Photography and the Visual Codes of Femininity

The Civil Code concept of public private suggests a simple, clearly demarcated structure for gender relations in mid-nineteenth-century Montreal. However, a notion of public private overlooks the complexity of social structure and interaction that defies simple binary analysis today as much as it defied the control of civil law at the time of its enactment. Class, gender, and ethnicity were variable conditions that affected the social relations allowed an individual by the Civil Code. Single...

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National Archives of Canada microfilm. Manuscript Census of the Canadas 1860-61. National Archives of Canada microfilm. Map of the City of Montreal. London Waterloo & Sons, 1859. Reproduced from an original in the National Map Collection, National Archives of Canada. Maple Box Portfolio. 1861 Notman Photographic Archives, McCord Museum of Canadian History, Montreal. Marder, William and Estelle Marder. Anthony the Man, the Company, the Cameras. U.S. Pine...

Boundaries of Identity

The Notman studio clearly undertook ordering as its project with the picture books. The studio required a system of image retrieval. But the picture books were also sales tools. The books were available for visitors in the reception room to browse and analyze the studio's work. It is the congruity of the books' organization that allows the viewer to draw particular comparisons and contrasts among the images, the portraits, lined up there. The nature of these comparisons and contrasts, the...

At Home in the Studio

Photographic literature in the United States from the early 1850s through the late 1860s discusses not only the ways in which the photographic environment was staffed by women (see Chapter Five) but also the manner in which photography studios were expected to be constructed and decorated to render a home-like atmosphere of comfort. Richard Rudisill has compared comments in the literature on the decor of American daguerreotype studios in the United States, such as Mathew Brady's exceptionally...

Ill Staff Photographers and Occupational Mobility

Although a steady employer of women, Notman's studio limited their range of work and possibilities for advancement. Women are noticeably absent among the photographers employed at the Notman studio not only between 1856 and 1881, the period under study here, but throughout its history. The position of operator or assistant was the exclusive venue of men. Male photographers held the elite positions in the photography studio. Only the salaries and prestige of staff artists - predominantly and...

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Montreal in 1856 a sketch prepared for the celebration of the opening of the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada. Montreal J. Lovell, 1856. Moore's Handbook of Montreal, Quebec and Ottawa. Montreal British American Advertising and Circular Delivery Agency, 1860. Moore's Handbook of Montreal, Quebec and Ottawa. 2nd ed. Montreal British American Advertising and Circular Delivery Agency, 1860. Morgan, Henry James. The Tour of H.R.H. The Prince of Wales Through British North America and the United...

The Class Portrait

Photography entered the social lexicon conceptualized as a commodity for the bourgeoisie. Louis Daguerre introduced his method of making permanent camera images by citing its automatic process and its potential as a means of representation of those things that defined the well-to-do Everyone, with the aid of the DAGUERREOTYPE, will make a view of his castle or country-house people will form collections of all kinds Even portraits will be made.7 Daguerre1s vision of the uses of the photographic...

The City

When William Notman opened shop in 1856, he did so in a city in transition. Three factors figure most prominently and give definition to this transition era. Firstly, Montreal's economic foundations broadened and deepened as industrial manufacturing, both small-scale and mass Photography as such has no identity. Its status as a technology varies with the power relations which invest it. Its nature as a practice depends on the institutions and agents which define it and set it to work. Its...

The Notman Photographic Archives

In 1967, the Notman Photographic Archives collection at the McCord Museum of Canadian History in Montreal marked the centennial anniversary of the confederation of Canada in an exhibition and book called Portrait of a Period A Collection of Notman Photography 1856 to 1915. Introducing this cultural legacy of the period in which Canada was transformed from a colony into a dominion to Canadian and foreign visitors in Montreal for Expo '67, Edgar Andrew Collard portrayed the role of the Notman...

University of Alberta

Women in Photography at the Notman Studio, Montreal, 1856-1881 A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Department of Sociology Department of Modern Languages and Cultural Studies Acquisitions and Bibliographic Services 395 Wellington Street Ottawa ON K1A0N4 Canada Acquisitions et services bibliographiques 395, rue Wellington Ottawa ON K1A 0N4 Canada The author has granted a nonexclusive...