Neutral Density ND filters to extend time

There may be a time, when photographing outdoors for instance, that you run out of exposure options. Certain manual camera and lens combinations, for example, offer only 1000th of a second as the fastest shutter speed and a minimum aperture of f 16. If you are loaded with ISO 400 film, you can rapidly get into situations, especially in sunny conditions at higher altitudes, where you need to cut down the light entering the camera. Alternatively, you may be using a lower speed film but the day is...

Exposure Index EI

Look carefully at a film manufacturer's range of black-and-white products and you may notice something odd about the apparent regular spacing of the film speeds. Modern black-and-white film will be available at ISO 100 and 400, 1600 and possibly 3200. But look carefully at the boxes. While the 100 and 400 films speeds are true ISO speeds, the faster speed films are prefixed by EI1600 or P3200 and do not refer back to the international standard for film speed. This is because they cannot be...

Closeup

Getting intimate with the world is one of the joys of macro and close-up photography. An image is considered to be a close-up if it is in the range one-seventh life size (1 7) to life size (1 1). Many cameras are already equipped for this kind of photography and no exposure compensation is necessary. Given the normal provisos about reflective metering there should be no exposure problems. Supplementary lenses that screw into the filter threads on the front of the lens do not require any...

Reflected versus incident light meters

Reflected Metering

Light meters - whatever their operating principle - are designed either to read the light reflected from the subject (these are known as reflected light meters) or to read light falling on the subject (known as incident light meters). Reflected light meters are used in cameras because we have to point the camera at the scene we wish to photograph. Compact cameras will have a small sensor underneath a forward-facing clear window or to the edge of the viewfinder. If you use such a camera make...

Subject brightness range subject contrast x lighting ratio

If a subject with a contrast range of 32 1 five stops is illuminated by lights with a ratio of 2 1 one stop then the overall subject brightness range will turn out to be 64 1. While a digital and black-and-white film camera will have no difficulty with that subject, it is already beginning to exceed the range capable of being recorded on transparency film. If you were using that medium you would have to adopt some strategy to reduce the SBR if you wanted to get both good shadow and good...

Luke Tomlinson polo player

Careful choice of shutter speed and panning keeps the subject crisp while blurring the background to add to the atmosphere. The dynamic blur of the moving hooves - not to mention anticipating when all four feet would be off the ground - shows the power of the shutter and camera movement to depict the dynamic, moving world. Photographer Marek Sikora. Technical summary Canon EOS 40D Canon 100-400mm L IS USM 1 60 at f 22 ISO 250 Evaluative metering. Tone curve, hue and saturation adjusted in...