Fabrication for the Camera Directorial Mode

In the past, most photographers went out and found things in the natural world to photograph. Today, many imagemakers reject this approach to photography and embrace nondocumentary practices by 12.11 Digital imaging gave me the freedom to rewrite histoiy by re-imaging Alfred Eisenstaedt's photographic icon that appeared in Life magazine. In place of a sailor kissing a nurse in New York's Times Square to celebrate the joy of V-J Day (Victory Over Japan, August 14,1945) and the end of World War...

Artificial Light

Once you understand the cycle of natural light, you might want to consider additional possibilities of controlling the light in your images. The simplest way is to begin working with a single artificial light with a bowl-shaped reflector on an adjustable stand having three folding legs and a center pole that can be raised or lowered. Edward Steichen, one of the most successful photographers of the 20th century, achieved precise control of over his camera, materials, and lighting by...

Exposing for Tonal Variations

Exposing With Tonal Variations

Exposing for tonal variations is another method that can be used in calculating the exposure. A scene that has large amounts of either dark or light tones can give incorrect information if the exposure is based on a single reading. When making a picture of a general outdoor scene, a correct exposure can be achieved by taking two Manual light meter readings and then averaging them together. For example, suppose you are photographing a landscape, it is late in the day, the sky is brighter than...

Image Sensors CCD and CMOS

Digital cameras generate images by focusing a scene through a lens, like a traditional film camera. When a photographer makes an exposure with a digital camera, the focused image is captured with a sensor, often a charge-coupled device CCD sensor , and a postage-stamp-size electronic wafer that converts light into electrical current. It is positioned where the film would normally be in a conventional camera. Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor CMOS sensor technology is another type of...

Sequences

A digital camera's capability to capture short bursts of sequential exposures in both single frame and continuous shooting modes plus record brief video sequences makes it an ideal tool to explore the 7.13 Jantzen is intrigued with parallel universes, space time warps, and other manifestations of altered, alternative realities. I used a mirror to reflect one direction in a landscape while photographing the other. I stage my landscapes at the boundaries of differing scenic features such as...

The Golden Mean

The ancient Greeks developed a set of ideal proportions called the Golden Mean, which they converted into ratios that could be applied to draw the perfect body or build the perfect architectural structure. The Golden Mean, AKA the Rule of Thirds is the proportion arising from the division of a straight line into two, so that the ratio of the whole line to the larger part is exactly the same as the ratio of the larger part to the smaller part. Mathematically, it is a ratio of 1 to 1 1 V5 1 , a...

Camera Light Meters Are 18 Percent Gray Contrast

Built-in camera exposure meters are the device most of us initially employ to make our exposure calculations. All DSLRs have sophisticated thru-the-lens TTL metering system that makes getting a good automatic exposure in most situations a sure thing. However, there are particular times when you want to change the exposure mode from Automatic and make specific exposure decisions. The more you know about the camera's metering system, the greater the likelihood you will use it to achieve your...

White Balance

Digital cameras have built-in white balance control, which compensates for variations in the color of common types of light so that white and gray objects appear to have a neutral color balance. The color of a light source is described in terms of its color temperature, measured in degrees Kelvin K . If the color temperature of the light does not match the white balance setting, the final image will have a color cast to it. Think of the white balance control as a built-in set of electronic...

Contrast Control Tone Compensation

DSLRs have an image adjustment control for altering the image contrast and brightness at the time of exposure. The contrast of an image, the relationship between the distribution of light and dark tones, can be controlled by altering the tone curve. This is sometimes referred to as tone compensation. DSLRs offer a host of contrast management options. The Automatic or default option optimizes the contrast of each exposure by selecting a tone curve to match the situation. Normal uses the same...

Visual Literacy and Decision Making

Our society does not stress visual literacy, and as a result many people lack skills to navigate in our media-saturated environment. With declining newspaper readership and more people relying on video clips as an information source, it is critical to teach people how to interpret these signs or they will not be properly equipped to go through a visual decision-making process. We then risk becoming objects, easy marks for the gatekeepers of information to manipulate and susceptible to the...

Battery

All DSLR operations require electric power in the form of a rechargeable battery supplied by the camera manufacturer or by disposable batteries inserted into a special battery holder. Some cameras can be operated with an AC adapter. This can be useful when using the camera for extended playback operations, such as viewing images on a television, but is not practical for the vast majority of picture-making situations. Battery life depends on the number of frames shot and how you operate the...

Color Temperature and the Kelvin Scale

Color Temp Kelvin Scale

The balance of the amount of color contained in a continuous-spectrum light source that has all the visible wavelengths red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet in various amounts is measured as 4.14 The Kelvin scale is used by photographers to measure the coolness or warmth of light. The bluer cooler the light, the higher the Kelvin temperature. This illustration shows the approximate Kelvin temperatures of common photographic light sources. Table 4.3 provides more specific details. 4.14...

List

1.22 Due to the current tensions in the Middle East and my cultural background, I was moved to make a limited edition book probing the relationship of personal history to political issues. I work on books rather organically that is, I get an idea and make a loose mock-up based on the information and pictures I gather. I constantly change pages as I create the book. Using a computer is particularly advantageous for this methodology, as I can virtually collage, move, alter the size or re-do both...

Image Transfer

If your camera stores its images primarily on a removable memory card, the card can be taken out of the camera and inserted into a card reader or computer, which can then be used to access and manipulate the digital images. Cameras that store digital photos electronically usually have a connector cable that plugs into a computer for downloading. Cameras that use removable memory cards can also be accessed in this fashion. Others have special docking stations that download the data. Some can...

Color Filter Array Bayer Filter Mosaic

Color accuracy and rendering are determined by the color filter array CFA pattern. A CFA is a grid pattern of tiny color filters placed over the sensor so that individual RGB filters match up with individual SPDs. Some cameras use three different filters that rotate in front of a single sensor. Others have a fixed color filter array over each individual single sensor. The most common CFA pattern is the Bayer, used in most single-chip digital cameras. A Bayer filter mosaic is a CFA for arranging...

Straight Photography and Previsualization

Edward Weston's artistic work starting from the 1930s represents the idea of straight photography through the use of what has been referred to as previsualization or visualization. By this concept, Weston meant that he knew what the final print would look like before releasing the camera's shutter. The idea of visualizing the end result ahead of time would bring serious printmaking full circle, back to the straightforward approach of the 1850s, when work was directly contact-printed onto glossy...

Line

Lines, per se, do not exist in nature. A line is a human abstraction invented for the simplification of visual statements to symbolize ideas. 2.12 Utilizing both pre- and post-capture methods, a zoom lens, and the Photoshop crop tool, Abrams eliminated visual distractions so the rhythm that attracted him to the scene could be captured and communicated. In addition, he selectively darkened and sharpened the image to further emphasize the repetition and symmetrical rhythm in the boats. Terry...

Calculating the Picture Angle Factor Sensor Equivalency

Unless the image sensor in your digital camera is the exact size of a comparable film format, the image area covered by your digital lens will differ from that of a 35 mm film camera. The smaller sensor size of most digital cameras gives them a narrower angle of view more telephoto , essentially cropping reducing the area of view. A crop or picture angle factor has been developed to provide a lens millimeter equivalency between the full-frame 35 mm film format lenses and any size digital...

Additional Information

Nha Trang Vietnam Gursky

The New Ansel Adams Photography Series. Boston Little, Brown, 1981. Adams, Robert. Why We Photograph Selected Essays and Reviews. New York Aperture, 1994. Beckiey, Bill ed. with David Shapiro. Uncontrollable Beauty Toward a New Aesthetic. New York Allworth Press, 1998. Davis, Keith. An American Century of Photography From Dry-Plate to Digital. The Hallmark Photographic Collection, Second Edition, Revised and Enlarged. Kansas City, MO Hallmark Cards in Association with Harry N....

Why We Make Pictures A Concise History of Visual Ideas

The human desire to make pictures is deep-rooted. Forty thousand years ago, Cro-Magnon people made paintings of large wild animals, tracings of human hands, as well as abstract patterns on cave and rock walls. Now, instead of colored oxide and charcoal, people can use a camera. What propels this picture-making impulse The fundamental motive for the vast majority of picture making is the impulse to preserve to document and therefore commemorate specific people and events of importance. Artists...

Why study the history of photography

Koya Abe Digital Art

History is how we define ourselves based on what we make of the past, which determines our future relationships. Being grounded in photographic history allows an imagemaker to see what has already been done. Photographs are built upon other photographs. Look at the work of other imagemakers who have covered similar ground and ask What did they do that allows you to connect to their work What would you do similarly What would you do differently Photo history also offers an opportunity to learn...

Preface

Those who attain to any excellence commonly spend life in some single pursuit, for excellence is not often gained upon easier terms. Dr. Samuel Johnson 1707-1784 . Since the start of the 21st century, digital imaging has become the dominant force in commercial, educational, and scientific photography, turning chemical photography into an alternative process. Since I began writing this book in 2006, numerous photographic companies, including Kodak, Nikon, and Konica Minolta, have announced the...

Light and Lens Photography in the Digital

AMSTERDAM BOSTON HEIDELBERG LONDON NEW YORK OXFORD PARIS SAN DIEGO SAN FRANCISCO SINGAPORE SYDNEY TOKYO Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier Acquisitions Editor Diane Heppner Associate Editor Asma Palmeiro Developmental Editor Stephanie Barrett Publishing Services Manager George Morrison Project Manager Kathryn List on Assistant Editor Doug Shults Marketing Manager Christine Degon Veroulis Cover and Interior Design Maria Mann Illustrator Greg Erf Focal Press is an imprint of Elsevier 30...

Edinboro Shostak

I want to thank all the people at Elsevier's Focal Press who have offered their cooperation, time, knowledge, and support of Light amp Lens, including my editors Stephanie Barrett, Diane Heppner, and Asma Palmeiro Kathryn Liston, my production editor Carol Leyba, my copy editor Pamela Andrada, my proofreader and Keith Shostak, my indexer, for their thoughtful efforts in bringing this project into being. I'd also like to thank Lauren Braun, who assisted with the art program, caption writing,...

Artist Contributors

Shanna Lee Walker

Koya Abe, Terry Abrams, Bill Adams, Theresa Airey, Thomas Allen, Mauro Altamura, Barry Andersen, Jeremiah Ariaz, Shannon Ayres, Darryl Baird, Nathan Baker, Olaf Otto Becker, Paul Berger, Laura Blacklow, Colin Blakely, Ethan Boisvert, Michael Bosworth, Susan Bowen, Deborah Brackenbury, Richard Bram, Kristi Breisach, Priscilla Briggs, Dan Burkholder, Edward Burtynsky, John Paul Caponigro, Ellen Carey, Samantha Casolari, Catherine Chalmers, William Christenberry, Kelli Connell, Gina Conner, Raquel...