Jim Galvin

This photograph was made in the studio with an 8 x 10 camera, a 360mm lens, strobe lighting, and orthochromatic film. Orthochromatic film is primarily sensitive to blue and green light. It is only minimally sensitive to the red end of the color spectrum. Today, the principal use of this film is for scientific purposes where red sensitivity is either unnecessary or undesirable. Historically, this film was used extensively for male portraiture, because the film's low response to red tones gave...

Building A Lens System For A 4 x 5 CAMERA

125mm or 300mm, depending on interest The chart above suggests a plan for buying the lenses that will be most useful for your own photographic purposes. If you are using a view camera other than a 4 x 5, refer to the chart on page 31 to find equivalent lenses for a larger or smaller format. A good way to find equivalent lenses for your new large-format camera is to take your favorite 35mm lenses and multiply their focal lengths by 3 for 4 x 5 and by 6 for 8 x 10. When moving up from medium...

Death Valley

This photograph was made with an older lens, a 10-inch Protar combination. Protar lenses frequently came in sets with elements that give several focal lengths depending upon the combination of elements used in front and behind the shutter. They have become a collectors' item and, consequently, are somewhat expensive. As with all older, uncoated lenses, they produce negatives with less contrast and edge definition than those made from new, multi-coated lenses. Nevertheless, these older lenses...

Color Film Data continued

Ektachrome 100 + EPP Ektachrome 100Z Ektachrome 200 EPD Agfachrome 100 Fujichrome 50 Fujichrome 100 Fujichrome Velvia 4x5, 120 4x5, 120 4x5, 120 4x5, 8x10 Polacolor Type 59 4x5,8x10 80 use negative film. Actually, it is best to use both whenever possible. A transparency can be used by the color printer as a guide for getting the correct color balance in the print. Reciprocity failure also occurs with color film when the meter-indicated exposure time is longer than one second. Although some film...

The Zone System

Toned Gray Paper Texture

The Zone System of exposure and development for black-and-white photography has been around for over forty years. It was formulated by Ansel Adams and Fred Archer while they were teaching at the Art Center in Los Angeles, California. Ansel Adams, Minor White, Fred Picker, and many others have written numerous books and magazine articles describing the Zone System. It is a simple, straightforward method for arriving at predictable, predetermined densities on the negative that translate into the...

Blackandwhite Film Data continued

Manufacturer's Suggested Film Size ISO El Notch Pattern This film is not available in the United States. 600 daylight 400 strobe and tungsten One problem often encountered with larger-format cameras is the need for exposure times that are longer than one second. This is because the depth-of-field requirements can't always be met by using the camera movements, so it becomes necessary to use smaller -stops, between 22 and 64 than you are accustomed to with a smaller camera. Smaller -stops mean...

Developing sheet film yourself

Sheet Film Hanger

Should be jostled to dislodge the air bubbles that may form on the film's surface. The water in the presoak tank should be the same temperature as the developer in the next tank. The presoak should last for approximately sixty seconds. 3. Set your timer which must have a luminous dial that can be seen in the dark for the longest development time required by the negatives in this batch of film. Move the negatives requiring the longest development into the tank of developer. Be sure to jostle the...

Film holders

Sheet-film holders come in two varieties the standard holder and the Grafmatic holder. The standard holder accepts two sheets of film, one on each side. Once the first sheet is exposed, the holder is turned over, and the second sheet is ready to go. Standard sheet-film holders for 4 x 5 and 8 x 10 film sizes are readily available on the new and used market. Film holders for other sizes may or may not be available new, but they are available on the used market. In either case, unusual-size...

Creative Applications

Nikki Pahl

After learning how the view camera works and how to process prints using the Zone System of exposure and development, it is easier to appreciate the technique and planning behind each of the following pictures. These photographs were made by a cross section of view-camera photographers and are evidence that there is no one style of view-camera photography. On the contrary, the view camera is the photographer's ultimate tool for achieving a highly personal style of photography. This photograph...

Their designs and purposes

KEEPING THE SAME ANGLE OF VIEW ACROSS DIFFERENT FORMATS 165mm 180mm 210mm 8 250mm l 0 50mm 90mm 150mm 6 300mm 12 100mm 180mm 7 375mm 15 210mm 8 240mm 9 300mm 12 375mm 15 450mm l 8 450mm 18 480mm 19 600mm 24 750mm 30 92 81-84 74-79 65-68 61-62 53-55 This chart compares lenses with similar angles of view across different camera formats. The angle of view determines how much of a scene is recorded on film. These comparisons cannot be exact due to the different proportions of the film formats for...

The scheimpflug rule

Large Format Scheimpflug Rule

The view camera allows you actually to rotate the plane of focus and the depth-of-field lines until they align themselves more closely with the subject plane if it is not parallel with the film plane. The Scheimpliug Rule states that a subject plane will be rendered with greatest sharpness when the planes of the film, subject, and lensboard are extended and meet at a common line above, below, or to the side of the camera see diagrams on page 47 . You can rotate the plane of focus and...

Fita Plane First Model Hd Image

Fita 5x7 Camera

Moving from a small, hand-held camera to a view camera can be an anxiety-provoking experience. Everything seems new it is almost like starting over again. The view camera can do so much more, but it won't do anything automatically. Among other things, lenses have to be set manually, each sheet of film has to be loaded into the camera, a tripod is a necessity, you'll have to learn to use a hand-held exposure meter, the image on the groundglass will be upside down and backwards,...

Using The View Camera

An imprint of Watson-Guptill Publications New York No book like this is ever done completely alone. Friends have critiqued drafts of this material, loaned equipment to photograph, contributed images of types of work I have not done, and made suggestions of what should and shouldn't be included in this kind of book. Without their help this book would have been much more difficult to prepare, and it certainly wouldn't have been done as well. To the following friends and colleagues I extend my...

Wideangle Lenses For Various Formats

Twin Lens Camera Old With Gun Flash

Some wide-angle lenses provide a greater angle of view than other, more gentle, wide-angle focal lengths. The most extreme wide-angle lenses produce the greatest degree of distortion, which is most noticeable with objects closest to the camera. Some wide-angle lenses provide a greater angle of view than other, more gentle, wide-angle focal lengths. The most extreme wide-angle lenses produce the greatest degree of distortion, which is most noticeable with objects closest to the camera....

Filter Factors For Blackandwhite Film

This filter-factor system was developed by Gordon Hutchings of Orangevale, California. He designed it to make sure that a scene's shadow areas receive enough exposure and aren't thin and underexposed on the negative. Shadow areas are primarily illuminated by blue light, and blue light is most severely curtailed by yellow, orange, and red filters. This filter-factor system was developed by Gordon Hutchings of Orangevale, California. He designed it to make sure that a scene's shadow areas receive...

Front View

Sinar Monorail 4x5

The Sinar F1 camera on the left is a monorail view camera. The Tachihara model on the right is a field, or flat-bed, camera. There are two primary styles of view cameras the monorail camera and the flat bed, or field, camera. They are generally used for different kinds of subjects, but there is some overlap in their applications. The wide-angle camera and the closeup camera represent further refinements of the monorail design, and the press camera is a variation of the field camera. The...