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Most photographers know about the excellent digital photo tools for photo editing produced by industry giants like Adobe and the major camera companies. But there are many other digital tools that photographers can use to help them in their work—some of which aren't marketed through traditional channels or advertised as widely as their competition, or are hidden in the depths of your own computer. In this chapter, I feature some of the digital tools I like and use, as I've tried to do throughout the book.

Some of these tools are made by traditional photo companies, some by independent developers, some by small businesses, and some by individuals. If you are willing to explore, there is a wide variety of digital photo tools out there. For the iPhone alone, new photographic "apps" are being introduced frequently. And, while most of these tools are available for Windows and Mac, to be fair on all counts, I've included one Windows-only and one Mac-only tool as well. (See Figure 9.1.)

ZIP Compression

Let's begin with a bit of software that, if you own a fairly recent computer, you have built in to your operating system, whether you use Windows or Mac. Windows users may be more familiar with ZIP compression because the capability to compress files in ZIP format has been around for a long time. Mac users may not even know they have ZIP compression because the ability to compress files in ZIP format hasn't been built in nearly as long, and doesn't get as much publicity as it should. (See Figures 9.2 and 9.3.) (If you have an older Mac OS, the menu item to zip your files might be Create Archive instead.)

I edited this photo on my iPhone with the Photo fx filter called Pro Mist. Pro Mist is just one of the many digital effects filters in the iPhone app. Photo fx and Tiffen's other iPhone filter set, Cool fx, are discussed later in this chapter. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.2

In Windows, you just right-click on a file or folder, or group of selected files or folders, and choose Send To > Compressed (zipped) Folder. To decompress it, right-click and choose Extract All.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.3 On a Mac, you just right-click, or Control-click, on a file or folder, or group of selected files or folders, and choose Compress "filename". To decompress it, right-click the file and choose Open. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.4 In this Mac folder view, you can see the ZIP-compressed version of a file. This 10MB original is now 3MB, small enough that I can attach it to an email.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.3 On a Mac, you just right-click, or Control-click, on a file or folder, or group of selected files or folders, and choose Compress "filename". To decompress it, right-click the file and choose Open. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.4 In this Mac folder view, you can see the ZIP-compressed version of a file. This 10MB original is now 3MB, small enough that I can attach it to an email.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

What attributes make ZIP compression so perfect for photographers? For one, it's lossless. That means that the image file is unaltered. You can compress photos to reduce the file size and share it via email. The recipient can then decompress the file and open the image without any alteration of the image data. But that's only half the reason—the other reason is that it's cross platform. I've been a Mac user for a long time, but I use Windows computers as well. My wife uses a Windows computer, and I have some friends who use Macs and some friends who use Windows. That also means that I email photos to both Mac and Windows computers owned by my family and friends.

To be sure, most people email a JPEG file, and I'll talk more about that in a moment. The cross-platform advantage is that I can ZIP compress a file on my Mac and email or upload the file for a Windows user, and they can recognize the file format and decompress the file on their end. (See Figure 9.4.)

Another cross-platform advantage to ZIP compression involves data protection. Sometimes, when you're transmitting files through a company's server, an image file can turn into gobbledygook—that is, the file is converted into a text file containing lines of nonsensical alpha-numeric text. More than once, customers have contacted me to report that all they received was a mile-long email with unrecognizable text in it. In such a case, resending the image as a ZIP compressed file can usually solve the problem.

JPEG compression has become a standard format for sending photos. After all, it's the file format most cameras shoot by default, unless you intentionally go into the camera menu to search for an alternative file type that the camera may also support. But JPEG compression, unlike lossless ZIP compression, is what's called lossy compression. That means that when you create a JPEG, picture data is thrown out. The lower the quality of the JPEG compression, the more data is thrown out. That data is thrown out for good. If you make changes to a JPEG image in photo-editing software and then save the image as a JPEG again, even more information is thrown out. The danger of circulating JPEG files for professional or even some consumer use is that if someone makes changes to your image and resaves the image as a JPEG, there is now a degraded version of your image being circulated—a version that might have JPEG artifacts, which look like little square blocks of pixels, as well as small discolorations and distortion around edges in photos.

If you want to circulate a photo using a file type that is not compressed by lossy compression like JPEG, try the ever-popular TIFF file (the .tif file extension). Students often ask me what the advantage of TIFF files is and why to ever use them. Besides that TIFF files are widely supported by operating systems and by image-editing software, the TIFF file format actually has a built-in lossless compression scheme called LZW compression. When you're saving a TIFF file, choose LZW compression and the file size on disk will be dramatically reduced. Photoshop users can even use this compression with layered files. The TIFF file that has been saved using LZW compression can still be turned into a ZIP file for emailing. It won't be as small as a JPEG, but if it's within the limits of your maximum mail size, you won't have a problem. (See Figure 9.5.)

Figure 9.5 When you save a TIFF file in Photoshop, this dialog box appears with the choice to check LZW compression. LZW compression is lossless and won't harm the data in your image.

VueScan

Like so many others with older scanners, my slide scanner was orphaned when the company that made it went out of business. I liked the scanner and it did a great job, but the software only worked on an old operating system. I actually have an old computer kicking around for such uses, but scanning from the old machine leads to other problems such as connectivity, and incompatible media. In short, that old slide scanner had reached the end of its useful life. Then I found a program called VueScan, which supports that old scanner on a current operating system. In fact, VueScan not only brought my old slide scanner back to life, VueScan turned it into a device capable of RAW file capture— that wonderful imaging standard that captures all available information and stores that information into the image for manipulation in a RAW image editor. (See Figure 9.6.)

Figure 9.6

This image was originally a slide, scanned into VueScan as a DNG file. I then edited the RAW image in Camera Raw.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.6

This image was originally a slide, scanned into VueScan as a DNG file. I then edited the RAW image in Camera Raw.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

VueScan is the brainchild of the software developer Ed Hamrick. Indeed, the website for VueScan is his name, www.hamrick.com. VueScan comes in two flavors, a Standard edition and a Professional edition, and is available for Windows, Mac, and Linux.

Photographers should buy the Professional edition, which, at the time of this writing, is well under $100. In fact, if you are a photographer with a more recent scanner and working scanner software, you'll benefit from VueScan as well for the simple reason that VueScan scans RAW files in DNG format (file abbreviation .dng). The advantage of making a scan in DNG format is that you can retrieve all the data the scanner's sensor captures in the widely supported DNG format and then open that scanned DNG file in a RAW editor such as Adobe Camera Raw or Lightroom. You can then edit the scanned image with much more dynamic range than when working with a scanned JPEG. You can use VueScan to scan RAW images, saved in DNG file format, to open in a RAW editor like Adobe Camera Raw or Lightroom. When doing so, I don't bother to make brightness and color adjustments in the scanner software, because all the information capable of being captured is saved into the RAW image for adjusting in a RAW editor. (See Figure 9.7.)

Figure 9.7

VueScan is scanner software for Mac, Windows, or Linux that supports many scanners, including scanners that are no longer supported by their manufacturers. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.7

VueScan is scanner software for Mac, Windows, or Linux that supports many scanners, including scanners that are no longer supported by their manufacturers. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.8 shows an image I scanned as a DNG in VueScan. Then, I opened the DNG file in Camera Raw and made adjustments to White Balance, Exposure, highlight Recovery, and the Point Curve. I added some color saturation with Vibrance, and adjusted individual colors in the Hue/Saturation tab. Finally, I opened the image in Photoshop to make some pixel-based edits like healing dust spots.

If you don't want to scan your images as RAW images, you can scan them as JPEG or TIFF files. You can choose which program to open the scanned images in, so when your image is scanned, it can open right into Photoshop, for example. If you do scan slides or prints to TIFF files, be sure to scan them as 16-bit images, not as 8-bit, so that you have the extra tonal information to work with.

But trust me, you do want to scan RAW images. That's the case whether you are using VueScan for scanning slides and other sized transparencies or scanning flat art. I've worked with hundreds of scanned images and get the best results by scanning the images as DNG files and then editing in Camera Raw. That's a time saver as well because you don't have to spend time adjusting color and tone in the scanner software. Just scan all the information that can be captured from the scanner's hardware into the DNG file and mold your image into shape in the RAW editor you're familiar with.

Figure 9.8

This photograph of scarves in India was scanned as a DNG in VueScan and then edited.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.8

This photograph of scarves in India was scanned as a DNG in VueScan and then edited.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

I mentioned flat art and, sure enough, I have an old flatbed scanner as well—one that was top of the line in its day. I have had the same excellent experience using VueScan with the flatbed scanner, scanning prints into DNG files for processing in Camera Raw or Lightroom.

VueScan supports a tremendous number of scanners; you can search www.hamrick.com to see if your scanner is supported. Whether you have thousands upon thousands of slides or prints that you'd like to edit in Photoshop or you like to work with a hybrid workflow by shooting film and scanning the film to edit digitally, VueScan's DNG capture capability alone makes it a tool worth having.

Don't be put off if your DNG scan, from VueScan, looks dark, and don't bother to make a lot of brightness and color adjustments before you scan the RAW image. All the image data that your scanner is capable of capturing is available in the RAW file, and you'll see that when you lighten your image using the tools in your RAW image editor, such as Lightroom or Camera Raw. Using the RAW file lets you work nondestructively in your editing workflow because changes to the file in Lightroom or Camera Raw don't permanently affect the RAW file and you can always go back to that RAW DNG file and make different adjustments without harming the original.

Knoll Light Factory

When I teach Photoshop, I only discuss the features that are installed with the software. But when I use Photoshop to work on my own photography, I get to play with some interesting third-party tools that act as digital filters within Photoshop. I'm especially a great fan of filters that enhance photographs or help accomplish something photographic that would have been difficult to do at the time of the image capture. Knoll Light Factory, a Photoshop plug-in filter, does exactly that by giving photographers a post-production master tool for adding lens flare to images. Once installed, Knoll Light Factory appears in Photoshop's Filters menu.

In Figure 9.9, I used the Knoll Light Factory filter preset called Summer Emergence. The filter's interface includes more than enough options to let you achieve the desired look.

Lens flare is historically an aberration caused by light reflecting between the glass elements of a lens, where the internal glass reflections resolve on the focal plane and become part of the photograph. Because modern lenses have very sophisticated anti-glare coatings on both sides of each piece of glass that makes up the lens, flare is rarely seen in photos. Those anti-glare coatings have their limits, though, and flare can appear, even

I staked out my turf for this scene waiting for a spectacular sunset, but I was cheated when the sun went behind clouds. Knoll Light Factory, a Photoshop plug-in filter, came to the rescue with postproduction, user-adjustable lens flare. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

with very good lenses, when there is an extremely bright light in the photo—especially a point source like the sun or a reflection from the sun. Even a bright light like a photoflash or car headlight can cause flare depending on the lens and the exposure.

But creative photographers, videographers, and filmmakers have embraced lens flare as a way to add a visual dynamic, tension, and excitement to an otherwise static image (there is a video plug-in version of Knoll Light Factory as well, that works with After Effects, Final Cut Pro, Motion, Avid, and Premiere Pro). By adding lens flare, the scene becomes obviously seen through glass (hence the flare). Using lens flare in an image, if handled correctly, can draw the viewers in, making them feel more like voyeurs, in other words creating an intimacy that lets the viewers feel they are looking at the scene through their own private viewing glass. The flare becomes a compositional element as well. (See Figure 9.10.)

Knoll Light Factory (version 3.0 as of this writing) gives photographers 110 preset types of lens flare to choose from, and then many options to manipulate and customize each type of flare. You can click and drag the flare around the Preview window, and the angles of the flare's elements, circles, and lines of reflected colors move proportionately. You can even create a layer in Photoshop to use as a mask to tuck the hot spot of the flare behind an object—and effectively make a scene look like the sun was peeking into the frame when in fact it wasn't. The Preview window shows the current flare, and the user can simply click and drag on the flare in the preview to move the flare around in the image. (See Figure 9.11.)

Figure 9.10 The sun passed behind clouds, dulling the original image on the left. Introducing lens flare into the photo, with Knoll Light Factory, adds excitement and tension to the image. This filter preset, called HAL, is just one of over a hundred customizable lens flare options.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.10 The sun passed behind clouds, dulling the original image on the left. Introducing lens flare into the photo, with Knoll Light Factory, adds excitement and tension to the image. This filter preset, called HAL, is just one of over a hundred customizable lens flare options.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.11

The Knoll Light Factory Filter dialog box offers 110 lens flare presets and lots of options for customizing and manipulating each preset. Here, I positioned the central point of the flare just left of the tree to simulate a sunset.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

You could use Knoll Light Factory's filter in any photo, but it will make most sense if you use lens flare in an image where the sun is in the scene, peeking out from the edge of the frame or from behind a tree, building, person, or other element. In that case, your excellent camera lens might have actually subdued any glare, and all you have is a really bright highlight in part of the photo. Use Knoll Light Factory to add lens flare emanating out from that highlight and, in a controlled and often colorful way, out into the photo.

Because both the shape of the lens and the shape of the shutter can affect the look of real lens flare, you have control over all those elements in the filter's interface. Because lens coatings have a color to them, real lens flare often takes on the rainbow hues of soap bubbles, and you have control over those color effects as well. Fortunately, Knoll Light Factory comes with excellent documentation to get you up and running, and you'll soon be having great fun exploring all the lens flare options.

Like other Photoshop filters, Knoll Light Factory will alter the pixels in your image. It's a good idea to duplicate the Background layer in Photoshop's Layers panel, by right-clicking on the layer and choosing Duplicate Layer, before running the filter. This way, you always have one layer that hasn't been altered. Better yet, if you have a recent version of Photoshop (CS3 or beyond), you have the ability to apply Smart Filters. Before running the filter, choose Filters > Convert for Smart Filters. This will turn your layer (or multiple highlighted layers) into a Smart Object. When you apply Knoll Light Factory, or any other filter, to a Smart Object, the filter will appear in a list below the Smart Object in the Layers panel. All you need to do to change the filter's parameters is double-click on the filter's name in the Layers panel. If you want to delete the filter, you can simply drag the Smart Filter to the little trash can at the bottom of the Layers panel.

Xara Xtreme

So, you'd like an image editor that you can use to manipulate both web-resolution and print-resolution photos, to work with vector shapes and text, to create and manipulate 3D type, and to create web pages with Flash animations—and you want all that for under $100. Well, the answer to your wishes might be Xara Xtreme, because the software really does that much, and more, and costs that little. The only reason it might cost you more is if you are a graphic designer and require a few more bells and whistles like four-color editing and Pantone colors, in which case you'll need Xara Xtreme Pro, which costs well under $300—still a tremendous bargain. (See Figure 9.12.)

Xara Xtreme (version 5 as of this writing) is a Windows program made by the British company Xara. You can download it as a trial or purchase it from the company's website, Xara.com. Taken as one, Xara Xtreme feels like two or three programs interacting together. With deceptive simplicity, you can drop in photos and drag them out to 3D objects; add type and convert that to 3D with multiple choices for edge bevels, gloss, and color; combine all this with vector-based shapes, and more. Although there is some photo-editing capability, Xara Xtreme isn't a full-blown photo editor. For that reason, Xara Xtreme has a menu item that allows users to edit photos in their favorite photo editor, such as Photoshop, and then easily return to Xara Xtreme.

I dropped this photo into Xara Xtreme, right from a folder, and added 3D, color, shadow, and gradient features with drag-and-drop ease. Xara Xtreme updates changes in realtime, mostly without dialog boxes and menus. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Adding 3D to a photo or to type is easy in Xara Xtreme, as shown in Figure 9.13. First, you choose the 3D tool, and then drag onto the side of the image to extend it outward in 3D. You can choose from a menu of 3D shapes, edges, and bevels, and rotate the 3D view of the image as well. Lights and reflections are all equally easy to manipulate with the simple interface.

For effects with photos, Xara Xtreme really shines. Effects such as drop shadow are added, not with a dialog box, but with a tool that can be dragged in the photo. Click the Shadow tool, drag on an element in the page like a photo or type, and a drop shadow drags out from behind it. Sliders let you add softness and density to the shadow. Then just click on another tool and go about your work. (See Figure 9.14.)

Elements in a Xara Xtreme composition are all floating and embedded into the file, if saved as a Xara format file (.xar file extension). If you resize an image down to a fraction of its size and save as a Xara Xtreme file, the entire original is embedded into the file so you can open it up another day and enlarge the photo element without any data interpolation.

Tinting photos is a breeze as well. Along the bottom of the Xara Xtreme interface is a color ramp in the form of color chips. To tint a photo, drag a color chip into the photo—it's that simple. Click the Color Editor button to the left of the color chips and HSV (Hue, Saturation, and Value, which is essentially the same as Hue, Saturation, and

Figure 9.13

Adding 3D to a photo or to type is easy in Xara Xtreme.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.14

Adding a drop shadow to an object is as simple as clicking the Shadow tool and dragging on the object. Sliders above the image window control blur and the transparency of the shadow. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.13

Adding 3D to a photo or to type is easy in Xara Xtreme.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Brightness). When flat objects or type are turned into 3D objects, the 3D object's color, as well as its 3D lights, can be just as easily altered. In Xara Xtreme, you can even change the font and font size of the 3D type. You can alter the color of the type by using the Color Editor or dragging color chips onto the type from the color ramp at the bottom of the workspace. (See Figure 9.15.)

Figure 9.15

When I was finished with the artwork of the picture frame, I added type and extruded the type into a 3D shape with the 3D tool.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.15

When I was finished with the artwork of the picture frame, I added type and extruded the type into a 3D shape with the 3D tool.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

I've concentrated here on some amazing effects that can be applied to photos and type in Xara Xtreme, but there is a treasure trove of features to work with in Xara Xtreme. Of special interest to web developers is the WYSIWYG web-page creation, using text, shapes, and photos. You can create Flash animations and GIF animations, including rollovers, in Xara Xtreme as well.

Cool fx and Photo fx

I wrote about the convergence of mediums in Chapter 7, "Irreverent Video Tools." Convergence has affected both hardware and software, and digital photographers now have a tremendous number of options. Mid-range cameras, traditionally designed for the amateur, now capture not only professional-quality photos but shoot video as well. There's a flip side to that story too. The lower-end point-and-shoot camera (which in a way started the whole convergence process by adapting to both still and video early on) has migrated backward into mobile phones. (See Figure 9.16.)

Figure 9.16

For this photo I added a digital color filter called "Bleach Warm 1," right on my iPhone in Cool fx.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Figure 9.16

For this photo I added a digital color filter called "Bleach Warm 1," right on my iPhone in Cool fx.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

The future will most certainly see great strides in both mid- to high-range cameras and the lowliest devices incorporating cameras. The irony will be that, as the cameras in utility items like phones get better and better, the notion of a standalone camera for still photo taking may become a thing of the past. Like most people, I own a point-and-shoot camera, but I reach for it less and less, and rely more on the mobile phone camera in my pocket. With iPhone products like Cool fx and Photo fx, made by the venerable photo-filter company Tiffen, I have even more reason to reach for my phone to take snapshots.

Although these apps (applications available in Apple's iTunes App Store) are exceedingly inexpensive, pocket change really, and are largely special-effects filters for photos, they incorporate some features that are more the province of powerful and comprehensive image-editing programs—features like cropping and adding vignette.

You can take original photos from within the interface or you can use photos from your photo library on the iPhone or iPod Touch. In Cool fx, filters come in five categories:

■ Black-and-White (including a wonderful Old Newspaper filter for a yellowed black-and-white newspaper look)

■ Temperature (for color temperature effects)

Within each category, Cool fx shows small thumbnails on the iPhone's screen of how the image will look when different filters are applied. (See Figure 9.17.)

Figure 9.17

The Color filters in Cool fx show thumbnails of different filter options. At the bottom of the screen are the different types of filters in

Cool fx, including

Color Effects,

Black-and-

White,

Diffusion,

Grain, and

Temperature.

Copyright © The Tiffen Company

Bleach Cool 2 Bleach Warm 1 Bleach Warm 2

• • • •

Black&Whlte

Diffusion Grain

Temperature

Tap on one of the thumbnail images, and the preview fills the screen with sliders to adjust the parameters of the effect. Also, a toolbar appears beneath the preview. The toolbar is consistent across the filter types and includes cropping, vignette, a before-after button, a button to hide the adjustment sliders for a better view of the preview image, a Save button to save a version of the image with the filter applied, a Help button, and of course a Cancel button. The cropping feature alone is adjustable and works with the simple gestures that make the iPhone so user friendly. (See Figures 9.18 and 9.19.)

Tiffen's other iPhone app, Photo fx, has a similar interface and includes a variety of digital filters that mimic many traditional photo techniques, including a Night Vision filter and an Infrared filter. There is some overlap between the two filter sets. But there are filters unique to Photo fx (like the Depth of Field filter shown in Figure 9.20) that

Figure 9.19 After applying one of Cool fx's color filters to this image, one that both brightened and diffused the image, I cropped it using the Cool fx crop tool. After doing so, you can save the image as a copy, or add more filters on top of the existing filter. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe bR0

Figure 9.18 When you tap the filter preview's thumbnail, the preview fills the screen. You can drag the sliders to adjust the filter, as shown with the Day for Night filter pictured here.

Copyright © The Tiffen Company

Figure 9.19 After applying one of Cool fx's color filters to this image, one that both brightened and diffused the image, I cropped it using the Cool fx crop tool. After doing so, you can save the image as a copy, or add more filters on top of the existing filter. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

Tiffen's other iPhone app, Photo fx, includes many special effects filters that mimic traditional photo filters and techniques. For this photo shot with my phone, I used the Photo fx Depth of Field filter, which lets you selectively blur areas of the image to make them look out of focus.

Copyright © Steve Weinrebe make this filter set well worth having. Depth of Field creates a selective focus effect, and you can choose which portion of your image to keep in focus and which portion to blur, as well as how much blur to add.

You aren't restricted to using these filters on iPhoto snapshots. Because you can load any photos onto your iPhone or iPod Touch using iTunes, you can turn your mobile phone into a mini photo lab for all your images with Cool fx and Photo fx.

When you launch either Cool fx or Photo fx, you'll see an Options button or icon. If you want the highest-resolution image possible to be output by the filters, be sure to go into the Options and choose Full for the maximum output size. The default output size will convert your photo to low resolution, suitable for email. If you start out with full resolution, you can always convert the photo into a smaller one by using an image editor like Photoshop.

Figure 9.21

The Macintosh ColorSync utility can be found in the Utilities folder in Applications. The tool is a good way to determine which color profiles you have and to model them in 3D. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

The Macintosh ColorSync Utility

I try to have no operating system bias. I teach all the time on both Windows and Mac and have several of both for use in training. While I use a Mac at my desk, my wife uses Windows, and my children use either depending which is free to use, or what they are sitting in front of. But there have always been some elements of the Macintosh operating system that are very friendly toward the use of color, and an example of that is the ColorSync utility built into the Mac operating system. (See Figure 9.21.)

Although the ColorSync utility includes advanced features, you should use it as a learning tool. Specifically, it will teach you about color spaces, a.k.a. gamuts, that comprise all the colors that a device is capable of reproducing from nature.

The eye can see a much greater range of color than can be captured by a digital camera. Digital cameras generally capture more color than can be viewed on a computer display and on the Internet, and all the above can display more color than can be viewed in a photographic print or on the printed page of a book. These are important concepts for a photographer to understand, and the ColorSync utility is a great place to go to learn about color spaces.

If you don't calibrate your display, you should, because otherwise you have no idea whether the colors you are looking at on your computer screen are accurate. A hardware-calibration device is your best bet, because trying to calibrate a computer display with your eye is simply guesswork. Hardware-calibration devices can be purchased for well under $100. If you are a graphic designer or professional photographer whose career depends on accurate color, you may want to spend a little more, but if you are a hobbyist photographer, a less expensive model should be sufficient. Regardless, calibration devices, like many digital tools, now cost only a fraction of what they cost several years ago. And they last, so you'll get your money's worth.

With the ColorSync utility open, click on the Profiles tab at the top of the dialog box, and a list of installed color profiles will appear in a column at the left of the dialog box. Click on Adobe RGB (1998) in the System group, and a color model of the Adobe RGB color space will appear at the right of the dialog box, as seen in Figure 9.21. It looks like a 2D representation, but if you click and drag on it, the color space will rotate and spin in any direction you drag it. (See Figure 9.22.)

Figure 9.22

The visual preview in ColorSync may look two-dimensional. But click and drag to rotate the color space; you can see it from all angles. This can help you determine whether any colors are clipped, or left out, of the color space. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe

In itself, the RGB color space may not mean much to you, but the terrific learning feature of the ColorSync utility is that it allows you to compare color spaces. To do this, click on the little black triangle in the upper-left corner of the color space preview window, and choose Hold for Comparison. Once you do that, you can click on any other profile and see how that color space compares to the color space you are holding for comparison.

Try clicking on the sRGB color space, a web standard that is the default color space in most digital cameras and image editors (unless you change the default). You'll see that the sRGB color space is more limited in the range of colors it can reproduce than the Adobe RGB color space. For that reason, if you do more with your photography than just put it up on websites; for instance if you print your photography with a good photo printer, you'll want to check if your digital camera can tag (attach) the Adobe RGB color space to your photos instead of sRGB. Most good digital SLR cameras can apply the Adobe RGB color space to your photos, and you'll find the option, if it's there, in the menu on your camera. (See Figure 9.23.)

Next, try comparing a CMYK color space to Adobe RGB. This is especially instructive because the CMYK color space used for offset printing is much smaller than the Adobe RGB color space. (See Figure 9.24.)

If you have an inkjet printer, you'll likely see the color profiles for that printer in the list, and you can compare that profile as well. Inkjet printers often have more than just four inks so the color space, or gamut of colors, is larger than CMYK alone, but it's a

In the Mac

ColorSync

Profiles

In the Mac

ColorSync

to switch from

Copyright ©

to switch from

Copyright ©

Canon EOS-100 flash Canon COS-IOD generic Canon £05-1 OD sunset Canon EOS-ID daylight V3 Canon EOS-ID flash Canon EOS-ID MKII generic V2 Canon EOS-ID MKII sunset Canon EOS-ID MKII-N generic Canon EOS-ID MKIÜ generic Canon EOS-ID portrait Canon EOS-ID tungsten Canon EOS-IDs daylight Canon EOS-lDsfUsh Canon EOS-IDs MKII generic Canon EOS-IDs MKIII generic Canon EOS-IDs portrait

The CMYK color space is much smaller than RGB. For that reason, you should explore the differences and see which colors don't translate well into print. If you have an inkjet printer, compare its color space to your camera's. Copyright © Steve Weinrebe good idea to understand how much smaller your printer's color space is compared to what your eye sees and what your camera can capture.

Look in the ColorSync utility's list for your camera's ColorSync profile as well. If you don't find your camera listed, look for the install disk that came with your camera, or try searching the camera manufacturer's website for color profiles. Then compare those profiles to your printer's profile in the ColorSync utility.

You can always swap a photo's attached, or tagged, profile in Adobe Photoshop by choosing Edit > Convert to Profile. If you are sending your photos to print, ask the printers or photo retailers for their color profiles that they can email to you, or that you can download from their websites, in order to tag your image before you deliver or upload the photos. Doing so will result in more accurate print reproduction.

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