Hasselblad XPan II

The Hasselblad XPan II is a camera specifically designed for 35 mm film, but with two different formats the standard, 24 mm X 36 mm format and one that measures 24mm X 66 mm. Obviously, it's the latter format that concerns us here. Currently, the XPan can be used with three lenses 30 mm (104 ), 45 mm (74 ), and 90 mm (40 ). This camera has revolutionized panoramic press photography. Modern, well made, motorized, quiet, equipped with automatic features, not very bulky, it has only one fault -...

Light Metering and Exposure

Sometimes the area photographed is so wide that the light range is more separated than in normal photography. Also, certain details that seem important to the naked eye may be quite small on the 360 color transparency. To bring them out further, one must pay special attention to the quality of light. Chapter Two addressed the problem of the relative size of details in the photo. I truly believe that the choice of lighting is crucial in panoramic photography, perhaps even more than in normal...

Horseman SW 612SW 612 Professional

Similar In design to the Cambo but a little bit less bulky (since It does not permit the use of 4 X 5 film), the Horseman 612 SW Professional panoramic camera has less shifting ability + - 17 mm along the vertical axis and + - 15 mm along the horizontal. Therefore, It will not be as useful for placing the horizon line where one wants, although It still remains possible to place It at the upper or lower third of the photograph. The SW 612 differs from the professional version because It does not...

Enlarger

At least when making cropped panoramic photographs, the film will be much wider than it is high. This forces the photographer to have an enlarger that surpasses the film in size. For example, a medium-format enlarger would be needed to enlarge photographs taken with an XPan, a Noblex 135, or a Horizon 202, since these use 35 mm films with dimensions measuring 24 mm high by 58 mm to 66 mm wide. The difference in space respectively occupied by a 35 mm and a medium-format enlarger is not that...

Changing Exposure Times

During exposure, the shutter speed can also be altered between rotations. And occasionally, one may need a very short exposure at night. This was notably the case when I made a sequential image of the moon rising above the Pont Neuf, from the Pont des Arts. When the moon appeared, it was orange and not very bright. There, the exposure time needed was two seconds. Bit by bit, as it mounted into the clear sky, it became brighter and brighter. Now, I absolutely wanted to photograph the water with...

Exposure and Development

La prise de vue et le d veloppement, Thibaut Saint-James, La Compagnie Internationale du livre, Paris, 1987. Le Zone Syst me, P-E Ba da, P. Bertholdy, M. C gretin, Les Cahiers de la photographie, 1993. The Camera, The Negative, and The Print, Ansel Adams, Little, Brown & Company, Boston, 1983. Initiation au Zone Syst me, Daniel Drouard, 2002. Noir & blanc, de la prise de vue au triage, Philippe Bachelier, editions VM, Paris, 1998. La pratique du moyen format, Ren Bouillot, editions VM,...

Fine Art Books

Marcel Proust, la figure des pays, Francois-Xavier Bouchart, editions Flammarion, 1999. Bretagne 360 , Franck Charel, editions du Ch ne, 2003. The Western Horizon, Macduff Everton, Harry N. Abrams Publisher, 2000. Alpes, ou le tarot des cimes, Jean-Baptiste Leroux, editions du Ch ne, 1998. Ecosse, Philippe Plisson, editions du Ch ne, 1998. Chaos, Joseph Koudelka, Pha don, 1999. Prague en panoramique, Josef Sudek, editions Od on. Paris en panoramique, Jarolsav Poncar, editions Verlag, K ln,...

Camera

I particularly appreciate the Lowe Pro Trekker backpack that I've had for more than six years. I find it has a number of advantages, the best of which is that it does not hurt the back of its owner As the backpacks increase in quality, they offer the possibilities of attaching harnesses and specifically adapting to each individual's build. If they are large enough, one can even hang a tripod on the outside, leaving the arms free, which is always preferable when hiking. In fact, the only thing I...

David J Osborn

After studying fine arts (specializing in graphic design), David J. Osborn spent many years working as a photojournalist for different agencies like Reuters and the Associated Press. In 1989, he moved to Australia where he set up a studio of institutional photographs portraits of the business heads, annual meetings, and so forth. Returning to Great Britain in 2001, he realized how much he had missed the beauty of the British landscape. His black-and-white panoramic photographs of the English,...

Schwarzschild Effect

Film has a specific light-sensitivity, indicated in ASA or ISO, which is effective only in a certain range of exposure time. Generally speaking, it falls dramatically for long and very short exposure times. Thus, the solution lies in increasing exposure time to make upfor this. This Schwarzchild effect (named after its discoverer) also causes a noticeable color shift with color film. Unquestionably, it is much hss of an issue with digital photography, where one does not have to consider it....

Handheld or Tripod

Certain cameras, like the Noblex 135 or the Horizon 202, are clearly intended to make hand-held photos, even in difficult situations. They are light, being outfitted with a viewfinder and built-in level, and the lens opens to f2.8 (making it quite fast) and is set at the hyperfocal distance. Used with highly sensitive film, they permit journalistic photography (I am thinking specifically about Michael Ackerman and his book, End Time City see Appendix A). However, pay strict attention to one...

Photographic Assemblage

By putting photographs together, currently it is possible to obtain the same kind of image (geometrically speaking) as a Fuji 617, a Noblex, or a Roundshot. The field of possibility even extends to lens shifts and formal composition. Here the component images are taken first with a conventional, traditional camera (35 mm, 120 film, or even 4 X 5) or a digital camera (3, 6, or 11 Mb of pixels) and then joined by a dedicated software package, such as the Panavue ImageAssembler or the Realviz...

How Do Swing Lens and Rotational Cameras Work

There are two categories of rotating panoramic camera, depending on whether the lens or the entire camera body turns. The former category consists of traditional film cameras that photograph a maximum angle of 145 in the latter are both traditional and digital cameras that take in a much larger field (up to 360 ). Traditional rotational cameras take films (35 mm, 120, or 220) that unwind behind a slit located at the rear of the lens at the same time and speed as the rotation of the camera....

When the Lens Rotates

The Noblex and Horizon 202 are both swing-lens cameras. There are no digital versions, and there probably never will be, since it would be too complicated to install a digital sensor in the form of an arc at the back of the camera. With these cameras, a turret housing the lens rotates to photograph the panorama, usually embracing a 135 field of view. Some are relatively light and equipped with fairly bright viewfinders of high quality. Exposure times vary from one camera to another the more...

Jana Caslavska

This young Czech born in 1966 in Pribram, in the heart of Bohemia, has been interested in images from an early age. Born into a family of miners where the father worked for more than 40 years in the metal and uranium mines of Pribram, she soon learned to comb the areas of her neighborhood in search of traces left by industry. For her fourteenth birthday, her father gave her a half-frame, vertical format camera that a friend had brought back from Germany. And it is this same camera that she...

Didier Roubinet

Ex-cameraman and documentary film-maker, incurable traveler and untiring Parisian street-comber, this certifiable eccentric has returned to his first love capturing, in complete artistic freedom, the incredible evolution of his city and Its denizens, both In color and In panorama. Within the limits of his project and the seclusion of his studio, he presents his paradoxical work of a young photographer in full maturity to a growing circle of Institutions, alerted photography-lovers, researchers,...

Hikaru Ushizima

Born in 1929 in Fukuoka, southern Japan, Hikaru Ushizima quickly made a name for himself at the Tokyo Conservatory (the music college of Tokyo). A brilliant student, he was then sent to Italy for a number of years. Born into a rich and cultivated family from Alita, a small town known for its traditional pottery, he was taught Japanese traditions from a very early age. Then, after some curious wanderings that he refuses to talk about (he was the drinking buddy of the photographer Masahisa...

Macduff Everton

Whether It is a portrait of an Individual or a landscape, Macduff Everton knows how to lend meaning to a place. That's a prerequisite In his discipline and Andy Grundberg said the following about him Macduff Everton reinvents travel photography In the same way that Ansel Adams reinvented nineteenth century photographs of the Great West. He captures strange and significant moments In which time and the world seem to have stopped. His work Is in numerous public and private institutions like the...

Peet Simard

A Canadian photographer living in France for over 20 years, Peet Simard is fascinated by nature and the urban milieu, among other things. He works as a publicity photographer for large French and international companies, notably In the domains of architecture and still life. At present, he lives close to Paris with his wife and their four daughters. Peet Simard makes panoramic photographs with an XPan and a Fuji 617 camera. Photos pages 57, 95, and 143 Contact 7, avenue des Cigonges 91220...

Hand Held Light Meters

If one normally rests satisfied with the camera's built-in light meter for overall light-meter readings, it nevertheless becomes necessary at times to measure contrast differences with further precision - notably interiors, sunny weather, and harsh lighting. To do this, a photographer will need to use either the spot meter in the camera, if it has one, or a hand-held spot meter, which offers more precision. A photographer who normally uses a hand-held light meter to take incident readings will...

Herv Sentucq

Photographer-author born in 1970, Herv Sentucq specializes In the panoramic photography of natural and urban landscapes. After studying science, he taught In secondary school before becoming a professional photographer a few years back. He is regularly on assignment in France and Scotland, two lands possessing a large number of diverse landscapes of unsuspecting beauty. His work Is primarily oriented toward publication and advertising. In 2004, his book Horizons de Normandie was released, in...

Acknowledgements

Francois Xavier Bouchart And Photography

To the photographers who agreed to participate in this project, I express my gratitude. Writing this first book has been a real honor, a unique experience, and a real team effort. Above all, I am extremely grateful to St phanie Poisson, my editor, for her encouragement and kindness, her critical but just attention, and her valuable work in proofreading. Without her, this book would not be the same. Most sincere thanks to my French publisher, ditions Eyrolles, notably ric Sulpice, for giving me...

17 Cameras

This film format justifies the investment, since one naturally wants the best image possible. Until recently, the Fuji 617 was significantly more expensive than a 35 mm camera, but today, the game has definitely changed. An up-to-date 35 mm camera and two accompanying lenses costs about the same as a 6 x 17 camera with one lens. Of course, the level of versatility is not the same rather, it's the quality that is so much better. Popularized by Philip Plisson and Jean-Baptiste Leroux, both the...

Types of Joining Methods

Certain software packages allow the possibility of joining images in different ways. The better ones permit the creation of tiled assemblages curved fields ranging from 120 to 360 or rectilinear ones flat fields up to 110 wide when working from the same set of component photographs. A tiled assemblage will require a few extra photos, since the angle of view extends beyond 110 to 120 . With this method, one can achieve exactly the same effect as with rotating panoramic cameras like the Noblex or...

Panocam

Spheron was the first brand to be recognized by the buying public for its digital panoramic cameras. At present, it makes several models e.g., Panocam 12, Spherocam VR, HDR that accept Nikon, Canon, and other brand-name lenses. The sensor, having 5200 pixels, is already of very high quality but it also exists in an extremely expensive high dynamic version 60,000 dollars . Obviously, the high price will come down with time, as is the case with conventional digital cameras. And since these...

Roundshot Cameras

The exposure system of roundshot cameras is even more advanced, since acceleration and deceleration occur over the entire length of the film, alternating back and forth as occasion demands. The camera is governed by a computer, so it is even possible to control the contrast range on a screen, modifying it as much as one wants. In this regard, its effectiveness is truly amazing In much the same way, all new panoramic digital cameras contain some sort of integrated exposure system, and these are...

Linhof Technorama 617

Linhof 617 cameras first appeared in 1976. The present mark III version accepts three lenses 72 mm, 90 mm, and 180 mm. Although expensive, each of these lenses is quite good, and each comes with a center-spot neutral density filter - a necessary item with color transparency film. Of a well-made quality that equipment enthusiasts can appreciate, Linhof 617 cameras offer a much wider angle of view than the Fuji's 90 mm lens is capable of, thanks to a Schneider 72 mm lens. Thus, the horizontal...

Photo Shop Spherization Filter

Corrections for optical distortions can also be achieved with the PhotoShop Spherization filter. However, it is neither adaptable nor practical in the production of a large body of joined panoramas, and the application slightly degrades the photo. G rard Perron describes it in detail in his book Photographie Interactive avec QuickTime VR Interactive Photography with QuickTime VR see bibliography in Appendix A . Remember, assemblages often are of better quality when the correction is done...

Dodging

Dodging involves blocking the excess light with matte black cards similar to those used in the black-and-white darkroom. I made two cards a small one 1 2 X 1-3 4 and a large one 4-1 2 X 4-1 2 to hide the entire lens opening of my Noblex 150. The large card must extend beyond the lens opening, to avoid light-leaks on the edges. As they are in the darkroom, the cards should be light and manageable. Obviously, the slower the turret rotates, the simpler it will be to dodge, since it will be easier...

Multiple Exposure

Because the top-of-the-line Noblex cameras allow both multiple exposure and exposures at least one second long, it is possible to achieve astonishing results with nighttime photography by dodging and burning at the time of exposure. With little strokes, like a painter, one can perfectly expose color transparency film for both shadows and highlights. This is a unique feature that rotational cameras do not allow since the film unrolls at the same time that the camera turns . But perhaps this...

Noblex Cameras

The Noblex's Panolux light meter is attached to the camera body and directs it. In the incident mode, the light meter operates with two integrated sensors beneath a white cone that has a nice feature it automatically corrects the exposure in order to slightly darken the highlights or lighten the shadows. In this way, during exposure, the motion of the turret speeds up or slows down from one end to the other. This works very well, allowing an adjustment of two to three stops from one end of the...

Widelux 135

With the F6, then F7, and finally F8, the Widelux 135 was the only swing-lens camera available for 35 mm film for a long time. Without frills and relatively fragile, this completely mechanical camera has only three shutter speeds but is still capable of producing beautiful images. It also can take modified filters. Changing film is not easy, and the price is prohibitive unless buying it used compared to the features offered by the Noblex. Available shutter speeds do not permit nighttime...

Versus 303

Manfrotto 302

Model 303 differs from model 303 m the micro-metrical adjustment of the two respective platforms. But ultimately, this seems little more than a gimmick. Both platforms are a bit longer, thus providing more room for adjustment, and something that is needed with the latest fast and bulky zoom lenses for 35 mm. Here, on must also bear in mind that the second model cannot be taken apart so as to be more easily stored in the camera bag. Also, although being longer, 303 platforms are sometimes still...

Manfrotto 303 303 and SPH Heads

These well-designed panoramic tripod heads are made of different parts that serve our needs perfectly. And since autumn 2003, Manfrotto has sold a new panoramic tripod head, the 303 SPH. The latter is quite suited for making 360 X 360 photos for QTVR, but it is equally good for tilting the camera to take the picture while always being set at the entrance pupil . 1. The stand reference no. 338 , having precise controls, allows one to put the final touches on leveling the tripod. Just remember,...

Journalism

The Hasselblad XPan has achieved real success in journalistic photography. Thanks to this compact, modern camera, panoramic photographers have started covering events in places all around the globe, even the most dangerous. What better means exists to show an event and people in context Before this camera came to prominence, journalistic photographers used the swing-lens Widelux camera, like Michael Ackerman did for his well-known work, End Time City. The elevated view and use of an XPan...

Cosine Law Photography

When photographing with a very wide-angle lens as is the case with cropped panoramas , the angle of the light rays passing through lens becomes wider and wider in direct proportion to its distance from the optical center. Thus, the shorter the lens focal length, the wider the angle and the wider the angle, the more noticeable the fall-off in exposure on the film. The well-known cosine law further explains this. If light rays passing along the optical axis of the lens can be said to have a...

Roundshot 220

Models using 120 or 220 film are still numerous. One even takes 70 mm format film. Because it goes beyond the limits of this book to cite them all, Appendix A provides the address of a Web site containing technical information about all the models available at present. These exceptional and entirely electronic cameras possess characteristics that can satisfy any photographer who would want to obtain one. All models take interchangeable lenses. It will suffice to choose them from the range of...

Swing Lens Cameras

Three major brands compete in the field of swing-lens panoramas Noblex, Horizon, and Widelux. The last is an older model, but you can still buy it new. Thanks to its nice balance of quality and price, many photographers have begun making swing-lens panoramas with the Horizon 202. Much more recent, highly efficient, and versatile, Noblex cameras set the present standard for photographing approximately 140 . As opposed to other swing-lens cameras, Noblex cameras have one interesting feature,...

Noblex 135

This camera, made in Germany, comes in many forms. Model U, the top-of-the-line version, has all the refinements that one could want from a modern swing-lens camera, as a brief listing of its features proves It takes 35mm film, but makes images that are 66mm wide. The 24mm X 66mm format 2.7 1 ratio with a 135 angle of view is clearly panoramic, as we have already seen. It has both short 1 500 second and long one second shutter speeds, as well as a setting for multiple exposure. Therefore...

Fuji GX 617

The best-known example of a specialty, large-format panoramic camera, the Fuji GX 617 can be outfitted with up to four reputable lenses. Although the image quality is quite good provided that one takes care to stop down to at least f22, the camera itself has a few inconveniences, like the impossibility of changing lenses without exposing the film due to the lack of a dark slide. Also, a battery is sometimes necessary - and not even a lithium battery can prevent the camera from freezing up in...

Depth of Field and Hyperfocal Distance

A panoramic photographer often is seeking the maximum depth of field. This is why it is important to consider the hyperfocal distance once the lens has been stopped down. And again, depth of field is one of the reasons why the exposure time will be long and a tripod will be necessary. Different scenarios are possible, depending on the type of camera used 1. The cameras have either a manual or an autofocus focusing system and a reflex viewfinder. This often is the case with modern cameras, and...

Widelux 120

Also called 1500, this medium-format Japanese camera is based on the F8 model. The image quality is undeniable, although always a topical question, but the camera still available as new on some Internet sites is way overpriced considering its outmoded features. Its only advantage, very useful for those wanting to make handheld photos, is that the lens can be opened to f2.8. For a mediumformat camera, this is rare, especially since the image quality is unquestionable. The Noblex 175 model is...

Scantech Le Voyageur

Scantech Voyageur

This original panoramic camera of excellent construction e.g., the motor Is commanded by a microprocessor is handcrafted by Gildas Le Lostec. Two versions exist, both of which use with a 28mm or 50 mm Nikkor lens. It is possible to use a 28 mm PC Nikkor if one wants to shift the lens, but only up to 5 mm. The image is projected onto 120 film, and the combination of Nikkor lenses and roll film allows one to obtain very high-quality panoramas. Curiously, the circle of focus of these lenses for 35...

Eyescan MM 1 and M

New arrivals on the rotational camera market, the German company Eyescan makes several digital panoramic cameras. The laser-type scanner is a bar with 3600 high-quality pixels, capable of producing 3600 X 32,000 images in 360 . These cameras take Nikkor and Rodenstock lenses, which include wide-angle, shifting PC, and even telephoto. Thus, the range of possibilities is quite large Governed entirely by a computer, the camera itself is not very bulky, since a simple, fixed, laser scanning device...

Mamiya 7 II

Aurore Morinerie

The Mamiya 7 II is a conventional 6 X 7 medium-format camera with an optional accessory that allows one to adapt the back to receive 35 mm film. . Mamiya also makes nicely performing lenses for the camera, ranging from 43 mm 84 to 210 20 the problem here is it lacks shorter focal lengths. For example, a 38 mm would be better suited for the panoramic purpose of this camera accessory. Bulkier than the XPan, the Mamiya simply provides the photographer with a choice between panoramic and 6 X 7...

Noblex 150

The 150 model, which uses 120 roll film, is an adaptation of the 135 35 mm model. First appearing in 1992, these cameras quickly were appreciated for their wide range and versatility. For several years I have used the top-of-the-line model and have been quite satisfied with it. It is even better made than the 135 model, with a number of small details having been smoothed over to make it more multipurpose. The lens is a high quality 50mm f4.5 four coated lens elements that covers a 50mm X 120 mm...

Linhof 612 PC

Linhof 617

This camera possesses one amusing particularity the lens is mounted directly in the shifted position, and it is not possible to move it from there. When the camera is oriented toward the horizon, this is placed automatically at the lower third of the photo - or the upper third, if the camera is turned the other way there is a tripod thread on the top as well . When this camera arrived on the scene in 1976, it offered a real advantage but today, faced with the competition, it seems rather...

Gilde 617

Kurt Gilde

Kurt Gilde, a German doctor, makes three types of 6 X 12 and 6 X 17 camera by hand, which, in addition to high quality of their materials, is the reason for their high price. And the range of possibility available with these cameras easily makes them the Rolls-Royce of their kind. As proof of this, consider the following their design makes it possible to attach any kind of large-format lens - not just Schneider and Rodenstock lenses, but also Nikkor and Fuji, telephoto lenses included. Changing...

Types of Software Programs

The better joining software programs make it easy to frame things they make it possible to tilt the camera and take a picture with the horizon line away from the middle of the photograph, while avoiding a convergence of vertical lines. With other software packages - those sold with pocket digital cameras - this is not possible. The result obtained by tilting the camera upward low-angle or downward elevated view depends on the software being used. With the majority of software programs, it is...

Placing the Horizon Line

A well-placed horizon line is normally an important part of the aesthetic success of a photograph, and even more so with panoramas. Apart from shifting the lens, tilting the camera remains the only way to move the horizon line away from the middle of the photograph, or to photograph a monument. However, not bending the horizon line is sometimes so important that a photographer will keep it in the middle, in spite of knowing that this is not the ideal place for it in the composition. Because it...

Flatback Cameras

Doubtless, everyone has already experienced framing and composing with a flatback camera - who has never used a 35 mm camera Panoramic or not, these cameras project a recognizable image based on rectilinear geometry. Straight lines remain straight, even when they converge upon a vanishing point when tilting the camera. And to prevent the vertical lines from converging, no matter what camera one uses since the problem is not specific to panoramic photography , shifting the lens from the optical...

Vertical Framing

Vertical framing is much easier with a flatback camera than with a rotating camera, even if the percentage of vertical images in specialized photo collections remains low. Two reasons for this are 1 the angle of view is not as considerable, and 2 flatback cameras do not graphically bend straight lines. Thus, they might be the panoramic cameras of predilection for architectural photographers who are not necessarily expected to render really creative work. The angle embraced by this photograph of...

Different Aspect Ratios

Although some photographers think that a true panoramic photograph can made only with a swing-lens or rotational camera, it is generally conceded that a panoramic image consists of a lengthened format, or a minimum ratio of 2 1. The more conventional formats have been determined by the various aspect ratios of the traditional cameras that have popularized panoramic photography e.g., Widelux, Fuji 617, and more recently, the Hasselblad XPan . For example, let us consider 35 mm photography though...