Edward Weston

Image sharpness has always been a valuable asset in a photograph. During the pictorialist era, many photographers took portraits that were both sharp and filled with details, despite the movement's call for softness in an image. Aiming to eliminate the softness in photos that had become commonplace in the pictorialist movement, straight photographers began shooting photos without trickery and developing them without manipulation. The term straight photography probably originated in a 1904...

Pointand Shoot Digital Camera Development

When you consider that the first point-and-shoot digital camera, put together in the mid-1970s, came from different parts of existing cameras and other technological devices, you can get an idea of how new technologies get invented. Steve Sasson created a digital camera that weighted 8 pounds and took a 0.01-MP (megapixel) picture by recording it on cassette tape. To be sure, the technologies that went into making the camera were sophisticated an analog-to-digital converter adapted from...

Direct Positive Paper and the Worlds Largest Camera

New and creative adventures abound in the world of film photography. Photographic paper made with the silver halide process, using photosensitive silver halide materials, is making a comeback. At Photokina 2010, Harman Technology Ltd., a black-and-white photography product production company, introduced direct positive paper, which is primarily used for pinhole photography. It's used in large-format cameras as if it were film, and it's exposed and processed to create a positive print. According...

The Born Again Polaroid

Lomographers are not the only photographers reviving old film cameras, refreshing the future for film photography. Polaroid aficionados stopped the demise of the instant-picture platform in its tracks. That technology was fairly sophisticated in the evolution of film. The production of 11 See 12 See 13 See 14 See a paper that could be developed in about a minute after it was shot certainly surprised millions of people when the technology was introduced. Along with the revival of film cameras,...

Post Processing Possibilities

Computer photography won't be photography as we know it. I think photography will always be chemical. In the 21st century, we are nostalgic for things from the 20 th century. Some current and future products define themselves by their ability to create nostalgia among the people who buy them. From iPhone apps to Actions in Photoshop, many things are based on making photos look nostalgic. You can tweak an image using an iPhone app or using Photoshop Actions to make it look as if the image is...

The Wonder Camera

At the World Expo 2010 in Shanghai, Canon introduced the Wonder Camera. The video camera claims to have better image stabilization, much longer zooming without blur, and continuous frames that are always well exposed at high resolution. Theoretically, this camera will make all point-and-shoots and dSLR cameras obsolete, because any frame from the video can be captured in high resolution as still photo. The camera also uses advanced facial recognition so that it has the ability to spot people...

The Rebirth of Pictorialism

The art of pictorialism was refined to capture the pathos of the human spirit and was influenced by the notion of Naturalism, an art photography form of the mid- to late-19th century that was built upon the rejection of the Industrial Age. While Naturalism considered photography images to be more realistic than the pictorialist, both considered the common man doing menial work among vast landscapes. Peter Henry Emerson, a Naturalist, sought to capture the tranquility of the old life, simple...

Creative Commons

Another issue facing microstock and stock agencies is opportunities for people to obtain free photos. The Creative Commons licensing schemes have affected the way people seek out photos for their websites and publications. Flickr and other sites like it offer what's called Creative Commons licensing for images. Creativecommons.org is a nonprofit foundation that developed legal specifications for the use of images on the Internet. It also includes use for print publications. Flickr and other...

Cameras and the Internet Find the Cell Phone

Several years ago, a story made the rounds on the Internet (CNET and USA Today news sources) about a man (Philippe Kahn, founder of Borland, a software delivery services company) connecting his digital camera to a cell phone in a hospital room while his wife was in labor for 18 hours. He linked his cell phone to a digital camera and then started posting pictures to the Web, effectively inventing the photo blog the same day. A billion-dollar business...

Reinventing Film for a New Generation

The other reinvention is by film photographers who are using the Internet to get the word out about the reinvention of the craft. On websites and podcasts, you can learn about everything from shooting with expired film using a Polaroid Instant camera to shooting with large-format film using a Hasselblad. Sites such as Michael Raso's filmphotographypodcast.com broadcast all things related to film photography toy and professional. Raso's podcast is an Internet radio show for folks who love to...

Setting the Scene for Tomorrow

While yesterday's fashion photographers become even more famous than when they were alive, today's photographers are setting the scene for tomorrow. In April of 2010, StyleCaster named the top fashion photographers of today. The list included Greg Kadel, for his fluid models the team of Inez van Lamsweerde and Vinoodh Matadin, for their retro shots the up-and-coming Driu amp Tiago, for their offbeat men Steven Meisel, the Madonna photographer Ellen von Unwerth, for her erotica fashion Mikael...

Film Photographers Today

Bronica Gs1 Digital Back Adapter

Many professional photographers haven't given up on film, either. Average shooting costs, including purchasing a camera for medium-format film, are still far less expensive than shooting with a digital camera with a medium-format sensor. The cost for a new medium-format professional film camera might be several thousand dollars, but for a digital medium-format camera, you can expect to pay more than 10,000. The current generation of medium-format film shooters consists mainly of students and...

Street Photography Secrets

The unconscious obsession we photographers have is that wherever we go, we want to find the theme we carry inside ourselves. Street photography has a long history that dates back to the late 19 th and early 20th centuries. Eug ne Atget, one of the first street photographers, took photographs all over Paris, including images of vendors, parks, and buildings, so that painters could reproduce the images in their paintings. Henri Cartier-Bresson, one of the first to use 35mm film, and Robert...

Aperture Advances

Over the years, Aperture has progressed into a powerful photo-management program. The newest version as of this writing, Aperture 3, is touted as having more than 200 new features since Aperture 2. The new features are integrated into the program and result in more options for viewing windows and navigating through your images. Aperture also has increased the number of ways you can view, import, name, label, select, file, and sort images. The most notable changes in Aperture 3 are the Faces and...

Props and Sets

Fashion photographers invested heavily in props to make photographs have the look of another era, in order to make photographs look surreal however, they were careful not to overdo it. When Horst P Horst used props in a photo, he'd limit himself to one for example, a lamppost or an umbrella. Today, props play an important role in fashion photography, as shown in the photo by fashion photographer Robert Contreras in Figure 19.2, a shot that incorporates a book and a stem of black leaves in the...

Computerless Printing

Yet another trend in printing is to take away the computer from the workflow altogether. HP and other printer manufacturers are making inexpensive, easy-to-use printers that print quickly. This trend was seen as early as 2001, when The New York Times published the article Digital Printers Cut the PC from the Equation on its Technology News Watch webpage. At that time the article stated that, Hewlett-Packard introduced printers that eliminate the pesky computer from the process. 3 The HP...

Film Photography Challenges

While these reinventions might be the tip of the iceberg, film companies are discontinuing film types that are poor sellers. The challenge remains as to how to broaden the use of film and film cameras. The popularity of Lomography and the reinvention of Polaroid isn't enough to stop the downward trend in film camera and film use. In 2009, Kodak discontinued Kodachrome, the first color film that caught on with consumers a product that was sold for 74 years. It was first produced as Kodachrome...

Street Photography Reborn

Over the past few years, the photography of the master street photographers has been exhibited in many galleries and museums, but the work of today's street photographers has been missing from these venues. As memories of the events of 9 11 diminish, street photographers have begun to engage in their craft without much interference from the authorities, which will continue in the United States as long as there are no more terrorist attacks like those of 9 11. When a book about photography is...

Helmut Newton

There's something about Paris that makes it perfect for the world of fashion the formality of Notre Dame, the strength of the Eiffel Tower, and the grandness of the Champs-Elysees. The fashions born in Paris are as beautiful as the city itself, which made it a natural place for the art of dressing to flourish. During the mid-1800s, Napoleon III turned Paris into a world empire, a place where the wealthy created high fashion that Americans lauded after seeing it in new fashion magazines.

Is Film Dead

Film is my canvas. Is digital photography better than film That is the million-dollar question of the past decade. The perennial answer from computer and camera manufacturers has been that digital photography is better than film. Back in 2005, Microsoft published the Top Ten Myths of Digital Photography, about which photographer Kris Krug reported on his blog.1 The years-old eons-old in the digital realm list takes you back to how people thought about what was the new medium...

Ken Rockwell Ken Rockwellcom

Although the most popular digital cameras are made by Canon and Nikon, the popularity of film cameras is influenced most by the toy camera movement, often referred to as Lomography. It's a low-tech revolution that has taken film photography by storm, but it's not the only reinvention of film photography that has taken place in the world today. The Urban Dictionary refers to the Holga, Diana see Figure 15.1 , Dories, Debonair, Lubitel, Banner, Snappy, and Yunon as toy cameras, which are cheap,...

How HDR Works

To produce an HDR photo, you basically process multiple photos using HDR processing software. You can start taking the photos by first setting your exposure compensation down two stops. A stop is a unit of exposure exposure compensation is divided into stops on your camera, ranging from 2 to 2. The three photos consist of images of the same scene, taken with a tripod, at different exposures one shot two stops under, one shot properly exposed, and a last shot two stops over. See Figure 12.1....

The Definition of Photography and Its Future

Photography is defined as the art of producing images on photosensitive surfaces.1 Within that definition are parameters that can take you through not only the history of photography, but also the future of photography. There are three key terms here art, producing, and photosensitive surfaces. Each of these concepts has been in flux since the medium of photography was invented nearly 150 years ago. In the 150 years that still photography has been in existence, the definition of art has...

Actions Photography Workflow Made Simple

Post-processing photos using Photoshop or other software programs has generally been a step-by-step, labor-intensive process. There are certain tweaks you want to do on an image as soon as you get it into Photoshop. Some of these tweaks you'll want to repeat for many images. That's when Actions comes into the picture. In Photoshop or Photoshop Elements, Actions are steps that you perform on an image. The program automatically records your actions so you can repeat the same steps on another...

Fine Art Printing

The biggest leap in printing technology for consumers came when printer manufacturers came out with printers using pigmented inks. In 2000, Epson introduced its first pigmented-ink printers the Epson Stylus Pro 7500, 9500, Stylus Photo P2000 printers.1 Each model prints at different sizes, with the higher numbers corresponding to the wider print sizes and higher cost . These were the first pigmented-inkjet printers with six ink cartridges. Pigmented ink lasts much longer more than 200 years...

Creating New Pictorialist Photographs Digitally

Photoshop Curve

The techniques that produced pictorialism are now available to the masses with digital cameras and image-manipulation software. To be sure, many film and digital photographs look like paintings, but the process used to make them has changed as the technology has. There are methods to produce photographs that look like paintings everything from photographing in a mist to using special-effect painting filters in Photoshop. To make a pictorialist photograph today, all you have to do is search the...

Photomontage

Gary Ortman

Photomontage is another art form that includes photography one that Russian photographer Alexander Rodchenko brought to life in his work during the Russian Revolution. It involves cutting, pasting, and matching images to create a new work of art. The art has roots since photography's inception in the late 19th century, and it's a craft that is thriving today among scrapbookers and hobbyists, who create both digital and cut-and-paste works, often posting them on the Internet. Gary Ortman creates...

The Future of HDR

There are already cameras that can take HDR photos. Sony began including HDR capability in its 14.2-MP Sony Alpha DSLR-A550L with an auto HDR function. It takes two shots at different exposures and combines them into one. The updated Sony DSLR-A580, a 16.2-MP camera, includes auto HDR, which uses three shots to make an HDR photo. According to an August 2010 press release about the camera, Auto HDR is now refined further compared with previous-generation a...

The Strange Found Art of Walker Evans

Walker Evans, a master of photographing text, grew up in a family closely connected to the advertising world his father was a copywriter. Evans photographed found signage of any kind from billboards to graffiti, including signs on the street, inside buildings, on storefronts, on clothing, in parades, and among people involved in everyday life. In his work, Evans was able to seek out the strange perceptions of man. In The Grand Man about 1935 , he photographed a poster of the body of a man, each...

Inkless Printers

The newest technology in printing devices is low-cost inkless printers. You can print 4x6 photos with no ink using the Pandigital portable printer see Figure 13.2 , which reads your camera's memory card. The printer's magic lies in the Zink paper, which has dye embedded in it crystals of magenta, yellow, and cyan. The printer uses heat to develop the photo paper. Zink paper is required available at pandigital.net it costs 17.99 for 40 sheets. A similar printer, the Dell Wasabi PZ310, makes...

New Type of Lenses

1500mm Telelens

Engineers, scientists, and small companies are using different liquids to make tiny lenses for cell-phone cameras. Unique imaging technologies are being used with these lenses in a race for the tiniest, fastest camera that needs minimal amounts of power. ScienceDaily reported in 2008 that miniature lenses can be created by the power of water, sound and surface tension.1 The process begins when the sound oscillates a pair of water droplets. When light passes through oscillating water droplets,...

Smartphones iOS Android and Black Berry

Photoshop Mobile PhotoForge Photogene Photo fx Image manipulated using the Pixel Perfect iPhone app. Throughout their existence, camera phones have put some businesses on edge. Having a camera, access to the Internet, and a phone all in one device enabled the instant broadcast of life's most revealing moments. It provided new opportunities for voyeurism. Consider the gym locker room. But by 2015, cell phones may be required to make an audible sound when users take a picture. In 2009, a bill2...

Sensors of the Future

Bio-inspired is the latest buzzword for digital camera sensors sensors built to replicate a human eye. In 2008, Yonggang Huang, a Joseph Cummings Professor of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Mechanical Engineering at Northwestern University's McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science, collaborated with John Rogers, the Flory-Founder Chair Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to begin testing a paraboloid, or curved...

Sensor Design

Medium Format Sensor

You can relate the film-frame size of a negative to the size of a sensor in a digital camera however, there is a bigger difference in the variety of sensor sizes today than there was in filmframe sizes in the film days. Although most cameras from the film days took 35mm film, today only the more expensive dSLR cameras have sensors of that size. Sensors that are the same size as 35mm film 24x36mm are called full-frame sensors. Sensors come in a variety of sizes, but all are rectangular see...

The World Between

There are cameras that lie in limbo between a dSLR and a point-and-shoot. These are the point-and-shoot class with interchangeable lenses currently available from Sony, Olympus, Panasonic, and Samsung. These cameras take dSLR-quality photos without using mirrors, making them smaller and more lightweight than dSLRs. They also can have smaller lenses because the flange-back distance is half the length of that in a dSLR because there are no mirrors. Sony NEX-5 camera. Image courtesy of Sony.com....

Rangefinder and Medium Format Cameras

On the M9, the 28mm Summicron gives me the finest detail, a punchier image, along with amazing color. Although the dSLR is the most popular camera for professional photographers, other camera models have been used throughout the years, developed first as film cameras and then as digital cameras. When considering other models, you should take into account both the way the camera focuses and the size of the film sensor. The cameras discussed in this chapter are the tools of mostly professional...

Image Stabilization

In 1994, Nikon came out with a vibration-reduction lens for film cameras the Nikon Zoom 700VR QD. That was the beginning of an effort to give photographers an opportunity to get a sharp shot using a hand-held camera. Sensor-based image stabilization works within the body of the camera, so you don't have to purchase a lens with image stabilization. Sony, Pentax, Samsung, and Olympus all offer image-stabilization cameras. Canon and Nikon don't offer image stabilization in-camera, but they do...

The dSLR Camera of the Future

With a reflex you tend to make the picture in the camera. The dSLR camera replaced the SLR camera at the beginning of the 21st century. The former has a sensor and other components that record and save an image on a memory card the latter uses film. Both have a mirror system and a pentaprism, and they accept a variety of lenses. Other than the sensor taking the place of film, not many changes in the structure of these types of cameras have been made. As you'll see in this chapter, many of the...

The Daguerreotype

Daguerreotype 1855

Photographic images evolved from an artistry of technology that was constantly in flux. In the 15th century, scientists worked with the first step in the photographic process, which was to use light and mirrors to capture a setting and have it reflected on a wall. Several centuries later, they worked to find materials that would record the image. Initially, plates had to be prepared, exposed to light, and then developed. The first photographic process to do this the daguerreotype see Figure 1.1...