10x Your Memory Power

Memory Professor System

Memory Professor system is a program that uses natural techniques which have gone through a trial, testing and proven to work efficiently and help you gain a strong memory power of about 500% within 30 days only. The program is also offering a guarantee of full money refund within 60-days of purchase which means that this program is secure and has zero risks associated with it hence making it an excellent investment to try. Kit Stevenson is offering a discount to the first 100 people who will purchase this product, and on top of that, he is offering six special bonuses to all the members who buy the memory professor program. There are many benefits associated with this program some of them being, gaining self-esteem, enhancing getting better grades, improving business and personal relationships, enhancing your brain power and finally helping you be in a position to make sound and beneficial business deals. With all these benefits, I highly recommend memory professor system program to everyone who has not yet tried because it is a risk-free method. Hurry up and grab your space while the discounts last. Read more here...

Memory Professor System Summary

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4.7 stars out of 13 votes

Contents: Ebook
Author: Kit Stevenson
Price: $29.99

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My Memory Professor System Review

Highly Recommended

Recently several visitors of websites have asked me about this book, which is being advertised quite widely across the Internet. So I purchased a copy myself to figure out what all the fuss was about.

My opinion on this e-book is, if you do not have this e-book in your collection, your collection is incomplete. I have no regrets for purchasing this.

Image Resolution and Memory Capacity

It's impossible to overstate how glorious it is to have a huge memory card in your camera (or several smaller ones in your camera bag). Since you're not constantly worrying about running out of space on your memory card, you can shoot more freely, increasing your chances of getting great pictures. You can go on longer trips without dragging a laptop along, too, because you don't have to run back to your hotel room every three hours to offload your latest pictures. Your camera's battery life is more than enough to worry about The last thing you need is another chronic headache in the form of your memory card. Bite the bullet and buy a bigger one. RAW format. Most digital cameras work like this When you squeeze the shutter button, the camera studies the data picked up by its sensors. The circuitry then makes decisions pertaining to sharpening level, contrast and saturation settings, color temperature, white balance, and so onand then saves the resulting processed image as a compressed...

Caring for Your Memory Cards

After you are done transferring images from the memory card to your PC, you no longer need those images. You can delete them to make room for more pictures. There are two ways to do this you can delete them via the PC, or use the camera's controls to delete images or reformat the card. If your memory card is inserted in the PC via some sort of memory card adapter, using the PC doesn't waste camera battery power, and that's a good reason to do it that way. If you don't have that luxury, it's a good idea to plug the camera into its AC adapter so you don't drain your camera's batteries. To delete images from your memory card via the PC, you can usually just select the files and press DELETE on your keyboard it's just like deleting any kind of file from your PC's floppy or hard disk. If you have some very important images on your memory card and don't want them deleted, you can usually use your camera to protect them. Check your camera's menu system for a feature called protect or lock....

Recommendation Save Your JPEGs as TIFFs

Granted, there will be occasions when you'll select a low-resolution higher-compression capture mode. You may decide to do so when you want certain photos to make only small prints, when you want photos only for Internet use, or when all your memory cards are almost full and have inadequate capacity for larger files.

Figure 28 A photo of the Digital Gray Card

If you are short on memory cards or are going away on a long trip, it's a very good idea to take along a battery-powered hard drive. That way, you can download all your memory cards as you shoot them so they can be reformatted and reused. Portable hard drives come in an ever-widening range of prices and capabilities, and the companies come and go. A good source of up-to-the-minute reviews and prices can be found at www.dpreview.com.

Turning Off The Release Shutter Without Card Setting

Now when you try to take a photo without a memory card inserted in the camera, you will see a message in the bottom left of your viewfinder that flashes the word Card. This is your clue that you need to insert your memory card before the camera will fire. The rear display will also display a large No Card message if you activate the shutter button.

Making Sure There is Enough Free Memory

If you are running on earlier versions of the Mac OS you will be required to manage your memory carefully. Graphics applications require a lot of memory. Photo Graphic Edges is no exception to this rule and due to the dynamic nature of the software, it requires more than most. You should provide Photo Graphic Edges with as much available memory as you can to ensure fast and trouble free operations. You may consider running this software as a stand-alone version (versus as a plug-in) if you run into memory problems. We highly recommend Mac OS X as memory management is superior and our software runs more efficiently under the Mac OS X system.

Monitor Matters Customizing the Shooting Display

One other key item, the shots remaining value, appears in the lower-right corner of the display. This number tells you how many pictures will fit in the space remaining on your memory card. If the number is low, grab another card, visit Chapter 4 to find out how to erase some pictures, or pay a trip to Chapter 5 for details on how to download photos to your computer. Chapter 2 explains how your Image Quality settings affect the number of shots you can fit on a card. Chapter 3 explains how Movie Quality settings affect how many minutes of recordings will fit.

Forgetting photography

All manner of official documents demand portraits of their holders, including passports, driving licences, library cards, and so forth. In many parts of the world people are obliged to carry identity cards (British citizens may soon be required to join them). Imagine how much easier it would be to take on a different identity before - or after - photography. Charles Dickens gave a great description of the trouble it took to identify individuals in a period before their likenesses could be photographically produced. For example, jailers were required to scrutinize each prisoner and memorize his or her appearance. The police began using photography seriously in the 1870s. With the emergence of fingerprinting, and subsequently DNA testing, photography occupies a less central place in identification. But, while these other technologies allow identity to be confirmed, photographs make it much easier to spot an individual. In Noreen's future, the police can keep tabs...

Turn Off The Release Shutter Without Card Setting

Now when you try to take a photo without a memory card inserted in the camera, you will see a message at the bottom of your viewfinder that flashes the words no CF (which stands for no Compact Flash card). This is your clue that you need to insert your memory card before the camera will fire. The top LCD Panel will also display the no CF message if you activate the Shutter button.

Choosing The Right Memory Card

Memory cards are the digital film that stores every shot you take until you move them to a computer. The cards come in all shapes and sizes, and they are critical for capturing all of your photos. It is important not to skimp when it comes to selecting your memory cards. The D3000 uses Secure Digital (SD) memory cards (Figure 2.1). If you have been using a point-and-shoot camera, chances are that you may already own an SD media card. Which brand of card you use is completely up to you, but here is some advice about choosing your memory card

Setting image quality and image format

You also use the camera menu or function dial to specify the image format. When you set the size and quality, you're working with images in the JPEG format. Your camera may also have the option to shoot images in your camera's RAW format. This option is also found on the camera menu or function dial. If you happen to have one of the newer cameras that captures a humongous amount of megapixels, you may have the option to specify a lower number of megapixels when capturing RAW images to conserve room on your memory card. Choose a lower setting if the image is going to be printed as a 4-x-6-inch image.

Burst Mode for Rapid Fire Shooting

It hardly needs to be said that a camera case protects your camera from weather and accidental drops but what about your memory cards They're even more sensitive. If you're backpacking in the Himalayas and decided not to bring your laptop to store your photos, consider getting a weatherproof case to hold all your extra memory cards. Cases are usually designed for a specific type of memory card. You'll find good weather proof cases that holds four to eight cards for under 10. Travel drives. If you fill your camera's memory card and you're not near your computer, how do you free space up so you can take more shots The answer is a travel drive, sometimes referred to as standalone storage. You plug your memory card into the drive and it sucks down the photos then, you're free to erase the card and continue shooting. Some travel drives use mini hard drives, which store 20 gigabytes or more these cost 200 and up. Other travel drives are CD or DVD burners and look like a...

Contrast and Saturation

Back in the old days of film, a photographer could choose from various emulsions to achieve a specific look for an image. Kodachrome was the standard by which all others were judged for years its accuracy was unparalleled. Velvia, the supersaturated transparency film, is a favorite of mine, though it's too saturated for some. I always thought it replicated how your memory remembered the scene, slightly exaggerated across its palette.

How to Speed Things Up

Quality Settings Choosing a lower quality setting will shorten click-to-click time because smaller, lower quality photos take less time for your camera's onboard computer to write to your memory card. Shoot at highest quality when you will have plenty of time for each photo. Otherwise, lower your quality to enable faster snapping. Memory Card Size The size of your memory card itself also contributes here. Larger cards not only drain more battery power, but also require demand more time from our camera's computer because it must search further for an appropriate place to put the new photo information.The best thing to do here is to purchase a collection of smaller cards, rather than investing is one big one.

Budding Spielbergs are out of luck

Most point-and-shoot digital cameras can capture motion picture clips with monaural sound. Many offer only poor quality clips at, say, a herky-jerky 10 or 15 frames per second (fps) instead of the standard 30 fps, and resolutions are as low as 320-x-240 or 160-x-120 pixels. You might be limited to 30- or 60-second clips, tops. Higher-end, non-SLR digital cameras might give you virtually TV-quality 640-x-480 resolution at 30 fps with decent sound, and recording times as long as the available capacity of your memory card. You can even find incamera trimming and editing facilities.

Tip How Many Pictures Can I Take

Every time you take a shot, the frame countdown on the LCD viewfinder (and or control panel) will be reduced by one. However, that's only an approximation of the number of pictures you'll be able to take before your memory card fills up. For several technical reasons, the file size of each image may be different. And once you start playing with the resolution and image quality settings, those numbers will change radically. Still, it is a good approximation of how much longer you can continue to shoot. By the way, when you switch from camera to video mode (most digital cameras allow you to capture movie clips), the countdown counter will display approximately how many seconds of shooting time you have left.

Menus on LCD Viewfinder

To find and select the settings on the LCD, you'll usually have to navigate through nested menus (menus that bring up other menus). Most often, this is done by using the jog buttons described earlier (refer back to Figure 3-3). Other LCD menus have buttons surrounding the viewfinder whose functions are based on what word the LCD displays closest to the particular button. Actually, there are so many variations on how menus are navigated that we highly recommend that you read your camera's manual to give you a sense of how it works. Then, just go ahead and choose different options to see what they do. If you have the wrong setting, the worst that will happen is your picture won't turn out as you expected, and you'll need to reshoot. You won't break your camera by choosing the wrong setting. But beware you don't accidentally delete images or reformat your memory card.

Nothings super about superfluous pixels

Excess megapixels eat up your memory cards. All dSLRs store images on solid-state memory cards. I own three cards for my 6MP camera, each of which can store about 100 pictures in the best high-resolution shooting mode. Most of the time, that's plenty of digital film for any day's shooting, and I can always drop back to a lower resolution mode to stretch my memory cards further. However, if I were using the same vendor's top-of-the-line dSLR, each of those cards would hold no more than an old-fashioned 36-exposure roll of film. I'd have to own a lot more memory cards to do the same work

Memory Card Care and Corruption

Memory cards are often misunderstood by digital camera users and treated the same way as others forms of media storage, such as hard drives and floppy disks. Unfortunately, this leads many digital camera users into problems where new photos can't be written to a card or old ones can no longer be accessed.You can easily avoid such frustrations if you follow two crucial practices to care for your memory card First, remember to always turn your camera off before removing or inserting a memory card.When your camera is on and your card is inserted the two are interconnected, passing information in the form of magnetically charged particles.Yanking out your memory card can literally cause things to go haywire. A solution to this discrepancy may soon be found, but until then you can save yourself and your memory card from the problem and ensure your ability to take pictures when you want to by simply following the guidelines above.

Selecting Image Quality

The word quality in this context is different from traditional photographic quality involving lighting, exposure, sharpness, composition, and other visual aesthetics of the image. Digital image quality is determined by the file formats you select and the pixel resolution of the camera. Many, but not all, digital cameras give you the option of capturing images in RAW, TIFF, or JPEG formats, with JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) probably the most used format. The JPEG format compresses files in order to reduce file size, and with this compression there is a loss of information and thus, quality. Simply put, the smaller the file, the lower the quality of the image. The advantage of the smaller file size is the increased number of images you can store on your memory card. The disadvantage is that the smaller file size limits what you can do with the image. In the JPEG format,

Set Your Rawjpeg Image Quality

Let's start with the JPEG file format. JPEG stands for Joint Photographic Experts Group. It was developed as a method of shrinking digital images in order to reduce large file sizes while retaining the original information. (Technically, JPEG is a mathematical equation for compressing a file format, but we'll refer to it as a file format to keep things simple.) Your camera will embed all information into the photograph at the time of exposure. When you shoot in JPEG you have smaller file sizes, but that also means that each image has less information and lower quality, and making any extreme enhancements or edits to the image could degrade the image quality even more. However, using JPEG you can fit many more images on your memory card, and the images will write to the card faster, which can make this type of file format desirable to many wedding and sports photographers. RAW files, on the other hand, retain much more information than JPEG files, are not compressed, and offer a lot...

Understanding file type JPEG or

Don't confuse file format with the Format option that you can access via the Card Setup item on Shooting Menu 1. That option erases all data on your memory card see Chapter 1 for details. Raw files are larger than JPEGs. Unlike JPEGs, Raw doesn't apply lossy compression to shrink files. In addition, Raw files are always captured at the maximum resolution available on your camera, even if you don't really need all those pixels. For both reasons, Raw files are significantly larger than JPEGs, so they take up more room on your memory card and on your computer's hard drive or other picture-storage device.

Keep Backup Memory Cards on

It's not unusual for a pro wedding photographer to shoot 750 shots in one wedding, covering the four major parts of a wedding (the pre-wedding shots, the ceremony, the formals, and the reception), so it's likely you'll be shooting a similar amount (maybe less, maybe more, but it will be literally hundreds of shots). The last thing you want to happen is to run out of film (in other wordsyou don't want to fill up your digital camera's memory card unless you have an empty backup card ready to step right in so you can keep shooting). The trick here is to keep a spare backup memory card physically on you at all times. Keep one right there in your pocket (or purse) so the moment your card reads full, you're just seconds away from continuing your shoot. It's a natural law of wedding photography that your memory card will become full at the most crucial moment of the ceremony, and if you have to stop to go find your backup card (in your camera bag across the room, in the car, or in the...

Faster Downloads with Card Readers

One other goodie I recommend for any digital photographer is an external card reader. Digital cameras come with USB or FireWire cables that connect to your computer so you can download memory cards directly from your digital camera. This method works fine, except it's slow and drains the digital camera's battery power. For less than the cost of a tank of gas (okay, for an SUV with a 30-gallon tank), you can purchase a card reader that connects directly to your USB port and downloads your memory cards a lot faster than if you directly connected your digital camera to your computer. Card readers typically accept all the popular card types CompactFlash, SD, XD, and even Memory Stick.

Digitek Universal Lcd Battery Charger

Konishi Canon India

Of (lash memory cards, the association has revealed information only about its domestic demand, which is expected to grow by about 2 percent annually. Memory capacity continues to expand, and 4GB models will become mainstay in 2011. Other recording media such as USB and hard-disc drives are also used widely owing to their large memory capacity, and the increase in demand for optical disc is expected to slow down further. Another negative factor for recording media is the fast-growing online content providing service, which will result in a decline of the demand for packaged contents.

Optimizing Compression and Resolution

Before you start taking pictures, the most important decision you must make is what compression and resolution settings to use. Both settings have an effect on the sharpness of your final image, as well as how many pictures you can fit on your memory card. Here's a quick introduction to each parameter, with some tips on choosing the setting that's appropriate for you. To save space on your memory card, digital SLRs usually squeeze down, or compress the images before they are stored. Compression makes the image file smaller so that more pictures can fit on the card. Various mathematical algorithms are used to TIFF. This format is one of the original file formats used for images. It's a lossless format that preserves all the detail of the image, but it typically requires the most space on your memory card, and takes the most time to process. It's not uncommon to wait 15-25 seconds while a mammoth TIFF file is stored on your card. Because TIFF files are compatible with any image editor...

O File Size And Compression

File compression settings determine the file sizes of digital pictures, the number of images that your memory card will hold, the quality of any enlargements you will make, and the rate of speed at which they can be transmitted over the Internet. The finer the setting (the less compression), the less data is thrown away and the better the quality of larger prints such as 16 x 20 or 20 x 24 inches. At its default setting, the camera will choose a mid-level compression level. Fine. This setting offers the least image compression, resulting in images that can be enlarged to 30 x 40 inches if the exposure, color balance, color correction, saturation, contrast, and luminosity are correct. Again, at this setting, you will be able to capture and store fewer images on your memory card.

Saving Your Image Files Safely

It is quite possible for your hard disk to fail or catch a virus after you have transferred your images to it and reformatted your memory card. In this scenario, if you haven't already backed up your images, you will lose them forever. The chance of losing a main copy and an external backup copy of your data is extremely small, and we always create an automatically synchronized backup copy of our images on an external hard drive immediately after downloading.

Few Things To Know And Do Before You Begin Taking Pictures

So you now have a basic grasp of the top ten tips to get you started shooting with your 7D, but there are still a few important details that need mentioning before you can take full advantage of your camera. In this - chapter we'll review some 7D basics on lenses and exposure and get you started formatting your memory card and preparing the camera for use. Let's start with the very first thing you will need before you can run out and take photos a memory card.

Step 13 Digital Image Processing

First you need to download your images. This means transferring them from your memory card or camera onto the hard drive of your computer. As suggested under Step 3, Selecting Equipment, it is easier and less prone to error if you use a card reader to do the downloading rather than attaching your camera to the computer. Simply remove the memory card from the camera, place it into the reader, and watch it show up on your desktop. Make a new folder and name it appropriately. One suggestion is to use the date and a short description. If you use the date as YYMMDD (for example, 060315 means March 15, 2006), then they will automatically sort in date order. So the complete name would be 060315-Susan beach. If you have more than one session or location on your memory card, set up folders for each. Then simply drag the photographs from the memory card on the desktop into the various folders. Do not erase, reformat, or reuse your memory cards until you have backed up. Always erase or reformat...

How Digital SLRs Work

It's important to remember that you might not actually need all that extra resolution, especially when you consider that every million pixels you stuff into a digital SLR adds up to a more expensive camera that might not actually give you better results. Those extra pixels fill up your memory cards My first dSLR could fit 150 highest-resolution photos on a 1GB Compact Flash card my newest requires a 4GB card for 190 photos. The size and speed of your digital camera's buffer and the writing speed of the memory card determine how many pictures you can take in a row. Digital cameras generally let you take between 5 and 30 shots consecutively and in continuous bursts of about 2.5 to 8 frames per second. When your buffer fills, the camera stops taking pictures. However, as the buffer fills, the dSLR will simultaneously write some of the pictures to your memory card, freeing up space for more pictures. So, a faster memory card (they are measured in relative speed, such as 40X, 80X, 133X)...

Understand Color Temperature

Every light source has a color temperature that effects how colors appear. Table 6-1 shows a brief summary of light temperatures and their respective effects on subjects illuminated by these sources. You don't need to memorize the information in the table it is provided so you can see the effect that different color temperatures have on how colors appear.

Editing folder names and descriptions

How many times have you stared at an old snapshot and wondered When did I take this shot and who in the world are these people To jog your memory later, you can change the names and descriptions of folders by choosing Folder * Edit Description (Figure 5-14 ). You see the same Folder Properties dialog box as when you create a new folder. In the Properties box, you can change the folder's name, date, place, and caption. Just remember, if you change the folder name, you're changing the name of the matching folder on your computer, too.

Low Light and Action Photography

A typical digital camera has a light sensitivity equal to that of ISO 100 film (or, in everyday lingo, 100-speed film). In case you're new to the subject, that ISO number indicates that the camera needs plenty of light to produce a good image. Many digital cameras also offer a limited range of shutter speeds and apertures, which can hamper your ability to adjust exposure to match the light or motion in the scene. Add to these factors the lag time that a digital camera needs to transfer image data to your memory card after each press of the shutter button, and you can see why you may have been frustrated when trying to capture a nighttime skyline or roller-blading teen.

What is sequence shooting

One way to do this is by reducing the resolution to speed up the data recording time. Alternatively, you can use the sequence mode found in many digital cameras and the internal memory. By saving the first and subsequent images in the RAM, you can take several shots in quick sequence. Once the maximum number of shots has been reached (the actual limit depends on the resolution and memory capacity) or the user removes his or her finger from the release, all the photos are saved to the storage card.

Using Filters With Color Slides

Again, we don't expect you to memorize this list. You can consult the NYI Color Printing Guide which accompanies this lesson whenever you make a print from a color-slide. This Guide contains a summary of all this information, and should be a convenient reference for you for years to come. For now, just be sure you understand the concept. Reread these six operations make certain the concept is clear to you then proceed.

Adjusting WB and Autobracketing

Some cameras also offer WB auto-bracketing, which automatically processes the image you just took at multiple WB settings and saves each one as a separate image. This should not be confused with exposure auto-bracketing which required taking multiple photos. WB auto-bracketing does all of the processing from a single exposure. From a menu function, you select how many different WB settings to apply to the image when it is shot. This allows you to select the best photo with the optimum WB setting from the many that were taken after you have loaded it into your photo editor. The major disadvantage to this approach is the extra room that is taken on your memory card and the extra processing time to create the range of images at the different WB settings.

Select Folder New Folder

Although your Alpha will create new folders automatically as needed, you can create a new folder at any time, and switch among available folders already created on your memory card. (But only, of course, if a memory card is installed in the camera.) This is an easy way to segregate photos by folder. For example, if you're on vacation, you can change the Folder Name convention to Date Form (described previously), and then deposit each day's shots into different folders, which you create with this menu entry.

Using Filters With Color Negatives

Again, don't feel you have to memorize this list we'll provide it all in the NYI Guide. But, do try to understand the theory behind it. If you feel you understand this theory move on. If you're not sure, read pages22 to 2 1 again then, whether the theory is clear or not, move on. Sou can learn to handle color printing by simply using the NYI Color Printing Guide even if you're shaky on the theory. But it j helps if you understand the theory.

Choosing a File Format

-gjHBE If you get good results most of the time by using your camera settings, don't want to do a lot of processing in your image editor, and are taking lots of pictures, you might opt for TIFF or JPEG. TIFF gets the nod if you want the best image quality, but JPEG might be preferable if you're on a trip and want to make your memory cards stretch as far as possible. RAW could be best if you plan on doing a lot of tweaking. These next sections explore these options in a little more detail.

Pre Planning your Magic Filter Photography

Pre-planning can be as simple as copying some photo ideas to your memory card so you can refer to them in-camera whilst shooting or affixing a list of 'ideas to try' to your camera set-up. If something goes wrong with your uw photo shoot and you feel it could have been prevented then give it some thought on how you may avoid it occurring in the future.

What Difference Does Frame Rate Make

The frame rate of a camera is the speed at which images can be continuously recorded and saved. Frame rate is governed by several factors, including the resolution (number of pixels), the buffer size, the speed of the image processor, and the write speed of your memory card. Obviously, higher-resolution cameras such as the 5D and the IDs Mark III have more information to transfer, which takes more time. The buffer size in a digital camera is basically the amount of memory or storage the camera has available, which temporarily stores images until they can be written to the memory card. In turn, this dictates how many images you can take in rapid succession. Once the buffer is full, you are out of the picture-taking business until some images can be written to the storage device, in this case your memory card. As the buffer frees up space by downloading to the card, the camera is able to shoot photos to the capacity of that space. Normally it takes several seconds for the buffer to...

Understanding the sources of lag

There's a secondary kind of lag that can't be blamed on a camera's pokey autofocus system. If you're taking a lot of photos in a row and your camera takes a long time to write them to the memory card (or your memory card is a slow one that can't accept data as quickly as your camera provides it), you can run into unfortunate delays. Your camera's buffer fills up, you press the shutter release, and nothing happens.

Image Size File Size and File Compression

One of the original reasons digital cameras offered more than one file format in the first place is to limit the size of the file stored on your memory card. Early dSLRs used tethered hard disk drives slung over a shoulder, enabling the photographer to store 200 megabytes worth of 1.3 megapixel images. PC Card memory that fit the slots still found in notebook computers (but generally used for WiFi plug-ins today) worked for a while, until SanDisk invented the CompactFlash card in 1994. Still, all these memory options were limited in size, so more efficient file formats had to be used. If a digital camera had unlimited memory capacity and file transfers from the camera to your computer were instantaneous, all images would probably be stored in RAW or TIFF format. TIFF might even have gained the nod for convenience and ease of use, and because not all applications can interpret the unprocessed information in RAW files. Both RAW and TIFF provide no noticeable loss in quality. Alas, JPEG...

Creating Your Own Presets

Your digital SLR may have an option for storing the measured white balance in a memory slot as a preset. The feature might also include the ability to provide a label or name to the preset (such as Madison Square Garden), so you can retrieve the setting at a later date. Many dSLRs also allow adopting the white balance of an existing image on your memory card, so that can be applied to your current shooting session or stored as a preset.

Setting Up And Shooting In The Continuous Drive Mode

Your camera has an internal memory, called a buffer, where images are stored while they are being processed prior to being moved to your memory card. Depending on the image format you are using, the buffer might fill up, and the camera will stop shooting until space is made in the buffer for new images. If this happens, you will see the word Busy appear in the viewfinder and on the rear LCD panel. The camera readout in the viewfinder tells you how many frames you have available.

The Weather and Atmospheric Conditions

Dust softens and diffuses color and line. Bad weather conditions often provide an excellent opportunity to create pictures full of brooding theatrical ambiance and intrigue. With a few precautions to yourself and equipment, you need not be just a fair-weather imagemaker. Before going out into any unusual weather conditions, be certain your memory card has plenty of room, preset

Turn on The Blinkies to Keep More Detail

Okay, they're technically not called the blinkies (that's our nickname for them), they're actually called highlight warnings (or highlight alerts) and having this turned on, and adjusting for it, is a critical part of getting properly exposed landscape shots. This warning shows exactly which parts of your photo have been overexposed to the point that there's no detail in those areas at all. You'll be amazed at how often this happens. For example, even on an overcast day, clouds can blow out (turn solid white with no detail) easily, so we keep our camera's highlight warning turned on. Here's how it works When the highlight warning is turned on and you look at the shot in your LCD monitor, those blown out areas will start to blink like a slow strobe light. Now, these blinkies aren't always badfor example, if you shoot a shot where the sun is clearly visible, it's going to have the blinkies (I don't mean sunlight, I mean the red ball of the sun). There's not much detail on the suface of...

With a series of photographs of the same subject in hand you can judge which shot is sharper without ever opening a file

When you're shooting in JPEG mode with your digital camera (which you usually are, unless you explicitly switch to TIFF or RAW), the files are compressed in the camera so that they don't take up too much room on your memory card. Fine, sharp detail is harder to compress than softer, duller images. So, the resulting file for a slightly sharper image will be a little bigger.

Dealing with latency of your camera

Latency is the time required to write the image you've just taken to your storage media. When you take a picture with a film camera, the shutter releases, and the image is immediately registered on the film at the speed of light, so to speak. When you take a picture with a digital camera, the image has to be captured and then recorded onto your memory card. The image capture and storage process can take a second or two or even longer. How long the process takes and whether your camera will continue taking additional photos while writing to the card are important questions. Resolution The more data the camera has to write to the card, the greater the latency period. Non-compressed formats like RAW and TIFF can take the longest to write. If you know that you can get by with a lower-resolution setting, you can speed up things considerably by going with the lower resolution. This can be a tough decision because after you give up quality, you can't get it back. On the other hand, missing a...

Istockphotosuzanne Tucker

Because of the fact that much of sports photography is taken in burst mode (see page 103) and the fact that you only have so much memory space in your camera's multiple-shot buffer, the larger the photos you take, the quicker that buffer will become full. When it's full, you're done shootin' (well, at least until it has time to write the shots to your memory card, which empties the buffer again). That's why many pro sports photographers choose to shoot in JPEG format rather than RAW. It's because JPEG files are considerably smaller in file size so more of them fit in the buffer (plus, since they're smaller, they write to your memory card faster, so you can effectively shoot more uninterrupted shots in JPEG format vs. RAW format). Now, there are some purists who feel so strongly about shooting in RAW for every occasion (including shots of their kid's birthday party at Chuck E. Cheese) that reading about anyone advocating any file format other than RAW sends them scrambling into a tower...

Using The Right Format Raw Vs Jpeg

The 7D gives you the option to shoot and save your images to your memory card in RAW, JPEG, or both. Most people are already familiar with JPEG since it's one of the most common file formats for anyone using a digital camera. This topic was briefly discussed in Chapter 1, so you already have a basic understanding of RAW and JPEG. You may want to set your camera to JPEG and start shooting, never bothering with the other settings. After all, a JPEG is a very simple file to work with It's ready to go right out of the camera and you can store a lot more JPEG files on your memory card than you can RAW files. JPEG will also write to the card much faster, making it a good choice for photographers who do a lot of high-speed photography (such as sports photographers or photojournalists). So what's the drawback of JPEG There's really nothing wrong with it if you can create your photos in-camera exactly how you want them to look (proper exposure, white balance, and so on). The 7D has the ability...

Mastering file formats

The primary function of a JPEG file is what's known as compression taking the digital information that makes up an image and manipulating it so it takes up as little space on your memory card as possible.This compression means you can fit far more images on to a card than if it were stored completely uncompressed. To get the maximum amount of compression, JPEG is what's known as a lossy compression format, which means that in the process of compressing the file it throws away some of the image

Negotiating A Contract

Step one is reading the proposed contract. I say proposed, because it is not a contract until you agree to it. You are reading an offer from your client. Keep that mind-set. It is an offer, not a decree. As you read the document, make pencil notes on your photocopy. A few keywords to jog your memory on what came to mind as you read that section will usually do. I also like to use a yellow highlighter to mark the parts that I know I will want to negotiate. Usually, those deal with fees, rights, and liability. I underline in red any word that I do not understand. There are many words in the dictionary, and, if the person who drafted the contract used words that you do not understand, you cannot have a mutual understanding until you understand those words.

Describe The Use Of A Daylight Exposure Table

Daylight Exposure Table

You don't have to memorize Table 1-7, but it would help. What you must remember is what the subject and lighting conditions described above mean then, think of the sunny f 16 rule. That is, in bright sun with an average subject, use a basic exposure of 1 ISO at f 16. Then make adjustments based on the subject brightness and lighting conditions you are actually photographing.

Meeting Your Storage Requirements

Just like going on vacation with a film camera, the digital camera needs a steady supply of (digital) film, like that shown in Figure 6-8. Because of the newness of the technology (particularly overseas and in Third World countries), photographers need to ensure that they have enough memory capacity for the trip.

Restoring Your Library from a Vault

With any luck, you will never need to restore your Library from a Vault. If you do, it usually means you have suffered a serious internal hard drive failure. Fortunately, if you have been keeping your Vaults up to date, you should be able to recover all of your work, except that which you have done since your last backup (which really should be no more than a day). If you ensure that you do not delete your photos from your memory card before they are stored in a Vault, you should be able to recover any new images imported since the last backup by returning to your original media (Figs 3.23 and 3.24).

Tip Onthe Road Data Protection

Digital photos are ephemeral one small glitch in your camera or laptop, and an entire shoot can vanish. You'll want to be sure to develop a backup strategy to use on the road. This may include saving your photos to more than one place, such as multiple memory cards, key drives, your laptop, or so on. One great type of device to consider carrying with you is a portable hard drive or CD DVD burner that will take data from your memory card (without requiring a computer) and save it onto a hard drive or burn it to a disc (see Chapter 4 for more information about these devices).

Chapter Eight Taking Advantage of Digital Like a

Will digital photography really get you better photos Absolutely. There are two huge advantages digital brings (if you take advantage of them), so I'm covering both of them on these first two pages. The first isfilm is free. In the days of traditional film cameras, every time I pressed the shutter, I heard in my head 22 . Each time I clicked off a shot, it cost me around 22 . So whenever I considered taking a shot, I would consciously (or subconsciously) think, Is this shot worth 22 Of course, I wouldn't know for days (when the film came back from the processing lab), but it always made me pause. Now I can push the shutter again and again and again, and in my head I just see a smiley face instead. Why Because I'm insane. But besides that, it's because once you've bought your memory card, film is free. This really levels the playing field with professional photographers, because this has always been a huge advantage they had over the amateurs. The pros had a budget for film, so if they...

Noise Reduction Saves Space

When shooting at very high ISO settings, running Noise Reduction can save you space on your memory card. If you are saving your photos as JPEGs, the camera will compress the information in the image to take up less space. When you have excessive noise, you can literally add megabytes to the file size. This is because the camera has to deal with more information it views the noise in the image as photo information and, therefore, tries not to lose that information during the compression process. That means more noise equals bigger files. So not only will turning on the Noise Reduction feature improve the look of your image, it will also save you some space so you can take a few more shots.

Perform Your First Backup

Now that your images are in Aperture, and before deleting them from your memory card, you should perform a backup. If you chose to store your images in the Aperture Library, rather than referencing them from elsewhere on your hard drive, you should use the Vaults system by opening the Vaults panel at the foot of the Inspector and connecting an external hard drive by either FireWire or USB. Aperture will show you a progress meter as the backup completes. Once it is done, you can disconnect the Vault -remembering to first unmount the drive by clicking the Eject button in the Finder or Vaults panel - and delete the original images from your memory card.

The use of people to emphasize scale

When required to emphasize the scale of a building in this way, people can either be posed, or caught on film as they go about their daily lives. The latter involves setting up the camera, watching and waiting for a suitable juxtaposition of people in the setting already established. When using a view camera for such shots, it is essential to memorize the parameters of the image frame so you will know just by

Shooting RAW Leave a Little Room on That Memory Card

A word of warning If you're shooting in RAW format, don't use up every shot on your memory card (leave one or two unshot) because you could potentially corrupt the entire card and lose all your shots. It happens because some RAW shots take more room on the card than others, but your camera calculates how many shots are left based on an average size, not actual size. So, don't chance it -leave one or two unshot.

Downloading your images

After you finish a photo shoot, your first step is to get your images into your computer. Many cameras have a USB port and cable you can use to download your images. This, however, depletes the camera battery and is also fairly slow. A much better method of downloading your images is to use a card reader. There are a lot of different card readers on the market, and many of them support multiple memory card formats. Find one that matches your memory card type. The following steps show you how to download images using a card reader and a Windows operating system Delete Options Choose one of the options from the drop-down menu. The default option doesn't delete the originals. There's also an option to verify and delete originals, which verifies that the images have downloaded properly. However, I recommend that you stick with the default option and format your cards in the camera after downloading them. Your camera is better equipped to optimally format your memory cards for future use.

Panavue Image Assembler

Panavue ImageAssembler is one of the most powerful software packages for assembled panoramic photographs, and my favorite to use with a PC. It works quickly and efficiently, but it takes longer to work on than, say, Stitcher or Autopano Pro. But that's the price one pays for so many unique functions Here, one can make Interactive panoramas (like extension.mov's well-known QTVR), normal photos (without being obliged to put the horizon line in the middle of the image), and assemblages constructed from scanned-in images. This software is truly the one of the most complete for making technically irreproachable, high-definition panoramas. You will not necessarily detect any difference between its images and those made with a specialty camera. In the past, one could open images with all kinds of extensions like the 8-bit TIFF, but the more recent 3.0 version, mentioned earlier, also allows one to work with all kinds of file extensions except RAW files. In either case, the memory capacity is...

Choosing the right portable printer

HP's offerings can function without a direct camera-to-printer connection. You simply insert your memory card (and these printers accept most of the standard media, including CompactFlash, SmartMedia, Memory Stick, and others) and make your prints. The downside is that you're limited to 4 x 6 prints, although for most people that isn't a problem (see Figure 22-1).

Polarizer Filter Makes Boring Photos

Here's how it works When the highlight warning is turned on and you look at the shot in your LCD monitor, those blown out areas will start to blink like a slow strobe light. Now, these blinkies aren't always bad -for example, if you shoot a shot where the sun is clearly visible, it's going to have the blinkies (I don't mean sunlight, I mean the red ball of the sun). There's not much detail on the surface of the sun, so I'd let that go. However, if your clouds have the blinkies, that's a different story. Probably the quickest way to adjust for this is to use your camera's exposure compensation control (covered on the next page). For now, let's focus on making sure your highlight warning (blinkies) is turned on. If you have a Nikon camera, press the playback button so you can see the photos on your memory card. Now, push the right arrow button until the word Highlight appears below your photo on the LCD monitor. If you have a Canon camera (like a 20D, 30D, or a Rebel), press the...

Focus Is a Selective Service

You need to become familiar with the DOF characteristics of each of your lenses, their zoom settings, and apertures. I'm not suggesting you memorize all kinds of figures and distances. Just work with, say, your favorite zoom lens and use photos you take or glimpses with the depth-of-field preview to know approximately the sharpness range at, perhaps, f2.8, f8, and f16 when shooting close up, at 5 to 10 feet, and at infinity using 25mm, 50mm, or 100mm zoom settings. Then you'll have a better handle on how focal length, aperture, and distance choices affect your shot before you frame a picture.

Part VThe Part of Tens

You need to become familiar with the DOF characteristics of each of your lenses, their zoom settings, and their apertures. I'm not suggesting you memorize all kinds of figures and distances. Just work with, say, your favorite zoom lens and use photos you take or glimpses with the depth-of-field preview to know approximately the sharpness range at, perhaps, f 2.8, f 8, and f 16 when shooting close up, at 5 to 10 feet, and at infinity using 25mm, 50mm, or 100mm zoom settings. Then you'll have a better handle on how focal length, aperture, and distance choices affect your shot before you frame a picture.

Stage 1 Thinking Time

Thinking time commences when you experience the first conscious awareness of an idea. Ask yourself, Where did this idea come from Sometimes you can trace it back to an external stimulus, such as talking with friends, watching a DVD, seeing something online, reading a book, or observing a situation. Other times it may be internal. It may be produced by apprehension or pleasure based on your memory of experiences and knowledge. It might be brought about through conscious thought directed toward a particular subject. It could strike without warning, seemingly out of nowhere, having either emotional or intellectual origins. It can arrive while you are commuting or in the middle of the night in the form of a dream.

Hypercomplex Receptive Fields

These fields, however, are simplified generalizations they paint a picture that there exists a single neuron that is responsible for a specific recognition or awareness. This is not the case. What is evident is that the neural visual-processing network is a learning network that converges, depending on the stimuli. There is a debate as to whether we use a kind of 3D map to compare projected 2D retinal images and then decide what object it is. This theory is controversial because there is evidence that an object is recognized far more quickly than the time it takes to process the retinal image and compare. So, there must be a kind of multidimensional, cross-referencing feedback system. Furthermore, the visual system can perceive more objects than it can report. What this means is that we are aware of more objects than we consciously realize and, from memory tests, we seem to be limited to no more than seven items in short-term memory.

Dragging and Dropping

The final way to move photos from your memory card to your computer is the old-fashioned way manually dragging and dropping the files from one window on your computer to another. The procedure works pretty much the same whether you're using a Mac or a PC. 1. Remove the memory card from the Sony Alpha and insert it in your memory card reader.

Direct Connect and Memory Card Printers

An increasing number of snapshot and inkjet printers can now print directly from your camera or your memory card without using a computer. Just attach your camera via a cable to the printer's USB port, insert your memory card into the appropriate slot in the printer (see Figure 20-3), or, in the case of Kodak's EasyShare printer, put your matching camera into the dock on the top of the printer. (See Figure 20-4.) Then, you press a few buttons, and within a couple minutes, you'll begin to output attractive-to-gorgeous photo prints.

Reality Check Do You Really Want to Do Your Own Printing

Most retail stores that process film can now give you film-quality prints from your digital photos. You can simply drop off your memory card atthe counter and later pick up your prints, just like you did with film. You'll probably get a CD of your images, as well as prints, though you'll have to specify exactly what you want. Conversely, you can use the Internet to upload your digital photos, often to the same retail store or photo-finishing service you've always used. Then, you can have the option of either picking up your prints (and CD) if it is a nearby location or having them sent to you by mail. Of course, you can order prints (and other photo novelty items) from all the photo-sharing sites on the Internet (see Chapter 19). And then there's kiosk printing. (See the accompanying sidebar figure.) A kiosk is like an ATM, but it dispenses photos instead of money. These self-operated vending machines and interactive monitors are cropping up everywhere in...

Time Lapse Photography

Some digital cameras have the ability to schedule time-lapse delays built in, and I'm hoping this will become more common on dSLRs in the future. You might need to resort to an EVF camera or point-and-shoot camera to get the time-lapse flexibility you need. For example, the Olympus E-20 pioneered a nifty system that lets you take pictures at intervals ranging from every 30 seconds to once a day, for as long as your memory card and batteries hold out. (An AC adapter is always a good idea for time-lapse photos.) Unless your memory card has enough capacity to hold all the images you'll be taking, you might want to change to a higher compression rate or reduced resolution to maximize the image count.

Getting to Know Digital Photography

Results are sent to a processor in the camera. The processor converts the information into digital format (and compresses the image when you shoot in JPEG mode) and then sends the information to a buffer, which is the equivalent of RAM memory in your computer. The data is then sent to your memory card, which is the digital equivalent of film.

Supercheap Hybrid Novelty and Oddball Digital Cameras

What these products have in common, regardless of price, is that image quality is secondary to form, fun, or convenience. Most are point-and-shoot devices that have tiny image sensors and limited memory capacity, often have no LCD viewfinder or built-in flash, take low resolution images, offer very few features, and come equipped with only the most basic software bundle. The images they produce are generally suited for snapshot prints or the Web, and nothing more. But hey They do take pictures, they're fun to operate, and most are small and light enough to carry anywhere.

Setting Up And Shooting In The Continuous Shooting Mode

Your camera has an internal memory, called a buffer, where images are stored while they are being processed prior to being moved to your memory card. Depending on the image format you are using (JPEG or RAW), the buffer might fill up and the camera will stop shooting until space is made in the buffer for new

Asset management

Warning > The danger of NOT integrating a systematic workflow is that hard drive space will quickly become eroded under the shear weight of digital data. You will, at short notice, backup your images to drives or discs (in a desperate attempt to free up hard drive space so that your computer does not grind to a halt). This will, in turn, prevent your computer's search engines, your Adobe software and your short-term memory from finding these files. Your files may be labelled with memorable names such as _B240100.ORF contained in folders with equally memorable names such as 116_Olympus. Your photographs will become lost in a sea of meaningless data.

How to use this book

If you enjoy editing photos you've taken, Chapter 7, Photo Editing, is your new best friend. In each chapter, look for the little yellow sticky notes. If I'm talking about a concept you may have missed from another chapter, I'll cross-reference it so when I start talking about large apertures and fast lenses, I'll include a sticky note to refresh your memory.

TIFF Capture Format

A few digital SLR cameras include an option to record images in TIFF format. A TIFF image is comparable in quality to a RAW image, but is substantially larger. I can see only one benefit to using this capture mode you don't need to convert the image using special software. The drawbacks outweigh this benefit, however. Because each file size is so large, your memory card will hold fewer images. In TIFF capture, you cannot shoot more than one image in a sequence. Also, image processing time is extremely long, which can be very frustrating.

Quality settings

There is the temptation when you're on vacation to dial down the camera's resolution setting in order to stretch your memory shooting as many pictures as your memory device can hold. It's not a bad idea as long as you're still shooting at a high enough quality setting to get the size prints you want once you

Taking photos faster

Digital SLRs have large amounts of built-in memory that temporarily stores each photo you snap before the camera transfers it to your memory card at high speed. You can probably take pictures in single-shot mode as quickly as you can press the shutter release, and for at least 8 to 10 shots before a slight pause kicks in. With faster dSLRs and some quality level settings, you can often keep taking pictures for as long as your finger (or memory card) holds out.

Handy Accessories

Memory Cards Even if your new digital camera comes with a memory card, it's not likely to hold many shots. Every digital camera owner should pick up at least one additional card. Luckily, prices for memory cards have dropped dramatically in recent months. I recommend getting the largest and fastest card your budget can afford (for more on memory cards, see Improve Your Memory).

Image Size

Of course, the Medium and Small settings make it possible to squeeze more pictures onto your memory card, and if you're working with an A390, a 7.7 MP image is nothing to sneeze at it's a resolution that approaches the maximum of some very fine cameras of the last few years. Smaller image sizes might come in handy in situations where your storage is limited and or you don't have the opportunity to offload the pictures you've taken to your computer. For example, if you're on vacation and plan to make only 4 X 6-inch snapshot prints, a lower resolution can let you stretch your memory card's capacity. The A390 can fit 1,108 of those 7.7 MP Medium shots in JPEG Fine quality mode onto a 4GB memory card. Most of the time, however, it makes more sense to simply buy more memory cards and use your camera at its maximum resolution.

O Media Slot Cover

The cover over your memory card slot can be flipped up when you want to remove or insert a card. Some dSLR models require pressing a button to open this cover. Because of the delicate electrical contacts inside, your media slot is a potential weak point. Moisture that gets inside can damage the camera, so a slot cover with

Removable Media

Pay attention to the proper orientation of the card (usually the label of the card faces the outer edge of the camera) and don't force it when inserting. There may be a button to press to Capacity. The number of exposures that will fit on your memory card is likely to have a more immediate impact on your shooting. Most digital SLR owners purchase memory cards with 1GB, 2GB, or 4GB capacity. An important thing to remember is that your media just may outlive your current digital camera in terms of useful life, and you should purchase cards today with that in mind. Although those 512MB cards work fine with your 6-megapixel dSLR today, in three or four years when you replace your current model with a 1,000, 12-megapixel model, those same cards may hold only a few dozen shots. Buying 4GB cards now can end up saving you money in the long run.

Sensor Windows

Use the shooting mode button in conjunction with the select dial to choose among single shot, continuous shooting, self-timer, and other shooting modes. Or, when held down at the same time as the control panel light button on the top of camera (see Figure 3-6), it will reformat your memory card. These kinds of dual-purpose buttons are commonly used to save on camera real estate.

Memory Card Readers

We have found that, short of using a cradle charger (available on only a few consumer models), the best method for transferring images files is via a card reader. A card reader is an inexpensive device ( 20- 50) that acts as an external disk drive when plugged into a USB port (see Figure 4-2). Some are 6-in-1 or 7-in-1 devices that have slots to accommodate different types of memory cards. This is good if you have more than one digital camera or other devices that use different memory cards. Otherwise, buy a less expensive dedicated memory card reader that works only with your card. Incidentally, if you can't find a memory card reader that accommodates your particular card (such as an xD Picture card), consider buying an adapter ( 15- 40) that allows your memory card to plug into a more universal memory card slot.

Sensorship

1 The CCD sensor is dumb to the extent that all it does is capture photons as electrical charges in each photosite pixel. After exposure, the charges are swept off the chip to an amplifier located in one corner of the sensor. External circuitry converts the analog signal to digital form and handles storing it on your memory card.

Digital Movies

Movie making probably wasn't what you had in mind when you bought a digital still camera. Even so, most cameras offer this feature, and it can come in handy now and then. Movie mode lets you capture QuickTime or AVI format videos (both kinds play on Windows and Apple computers) with sound included. You save the videos to your memory card right alongside your still pictures. Some cameras permit only 30 seconds of video per attempt others let you keep recording until the memory card is full. Know your memory. Digital movies, even these low-quality ones, fill up your memory card in seconds. Remember, you're shooting 15 or 30 little pictures per second, which puts you in 512 MB, 1 GB, or 2GB card territory.

Fake It

Just as writers are vulnerable to writer's block, portrait photographers can suffer posing block. Your subject is waiting to be directed, but you're drawing a blank. You could refer to a posing guide, such as Doug gordon's popular Get Sexy ( 135, direct from www.douggordonworkshops.com). but these are expensive, and your stopping to consult a reference book won't inspire confidence in your model. instead, find 10 or 15 photos of poses you like, convert them to low-res JPEGs, and put them in the same folder you're saving images to on your memory card. by using your camera's grid-view image playback, you can quickly refer to this secret cheat sheet for your next pose.

Exposure Theory

These numbers are derived by dividing the focal length of the lens by the diameter of the lens effective aperture. You don't need to know the math though. Here's what you do need to know Memorize the standard series of f-numbers that is listed above. If you remember the first two numbers, 1 and 1.4, and then alternately double those, you'll generate the entire series of numbers. Most lenses start at f 2.8 or f 4 and go to f 22 or f 32. The aperture controls your depth of field which is the zone of acceptably sharp focus in the image. The depth of field is very small at f 2 or f 2.8 for example, but increases as you stop down to f 22. The aperture in the lens is largest when the f-number is smallest and smallest when the f-number is large such as f 22 or even f 32. This relationship confuses beginning photographers because it is counterintuitive. Big f-numbers refer to small apertures so bigger numbers like f 22 mean less light. The best way to get used to this relationship is to...

File Formats

If you intend to shoot a lot of short sequences then your memory cards will fill up, and fast. 1 minute of 1080p footage (MPEG4) will take up at least 300MB of space, so it's worth carrying around spare cards - ones new and fast enough to keep up with the large stream of data too.

Contrasty subjects

If your automatic camera has an exposure lock, you can first tilt the camera towards the area that you want to expose correctly so that the entire frame is filled. Then, by pressing the shutter halfway down or pushing the exposure lock button, the light reading is memorized and does not change when you compose the shot as you originally intended (see Figure 14.10).

Analogue systems

For shutter-priority operation, the output of the CPU was used to arrest the iris diaphragm opening at a value predetermined by the metering system. For aperture-priority operation the photocell output controlled exposure duration via the shutter. The control circuitry required only a few components such as transistors, resistors and capacitors on a printed circuit board. The silicon photodiode (SPD), with its very fast reaction time and freedom from unwanted 'memory', allowed metering to be carried out in 'real time' in the short interval between depression of the release button and the mirror rising or the shutter operating, or, better, during the shutter operation itself by metering from the actual film surface. Earlier CdS systems took a reading which was held or memorized by crude circuitry, and used to set the controls before the shutter was operated. Real-time metering with SPDs is possible with electronic flash using thyristor-operated switching circuitry. Additional forms of...

Memory Stick

The Sony Memory Stick is one more form of memory card, functionally similar to the CompactFlash and Secure Digital cards. Sony uses the Memory Stick in several of its high-end digital cameras and also in digital video cameras, music players, and so on, which means that you can move your Memory Sticks around between devices and use them for storing pictures, music, and other files. Several models of Sony laptop computers include a built-in Memory Stick slot so that you can use the laptop computer to access the contents of your Memory Sticks. You can also use a card reader similar to the card readers for CompactFlash and SmartMedia cards to access Memory Sticks from your desktop computer. The card reader is usually supplied with your camera and attaches to your computer via USB cable.

Format

To reformat your memory card, choose the Format menu entry and press the center controller button. Choose OK when the All data will be deleted. Format message appears. Use this item to erase everything on your memory card and set up a fresh file system ready for use. It removes all the images on the memory card, and reinitializes the card's file system by defining anew the areas of the card available for image storage, locking out defective areas, and creating a new folder in which to deposit your images. It's usually a good idea to reformat your memory card in the camera (not in your camera's card reader using your computer's operating system) before each use. Formatting is generally much quicker than deleting images one by one.

Protect

You might want to protect images on your memory card from accidental erasure, either by you or by others who may use your camera from time to time. This menu choice enables you to protect only Marked images (using a procedure similar to the Delete Marked images process described earlier), protect All images on the memory card, or Cancel All, which unmarks and unprotects any photos you have previously marked for protection.

Faster operation

Any non-SLR digital camera suffers from something called shutter lag, which is a delay of 0.5 to 1.5 seconds (or more) after you press the shutter release all the way but before the picture is actually taken. Lag is a drag when you're shooting sports action or trying to capture a fleeting expression on the faces of your kids. A dSLR responds to your command to shoot virtually instantly and can continue to take pictures at a 3 to 5 frames-per-second clip (or even faster). Try that with a non-SLR camera All functions of a dSLR camera, from near-instant power-up to autofocus to storing an image on your memory card are likely to operate faster and more smoothly with a dSLR than with other types of digital cameras.

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