as long as 30 seconds to as short as 1 8000 of a second. When...

Using The Flash Exposure Compensation Feature To Change The Flash Output

Press the ISO Flash Exposure Compensation button to get to the compensation setup mode. 5. The Flash Exposure Compensation feature does not reset itself when the camera is turned off, so whatever compensation you have set will remain in effect until you change it. Your only clue to knowing that the flash output is changed will be the presence of the Flash Exposure Compensation symbol in the viewfinder. It will disappear when there is zero compensation set.

Using High ISO Speeds to Photograph in Low Lit Places

Photographing a puppet show in a small theater requires that you sit in the front row, which is what I did to get the image here. The Mandalay Marionettes Theater is dark, no question about it. The only light that shines is on the stage where the puppets perform. By setting my camera to a very high ISO speed, I was able to get a sharp picture because it allowed me to achieve a higher shutter speed (than if the ISO speed were lower) at a reasonable f-stop.

Learn To Unleash The Power Of Every Shutter Speed

Shutter speed is an integral part of exposure. Learn to use it creatively, and you unlock the magic that transforms an ordinary subject into a work of art. From the blazing 1 8000 second that captures each feather in a hummingbird's wing to the lazy half-second that turns a fireworks display into a color-rich patchwork, shutter speed allows you to freeze time. Derek Doeffinger teaches you to harness the power that separates the amateur from the professional. Unleash the power of shutter speed from 1 8000 second to 8 hours Discover how to achieve different effects with various aperture shutter speed combinations Use filters, lenses, tripods, and other tools to manipulate shutter speed

Shutter Speed And Lens Aperture

Down for depth of field, since the entire scene is effectively at infinity. (You may prefer to stop down one or two f stops to obtain the critical aperture of the lens for the sharpest image.) Make necessary exposure adjustments by varying the shutter speed. With your lens wide open, you can use the fastest shutter speed that conditions will allow. Thus you are better able to reduce image motion. For air-to-air photography, depth of field may be a factor you have to contend with, especially when you are making close-ups. You may have to stop down and use a slower shutter speed to get the required depth of field. This is not much of a problem because the photo bird (aircraft in which you are present) and the target, usually another plane, are flying at about the same speed and very little movement of the subject is apparent. You should use the fastest shutter speed possible to compensate for vibration of the aircraft in which you are flying.

Determining a stopaction shutter speed

What shutter speed is fast enough to freeze your six-year-old as she wobbles away on her roller blades Your skateboarding teen perfecting a One-footed Ollie A horse leaping over a timber jump or a waverunner, throttle open full, slashing toward the finish line Several motion and photographic variables not just subject speed impact this decision. We'll cover them. But to help you stop most action most of the time, let's use a chart based on miles per hour to guide you. We're going to assume you're using a focal length of about 200mm and that the subject fills about one-third or less of the viewfinder or the picture area of your LCD. With those assumptions, the shutter speeds given in Table 5-1 will prevent blur from both subject movement and camera shake inherent in using a medium telephoto lens. Table 5-1 Action-stopping shutter speeds Table 5-1 Action-stopping shutter speeds Minimum shutter speed based on direction of motion *With these shutter speeds, avoid blur from camera shake by...

Bob Barclay Shows Three Ap Readers How To Shoot Great Action Pictures Using Fast Shutter Speeds Bob Aylott Reports

Right By using a very high shutter speed, Colin has frozen this biker travelling at more than 90mph 'To begin with, I was filled with anticipation because the action was happening all around me. I found it difficult at the start, and it took time to get used to shooting only on high shutter speeds. I would have preferred to use slow speeds with panning techniques to show creative movement, but that wasn't the challenge. However, once I got into the rhythm of the race I found the fast shooting process easy. I loved photographing the action, and the discipline of deleting the not-so-good pictures as I went along really worked for me. I used the middle part of the 55-200mm zoom for most of the day and never went up to 200mm or down to 55mm. I stayed on ISO 400 and varied the shutter speeds between 1 450sec and 1 lOOOsec, depending on the shadow areas or the direction of the sun. 'I've never covered a fast race and this is the first time I have used high shutter speeds. Looking at the...

Setting Shutter Speed

Shutter speed shutter speed shutter speed shutter speed On most manual or older model cameras, the shutter speed is indicated on a dial located on top of the camera body (left). To set it, you turn the dial until the desired speed is indicated next to a marker. With many modern cameras, the shutter speed setting is displayed on an LCD screen you change it by turning a control wheel (center). Many camera models show the selected shutter speed in the camera's viewfinder (right). The choice of shutter speed controls subject movement. Goodman uses a shutter speed of 1 4 here, which means the shutter is open while the wrestlers are in motion and also the camera is in motion because that speed is too slow for steadily handholding it. The blurred effect serves to enhance the feeling of intensity of these Cuban athletes. John Goodman courtesy of June Bateman Gallery, New York, NY. Full shutter speed settings let in half as much or double the light of the settings that precede and follow them....

Deciding When To Use Exposure Compensation

The exposure compensation feature is useful when your chosen automatic metering does not get the exposure you want. Exposure compensation actually compensates the automatic metering based upon your judgment to get it to more accurately give you the desired exposure. Also, you can use exposure compensation to get a creative exposure to suit your artistic view. When you look at Figures 12.3 (CP 12.3) through Figure 12.9 (CP 12.9), you can see how much difference a small change in exposure (even 1 3 of a stop) can make to a photo. An exposure compensation feature allows you to enjoy the benefits of the subtle, but important, differences in exposure.

What effect does the shutter speed have

In addition to exposure time, the shutter speed also influences the way movement is depicted. With fast shutter speeds, a speeding car can be frozen as it races past. Alternatively, a slow shutter speed lets you blur the action - giving an even greater impression of speed. Slow shutter speeds are also required for shooting low light shots, such as night-time cityscapes. In Shutter Priority mode, the exposure time is manually

Selecting Your Shutter Speed

Your choice of shutter speed to photograph motion depends on four factors 1. Speed of moving object. Obviously, the shutter speed required to stop the movement of a marathon runner is a lot less than the shutter speed required to stop the movement of a speeding bullet. You need to use a shutter speed that's appropriate to the movement of the object. Stopping* a fleeing rabbit requires a lot faster shutter speed than stopping a fleeing turtle.

Flash Exposure Compensation Control

Some cameras (and accessory flash units discussed later) include a feature for reducing the intensity of flash. Some manufacturers refer to this control as Flash Exposure Compensation or FEC, my own preferred term other manufacturers call it a flash power or flash output control. It can be useful for reducing flash intensity for a gentler burst of light that fills in shadows but does not overpower the sunlight. Experiment in outdoor photography with a -0.5 and a -1 setting you'll soon know which works best with your own camera. FEC can also be useful in extreme backlighting. In such situations, the subject may not be adequately bright unless you set a +0.5 or a +1 factor. And try the following advanced technique with people against a bright background of sand, surf, or sky. Set the camera's exposure compensation control (for ambient light, as discussed earlier) to -0.5 so the background will not be excessively bright. Then set the FEC to +0.5 or +1 to ensure that the subject will be...

Shutter Speed And Motion

To make a sharp picture of a subject in motion, you need a fast enough shutter speed to freeze the motion. How fast is fast enough This depends on several things. The right shutter speed is the speed at which you get the effect you want - the shutter speed that helpsyou express your theme. 3. Distance from the moving object. The closer the camera is to the moving object, the larger the image of the object will be on the film. The larger the image on the film, the faster it will move across the frame. Look at the next two photos. They were taken with the same lens at the same shutter speed - 1 60 second. The only difference is that the first was shot from 20 feet away and the second, from 40 feet away. To compare the blurring of the image, we have enlarged the motorcycle in both to the same size. Using a longer lens is equivalent to moving in closer to the moving object. As you already know, if you move in closer, the moving object will be more blurred in the image. Look at the next...

Compose your picture and set the film speed lens aperture and shutter speed

The other light-controlling setting is shutter speed, a measurement of how long the shutter (a curtain or set of blades located between the lens and the Shutter, shutter speed pages 57-60 film) opens up to allow film to be exposed. The most commonly used shutter speeds are indicated as fractions of a second a slow shutter speed (1 30) lets in light for a much longer period of time than a fast speed (1 1000). The job of the light meter is to provide the right combination of f-stop and shutter speed to achieve correct exposure. In fully automatic cameras, or cameras in a program autoexposure mode (P), the camera sets the f-stop and shutter speed for you, often displaying the chosen settings in its viewfinder or LCD panel. In nonautomatic cameras, or cameras set in manual mode (M), you'll have to set f-stop and shutter speed yourself with guidance from the meter. Many cameras offer various other semiautomatic exposure modes, described later.

Shutter speed

Shutter speed is measured, for the most part, in fractions of a second. Most cameras offer a range of 1 8,000 second to 30 seconds. Your camera also may have a bulb mode, in which the shutter remains open as long as you hold down the shutter release button. Traditionally, shutter speeds have been adjusted in full-stop increments 1 1,000, 1 500, 1 250, 1 125, 1 60, 1 30, 1 15, 1 8, 1 4, and 1 2 second. So, when you increase the shutter speed from 1 60 to 1 125 second, you're letting half as much light reach the film or sensor. When you decrease the shutter speed from 1 60 to 1 30 second, you're letting twice as much light reach the film or sensor. Today's generation of cameras allow you to choose intermediate shutter speeds such as 1 45 or 1 90 second, which provide you the means to refine your exposure in increments as small as one-third or one-half stops. Staying aware of my shutter speed helps ensure I get a sharp photograph when I quickly raise my camera to capture a street scene...

O Shutter Speeds

You should choose a shutter speed that stills both camera and subject movement. If you are using a tripod and shooting indoors, 30- 60 second should be adequate to stop average subject movement. If you are using electronic flash, you are locked into the flash-sync speed your camera calls for (unless you are dragging the shutter to bring up the ambient light level). When working outdoors, you should generally choose a shutter speed faster than 1 60 second, because slight breezes can cause the subjects' hair to flutter, producing motion during the moment of exposure. If you are handholding the camera, the general rule of thumb is to use the reciprocal of the focal length lens you are using for a shutter speed. For example, if using a 100mm lens, use 100 second (or the next highest equivalent shutter speed, like 125) under average conditions. use a faster shutter speed. When farther away from the subject, you can revert to the shutter speed that is the reciprocal of your lens's focal...

Shutter Speed Values

Shutter speeds are exposure controls too. The shutter is found right in front of your sensor. The speed of the shutter as it opens and then closes determines how long light can strike the sensor so that photons can be captured by the pixels. Here's the standard shutter speed series in 1 stop intervals. Each shutter speed listed varies from it's nearest neighbor by 1 stop of light. This series doubles or halves the light from 1 stop to the next too. Naturally, the longer the shutter is open, the more light that is recorded by the sensor. Changing to a longer shutter time such as 1 8 to 1 4 second adds 1 stop of light to the exposure. Continuous autofocusing and fast-shutter speeds in the 1 1000-second range can crisply record this Ruppell's Vulture dropping in to feast on the scraps of a lion kill in the Masai Mara. The histogram shows some pixels that correspond to the white neck are near the right edge without clipping. Moving to a faster shutter speed reduces or subtracts light. The...

Shutter Speeds

A slow shutter speed refers to leaving the shutter open for a long period of time like 1 30 of a second or less. A fast shutter speed means that the shutter is open for a very short period of time like 1 250 of a second or more. Even the fastest of subjects can be frozen with the right shutter speed. Even the fastest of subjects can be frozen with the right shutter speed. Slowing down the shutter speed and following the motion conveys a sense of movement in the shot. Slowing down the shutter speed and following the motion conveys a sense of movement in the shot. As you can see, the subject of your photo usually determines whether or not you will use Shutter Priority mode. It is important that you be able to previsualize the result of using a particular shutter speed. The great thing about shooting with digital cameras is that you get instant feedback by viewing your shot on the LCD screen. But what if your subject won't give you a do-over Such is often the case when shooting sporting...

Fast shutter speeds

By freezing thin slices of time, it is possible to explore the beauty of form in motion. A fast shutter speed may freeze a moving subject yet leave others still blurred. This is dependent on the speed of the subject matter and the angle of movement in relation to the camera. For subject matter travelling across the camera's field of view, relatively fast shutter speeds are required, compared to the shutter speeds required to freeze the same subject travelling towards or away from the camera.

Slow shutter speeds

When the shutter speed is slowed down movement is no longer frozen but records as a streak across the film. This is called 'movement blur'. By using shutter speeds slower than those normally recommended for use with the lens, movement-blur can be created with relatively slow moving subject matter. Speeds of 1 30, 1 15, 1 8 and 1 4 second can be used to create blur with a standard lens. If these slow shutter speeds are used and the camera is on a tripod the background will be sharp and the moving subject blurred. If the camera is panned successfully with the moving subject the background will provide most of the blur in the form of a streaking effect in the direction of the pan.

Bulb Mode

Bulb Mode Canon

The Bulb (B) mode on your camera is another manual mode setting that gives you complete control over the shutter speed, but instead of choosing a specific setting you are able to leave the shutter open for an indefinite period of time. The word bulb comes from the early days of photography when camera shutters were pneumatically activated, meaning a bulb was pressed and the air from it was released through a tube that caused the shutter to open and close. It's a mode that is typically used in dark environments to capture light that is sporadic or changing, such as fireworks or star trails. It can be extremely useful in creating images that need very long shutter speeds. Using the Bulb mode can bring a lot of creativity into your photography, and there are really no limits to what you can create. The wonderful thing about this mode is that you are able to capture images that are so different from what we see with our eyes. When I lived in the Midwest, I used to chase storms and...

Photoenthusiast features

In order to get creative with exposure, you need a camera that gives you some control over two critical settings aperture (f-stop) and shutter speed. You can get a full briefing on how these two settings work in Chapter 5, but for now, just give points to cameras that offer the following options Aperture-priority autoexposure In this mode, you can specify the aperture, or f-stop, and the camera then selects the shutter speed needed Shutter-priority autoexposure In this mode, you select the shutter speed, and the camera selects the aperture setting needed to expose the picture properly. Because shutter speed determines whether moving objects appear blurry or frozen in place, gaining control over this exposure setting is especially important if you shoot lots of action pictures. Exposure compensation Sometimes known as EV (exposure value) compensation, this setting enables you to tell the camera that you want a slightly darker or lighter picture than the autoexposure system thinks is...

Monitoring and Adjusting Photography Settings

You can adjust photography settings, such as aperture, shutter speed, and focusing method, in a variety of ways some of which are fairly obvious, and some, not so much. Depending on the photography setting you want to change, you may be able to adjust it using one or all of the following options

Motion And Depth Of Field

There are distinct characteristics that are related to changes in aperture and shutter speed. Shutter speed controls the length of time the light has to strike the sensor consequently, it also controls the blurriness (or lack of blurriness) of the image. The less time light has to hit the sensor, the less time your subjects have to move around and become blurry. This can let you control things like freezing the motion of a fast-moving subject (Figure 2.8) or intentionally blurring subjects to give the feel of energy and motion (Figure 2.9). A fast shutter speed was used to capture the cutting power of the saw as it chewed through the wood. A fast shutter speed was used to capture the cutting power of the saw as it chewed through the wood. The slower shutter speed coupled with a neutral density filter shows the smooth flow of the water over the rocks. The slower shutter speed coupled with a neutral density filter shows the smooth flow of the water over the rocks.

Stabilizing Your Shots

Blurry photos can stem from poor focusing or, if the subject is moving, a slow shutter speed. Chapters 6 and 7 show you how to avoid those problems. But even if your focus and shutter speed are spot on, you need to watch out for a third cause of blur, camera shake. The slightest amount of camera movement during the exposure can blur the entire photo. To help alleviate the blurring caused by camera shake, you can enable image stabilization. This technology, built into the E-PL1, attempts to compensate for small amounts of camera shake that are common when photographers handhold their cameras and use a slow shutter speed, a lens with a long focal length, or both. Although Shooting exposures longer than 2 seconds Image stabilization is automatically disabled when you choose a shutter speed longer than 2 seconds because that slow of a shutter speed calls for the use of a tripod. In fact, I recommend a tripod any time the shutter speed even approaches the one second mark. (Chapter 6...

TTL Flash and Exposure A Primer

*Flash Exposure Compensation+ may be required for light-toned subjects. Flash Exposure Compensation - may be required for dark-toned subjects. *Flash Exposure Compensation+ may be required for light-toned subjects. Flash Exposure Compensation - may be required for dark-toned subjects. B. Exposure Compensation is used to change the metered exposure for correct recording of different tonal values. C. Flash Exposure Compensation is used to correct the flash exposure for subject reflectance, or whenever more or less flash is desired.

Text And Photos By Bryan F Peterson

TO GET ULTRASHARP, ULTRA-realistic photos, you might try a fast shutter speed and stable tripod. But what if realism seems a little too boring What if you're in the mood for surrealism instead This would call for an opposite approach a long shutter speed and an unstable camera support a car, a scooter, or even your pet terrier era to the bike's handlebars with one of the many Manfrotto Super Clamp configurations, I took off down a country lane in the South of France on a bright day in mid-October. All around me, the deep greens of late summer were flecked with autumn's yellows, reds, and oranges. With my 35-75mm f 2.8 AF Nikkor lens at a relatively slow shutter speed of 1 6 sec at f 22, I had all that I needed to go Van Gogh.

Taking Your Photography To The Next Level

If you talk to most professional photographers you will find that the majority of them are using a few selective modes that offer the greatest amount of control over their photography. To anyone who has been involved with photography for any period of time, these modes are known as the backbones of photography. They allow you to influence two of the most important factors in taking great photographs aperture and shutter speed. To access these modes, you simply turn the Mode dial to one of the letter-designated modes and begin shooting. But wouldn't it be nice to know exactly what those modes control and how to make them do our bidding Well, if you really want to take that next step in controlling your photography, it is essential that you understand not only how to control these modes, but why you are controlling them. So let's move that Mode dial to the first of our professional modes Program mode.

Understanding the limitations of the exposure and focus adjustments

The camera achieves background blur or sharpening by adjusting the aperture (f-stop) setting, which is an exposure control. To modify motion blur, the camera adjusts another exposure control, shutter speed. And when you employ the Change Brightness option, aperture and shutter speed may both be adjusted along with another exposure option, ISO. How much change you can achieve through any of these Live Guide adjustments depends on the lighting conditions. In extreme lighting, the camera may not be able to manipulate the aperture, shutter speed, and ISO settings as needed to produce the desired Live Guide effect and still produce a good exposure. In addition, the range of f-stops available depends on your lens. In dim lighting, the camera may need to select a very high ISO, which can cause the picture to appear grainy or noisy in proper digital photo lingo. Inadequate lighting also may require the camera to select a very slow shutter speed, which can lead to blurring if you handhold the...

S Shutter Priority Mode

S mode is what we photographers commonly refer to as Shutter Priority mode. Just as the name implies, it is the mode that prioritizes or places major emphasis on the shutter speed above all other camera settings. Just as with Program mode, Shutter Priority mode gives us more freedom to control certain aspects of our photography. In this case, we are talking about shutter speed. The selected shutter speed determines just how long you expose your camera's sensor to light. The longer it remains open, the more time your sensor has to gather light. The shutter speed also, to a large degree, determines how sharp your photographs are. This is different from the image being sharply in focus. One of the major influences on the sharpness of an image is just how sharp it is based on camera shake and the subject's movement. Because a slower shutter speed means that light from your subject is hitting the sensor for a longer period of time, any movement by you or your subject will show up in your...

Choosing an automatic exposure mode

Most digital cameras offer a variety of automatic exposure modes, which you select either via menus or an external dial or switch. In all these modes, the camera handles critical exposure decisions, such as selecting the aperture setting and shutter speed, leaving you free to concentrate on composition and your subject. Shooting in automatic mode also typically means that the camera handles most other settings, too, including those that affect color and autofocusing.

Setting Up And Shooting In Manual Mode

While the meter is activated, use your thumb to roll the Command dial left and right to change your shutter speed value until the exposure mark is lined up with the zero mark. The exposure information is displayed by a scale with marks that run from -2 to +2 stops. A proper exposure will line up with the arrow mark in the middle. As the indicator moves to the right, it is a sign that you will be underexposing (there is not enough light on the sensor to provide adequate exposure). Move the indicator to the left and you will be providing more exposure than the camera meter calls for. This is overexposure. 8. To set your exposure using the aperture, depress the shutter release button until the meter is activated. Then, while holding down the Exposure Compensation Aperture button (located behind and to the right of the shutter release button), rotate the Command dial to change the aperture. Rotate right for a smaller aperture (large f-stop number) and left for a larger aperture (small...

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