Positioning within the picture format

Most beginners position the main subject they want to emphasize centrally in the picture. This may work well for a strictly symmetrical composition with a child's face centered in the middle of whirling concentric circles, but it easily becomes repetitive and boring. There is, however, a viewer-researched classical guide to placing the principal element called the 'golden mean', which artists have favored in composition over the centuries. The concept is that the strongest, most 'pleasing'...

Film speed

Light sensitivity is shown by your film's ISO (International Standards Organisation) speed rating. Every doubling of the ISO number means that a film is twice as fast. Regard films of about ISO 100 or less as slow in speed, ISO 200 and 400 as medium, and ISO 800 upwards as fast. Choose a fast film if all your pictures will be shot under dim lighting conditions with a simple camera, or when you don't want to have to use a slow shutter speed or wide lens aperture. However, expect Figure 10.3 Slow...

Exposure and flash

With simple compact cameras that contain no adjustments, the built-in flash gives sufficient light for recording a correct exposure at a fixed aperture (typically f5.6 for an ISO value of 100) and at one set distance (typically 2.1 m or 7 ft). A flash of this power is said to have a 'guide number' of 12 (f5.6 X 2.1 m) - see Appendix K for guide number, aperture and distance chart. Anything in your picture much closer or further away will be over- or underexposed respectively. The same applies...

Different ways of making readings

Any hand-meter pointed generally at your subject from the camera position will give an exposure reading based on the assumption that the subject has roughly equal areas of light and dark. Some hand-meters have a white plastic diffuser, which slides over the cell. You then hold the meter at the subject, its cell facing the camera, when taking your reading. This 'incident light' single measurement scrambles all the light reaching parts of the subject seen by the camera, ignoring light or dark...

The Dodge and Burnin tools see Figure 3010

Over the years, the people at Adobe have borrowed many traditional darkroom terms and ideas for use in their Photoshop and Photoshop Elements image editing packages. I guess part of the reasoning is that it will be easier for us to understand just how a feature works (and what we should use it for) if we have a historical example to go by. As we will see in the next part of this book, the Photoshop Elements' dodging and burning-in tools have roots in traditional darkroom techniques that enabled...

Joiners

Not every set of panorama images needs to marry up imperceptibly into one image. Another approach is to be much looser, abandon strict accuracy and aim for a mosaic that just suggests general appearance. The painter David Hockney explored composite image making this way by 'spraying7 a scene with dozens of shots, often taken from more than one viewpoint and distance. The resulting prints, which he called 'joiners', both overlap and leave gaps. They have a fragmented jigsaw effect that suggests...

Step by step

Programs Photoshop Elements 2.0 -File > Create Web Photo Gallery Photoshop CS -File > Automate > Web Photo Gallery 1 Select the Web Photo Gallery feature from the file menu and choose the look that you want for your website from the options available in the Style section of the dialog. Here we selected Museum (see Figure 42.14). 2 Input your e-mail address and select the extension settings preferred by the company who will host your site. Most will work with the default '.htm' setting...

Beginners cameras

New, or young, photographers often start with a low-cost compact camera - maybe a disposable type, or one which you can reload with film. Disposable or 'single use' basic cameras come with film already loaded and sealed in. After shooting the last picture, you hand the camera in to the photo-lab, where it is broken open and the film processed. The cost of a disposable camera is only about twice the cost of a film, so it can be treated as a fun camera on the beach or even in the rain. Also...

Advanced SLRs

A technologically advanced SLR Figure 8.12 has features such as auto-focusing, film speed sensing, built-in flash, the ability to take a sequence of pictures with rates of five pictures per second and more, and what is known as 'multi-mode' functioning. Multi-mode means that by selecting one mode you can have the camera function as if it were manual, or by selecting another have it totally auto-programmed just point and shoot . Yet another mode will allow you to choose and set shutter speed,...