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11 go mrougn some common mistakes concerning me bas*: snape of me !*os at me end of mis tutorial

Or y a fe* years ago the eyes used to be much harder to do But. with HORI sub-surface scattering ciusttcs and much Derter reference on the *eb they re much less scary—almost fun The modeling is easier if you approach it *«m measurements and reference The hardest part is shading and troubleshooting me test renders This comes with experience, so don't get impatient and lose heart—once you've perfected an eye you can use it as the basis tor almost any other character's eyes.

ESSENCE The Face

Eye of the beholder

Simulating human eyes

O steP The anatomy of the eye

Everyone hopefully knows where the upper and lower eyelid, and eyelid crease are located. This image also shows the caruncula, the sclera, and the cornea. For more reference use Google and 3D.SK. Look up 'iridology in Google as this usually results in some nice iris textures.

f) Step 2: Zoxnea/sctera doraer

An interesting feature of the eye, which is not immediately obvim that the sclera overlaps the iris by a millimeter or so. Note wherp th ls arrows are pointing in this illustration—the Cornea/Sclera bordp i6d one surface, but milky-white up to the border, where the white fad/ s leaves only the transparent cornea—like a sheet of clear glass tharf^ partially, and softly spray-painted white. This soft transition 'overhan the iris almost always leaves a shadow on the outer edge of th 9 This creates the darker edge we usually see in most photos n 'ns" circumference of the iris. ' 0n the

Cornea/Sclera border

Comea

Cornea/Sclera border

o Step 3: Constructing an eyeball

This illustration shows how we should construct the «yefeU as owtnw! to how it's constructed in real Me I'm using ll¥tm Shortcuts tare O* <• to make two layers—the outer transparent sav«" >nd **** layer The shadow around the edge of the *t$ * I havt to (* la* »4 *fcMI in the color map Yfou ll want to apply tHimpmaps onfy to ww spec** >»r not to the defuse layer Another is because ff* pupil if full a to* 41 t* tnked rust as well t>y using 100% tXach on the C0fc* map mote and rendering time finally you can make th«» its jpeti mne>e of s ghtfy convex) When COffeCtty ffa - < an gfrc us it* *■» at»* mi tasf*rendc^ng fake tor the (austc frgHMH Often swwt m oy<">

0 Step 4 Modeling

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Nasojugal fold

Cihjncula

Nasojugal fold

Cihjncula

ÍSSINCI Tin face

Eye of the beholder

Simulating human eyes

Q Step 5: SoftMod tool

One of the easiest ways to model the eye shape is to use Maya's SoftMod t00l—pick the polar vertex with the tool active, and pull it out Then adjust the region of influence of the tool, scale it a bit, maybe add a row of edges, and tweak it until it has the cross-section shown below

Then Smooth it once.

O Step 6: Two surfaces

Here are the two surfaces shown side by side with wireframe versions at the top. Note that the Cornea/Wet layer will be totally transparent (PhongE), while the Iris/Sclera layer should be either mental ray SSS Fast Skin in Maya versions earlier than 8, or Blinn in v8 (due to the addition of the subscattering attribute there).

O Step 7 Cross section r hmd*?5_l00*s ** * rtoii mini lb find If* ©•{**"<) 0 *1*1 oi(V*S«K camera clot«

fhKkti totntt M somehmn nvm** * «* a* m* tpw mm m»

O Step 8: Physical measurements

Tht «wrap <*amete of the eyeball tt ?4mm whtte the dtametw of *»s Tnoofthe eyeball The average width otatacett mugWy 13$mm <r * «« tempi** not the widest pan <x the Mont) Thai wouw m*e«tboui 5 6 eyetMfftt wide The avwape temate sM i% 2tGmm hitfv t90mm de«p anfl iS?mm wide (meammd across the widest pan <* the MM) Hie avwapt tatar** between The puptt* is 66mm tot women In this top vie« » haven" tat* the c*naur aw* o* the eye* poffltftQ ttitfti tcrwatti but have titled ttom a*watf* 3-S decrm** Th* mom the mm» towards the «A» QUI«!* fee«** «Ncfh pood as ihe otfte* *ye«*iw» 9 father back on fhe eyttoafl

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