Improve Your Fine Art Photography

Create Long Exposure Fine Art Photos

This ebook by Sharon Tenenbaum will show you how much your mindset affects how you take photographs and the differences that different types of brains will express when taking photos. Are you a left-brained or a right-brained person? Believe it or not, the side of your brain that you use will express itself in the photos that you take! The amazing differences in left vs right-brained photographers can actually help explain your unique photography style. This book shows the physiological science behind great photography, and how you can harness that in your own photography. Don't wonder about your personal style; go make a mark with your unique photography! This book gives you everything you needed to know about how your unique brain makes your the photographer you are. Learn about yourself today, and how your style expresses itself in YOUR brain!

Create Long Exposure Fine Art Photos Summary


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Digital Art Photography 101

Starting from square one Digital photography Creating art photography in five steps Mastering basic composition elements In this book, I cover the art form of photography. Whether you're a film-based photo purist or firmly entrenched in the digital-only . camp, you're covered. This chapter serves as an introduction to the world of photography and how it relates to digital photography. I begin with a brief discussion of digital art photography before moving on to the five essential steps to creating a digitized masterpiece. Finally, I

Composing an Art Photograph

The difference between someone who takes pictures and an art photographer is that the latter realizes that the cornerstone of fundamental design is composition. Folks easily take this element for granted, getting swept away by coolness or locale of the subject. Composition is more than what your subject is and how it's posed It comprises all that plus the background, Keeping your shots clean and uncluttered is paramount to presenting a great art photograph. That's not to say that you can't shoot something detailed

Professional Photofinishers for Fine Art Photography

But what if you want larger prints for fine-art photography To take things to the next level, there are a number of options for larger output from your digital files. These options include inkjet printers (similar in technology to the ones we have at home), Iris prints (fine-art inkjet printing using a large drum to apply the ink), and Lambda lightjet chromira prints (using lasers to transfer the image to photographic paper).

Contract For The Sale Of Fine Art Photography

The fine art photographer will exhibit in galleries and earn income through the sale of physical artworks, although some images may also be licensed and earn royalties. Because photographs can be reproduced over and over, the photographer has to create a system to ensure collectors that they are buying either unique or limited-edition works. The contract deals with this issue by having the photographer give a warranty a statement on which the buyer can place reliance and recover damages if the statement is false to the effect that the work is unique or part of a limited edition (in which case the nature of the edition is described). The artwork is described, including whether or not the photographer has signed the work (which adds to its value).

Fine Art Photography

Fine art photographs can be said to exist for their pure artistic merit. But the purpose of fine art photography, if any art can be said to have a purpose, comes from the point of view of the photographer. It can be beautiful, meaningful, express an intellectual concept, or make a graphic statement. Many in the fine art world believe that to be considered fine art a photograph simply needs to embody an authentic expression of the artist's unique vision. (See profiles of photographer Joyce Tenneson and curator Karen Amiel in this chapter.) Fine art photography may be seen on a gallery wall, in a book, on display in corporate offices, in a museum or university exhibition, or on various Web sites. The physical manifestation, the print from the fine art image, is intended to be sold to collectors, whether individuals, galleries, museums, or corporations. From almost the first moments in the development of photography, the debate began was photography art, craft, or merely a technical...

About the Series Editor

Harald Johnson has been immersed in the world of commercial and fine art imaging and printing for more than 30 years. A former professional photographer, designer, and creative director, Harald is an imaging consultant, the creator of the Web site DP& (, and the author of the groundbreaking books, Mastering Digital Printing The Photographer's and Artist's Guide to High-Quality Digital Output (2003), Mastering Digital Printing, Second Edition (2005), and Digital Printing Start-Up Guide (2005). Harald is also the founder of YahooGroup's digital-fineart, the world's largest online discussion group on the subject of digital fine art and digital printing.

What Are the Pictures Used For Who Are the Buyers

Whether the photo income is from assignments, stock photography, or sales of prints, we can break down the purpose of photographs into general, sometimes overlapping, categories based on the type of use of the final photograph. These are photography for publication, consumer photography, service photography, and fine art photography. Fine Art Photography This category is self-explanatory. Fine art photographs can be said to exist for their pure artistic merit. Their purpose, depending on the point of view of the photographer, is to be beautiful, meaningful, express an intellectual or emotional concept, or make a graphic statement. Fine art photography comes in many styles, from an elegant documentary to luminous, quiet landscapes and can include incisive portraits as well as outrageous statements. The fine art photograph is intended to delight the eye, arouse the intellect, or shed light on the human condition. The imagery can be subtle or over the top. The photograph may serve any...

Where to Go from Here

If you're interested in playing with Photoshop, Part III should be your destination. If you want to find out more about digital art photography and photography in general, head straight to Chapter 1. Or you might want to peruse the chapters in Part II to find out some great tips for shooting in a variety of situations. Then again, you could just flip through the book and stop when a particular photograph catches your eye. Whatever you choose, the world is your oyster now go take a picture of it.

Ucr Extension Matthew Bamberg

Matthew Bamberg is the author of many books about digital photography. He is a Professor of Education at National University and currently teaches the History of Fine Art Photography at UCR. As a public-school teacher for 14 years, Matthew spoke at many educational technology conferences. His work became well known throughout California after he secured a state technology grant. After teaching school, Matthew became a writer and professor. He began to photograph for the articles he was writing while working for the Desert Sun and Palm Springs Life magazine in the Palm Springs area of California. In 2005, Matthew's book, Digital Art Photography for Dummies, was published.

The Insanely Serious Photographer

For the emerging art photographer or photojournalist who wishes to follow a more serious path in either of these markets, to make statements, or to have influence (or at least an effect) on the art community or in world events, I am a strong advocate of going to art school. In fact, you should get a master's degree from a reputable university first, or, failing acceptance there, a specialized photography school. If that doesn't work out, get a regular degree at a normal college and take a lot of art classes. (If this option is undesirable, get one of those fake diplomas online through one of the many spams that are sent out.)

Authors Acknowledgments

First, cheers to Nicole Sholly and Teresa Artman, who guided the progress of this book and offered dozens of solutions and ideas in its development. To them, a heartfelt thanks. Thanks also to Robert Stone for his patience teaching me the ins and outs of landscape photography in Paris and Vietnam Robert Jones of Insightful Solutions for guidance for Internet and Web site photography Roger Vail for his wonderful nighttime carnival photography the expertise of sports photographer Drew Brashler and Rich Glass and infrared photographer, Robert Contreras ( who helped widen the book's focus. Also of assistance were the Borgan, Taylor, and Bodon families whose ideas, photos, and patience modeling for dozens of shots made the process not work but fun. I can't forget the valuable assistance in shooting provided by Dr. Suellen Evavold, Trixie Mauleon, and Kelly Lewis and son, Chase. And keeping me on track, offering aesthetic advice on hundreds of photos as they...

Printing Cousins Offset and Digital Offset

Offset Lithography While technically not a fine-art printing process, offset lithography is frequently used in printing art reproductions, usually only in large editions where economy of scale brings the unit cost down. This is how everyday art posters (as well as brochures, magazines, and newspapers) are printed. The offset part of the name comes from the principle of transferring the image from the revolving plate to a rubber blanket before final transfer to the paper (see Figure 1.1). Because of the similarity of terms, and because they both fall under the planographic category, fine-art lithographs are sometimes called original lithographs to distinguish them from commercial offset prints.

Resolving Resolution Issues

Whether you take a picture with a digital camera or you take one on film and digitize it, one of your primary concerns in art photography is to maintain image resolution. In order to keep the resolution (that's the number of pixels your image contains) of your printed photo high above 300 pixels per inch, strive for the following

Creating a Still Life Staging Area

If you regularly take product pictures for your business or you want to pursue fine-art photography seriously, you may want to build a dedicated staging area for shooting your still-life projects. I shoot most of my still-life pictures in my guest bedroom, so I designed a stage that can easily be disassembled when company comes. Shown in Figure 4.1, this setup involves nothing more than adjustable shelving brackets and supports, a pair of white melamine boards, a curtain rod, and some clip-style curtain rings. Total cost less than 50 and one trip to the hardware store.

Seeing Thinking and Acting

In order to take a good picture, you've got to have the right equipment. But the right equipment doesn't guarantee you'll get a good, or even mediocre, picture. Getting a good or great picture is all about you. Your unique personality, vision, and creativity is what separates your photographs from those taken by the guy down the street who owns the same digital camera. Have you ever looked at two photographs of the same person, place, or thing, yet they look completely different That's where the skill and unique vision of each photographer comes into play. Compare Ansel Adams' fine art photographs of Yosemite to tourist snapshots, and you'll see what I mean.

Commercial Photography

Commercial photography, however, is not the field for an up-and-coming photographer who wishes to take the time to do art photography. Commercial photography requires working under pressure. Sometimes it means being on call day and night, Sundays, and even holidays. Often the jobs the commercial photographer undertakes have a tight schedule and a rigid deadline.

Macro or micro That is the question

Close-up photography is another means of perspective. But is it macro or micro What's the difference and why should you even pay attention to these lenses settings When you think of a micro lens, think of looking through a microscope lens to make really small things look bigger. Makes fascinating photography, but not the kind of best-selling art photography you would probably want to make.

Fair And Festival News

The AIPAD Photography Show New York, the longest running and one of the foremost exhibitions of fine art photography, was presented by the Association of International Photography Art Dealers (AIPAD) March 2629, 2009. More than 75 of the world's leading fine art photography galleries presented a wide range of museum quality work by contemporary, modern, and 19 th century masters at The Park Avenue Armory at 67th Street and will also be introduced this year. Curated by Vladimir Birgus, an authority on contemporary photography in the Czech Republic, the events will focus on an examination of Central European photography. It will feature Open Space, a wide space for photographers and artists that work with photography from all over the world. Anybody can e-mail their own photographs, which will be printed and exhibited in Prague. For further information on Prague Biennale Photo 1 or Prague Biennale 4, contact info, giancarlo. politi, or helena.kontova

How To Understanding Light

Joe McNally shoots assignments for magazines, ad agencies, and graphic design firms. Clients include Sports Illustrated, ESPN Magazine, National Geographic, LIFE, Time, Fortune, New York Magazine, Business Week, Rolling Stone, New York Stock Exchange, Target, Sony, GE, Nikon, Lehman Brothers, and PNC Bank. In addition to having been a recipient of the Alfred Eisenstaedt Award for outstanding magazine photography, McNally has been honored for his images by Pictures of the Year, The World Press Photo Foundation, The Art Directors' Club, Photo District News, American Photo, Communication Arts, Applied Arts Magazine, and Graphis. Joe's teaching credentials include the Eddie Adams Workshop, the National Geographic Masters of Contemporary Photography, the Smithsonian Institute Masters of Photography, Rochester Institute of Technology, Maine Photo Workshops, Department of Defense Worldwide Military Workshops, Santa Fe Workshops, and the Disney Institute. He has also worked on numerous Day in...

Develop Your Own Approach to the Workflow

Outsourcing is also permitted (e.g., for fine art printing), which will save you time but mean that you have less control of the overall creative process. Not every photographer makes his her own prints, but we nevertheless recommend that you take the time to read chapter 11. The better you understand the processes involved in printing, the better you will be able to define the work you have done by whoever makes your prints.

OEMs The Empire Strikes Back

So what does all this mean for black-and-white photographers For the first time in the digital revolution, we have a choice of suitable OEM systems in addition to the third-party solutions upon which many of us have relied for so many years. It bodes well for future innovation and performance that the emergence of three respected rivals in the fine art printing segment coincides with improved black-and-white output over previous OEM solutions.

Stilllife photography

Still-life photography encompasses pack shots and product shots for advertising, catalogues, brochures and web sites food photography, car photography as well as realms of fine art photography. Lighting requirements range from the emulation of natural light to highly stylized light.

Part The photo shoot

To help move your portraiture shots from the everyday toward art photos, read about shooting with the art elements mentioned in Chapter 1 in your shots. As an art photographer, you'll probably have subjects in mind who are not your friends or family when you go on a photography exhibition say, when you're traveling to another country.

W Eugene Smith Memorial Fund

As a result of these pioneering efforts, the lines today between commercial and assignment and fine art are so blended as to be indistinguishable. A look at some of the prominent photography gallery Web sites will show that the photographers they represent are a mix of established assignment photographers with the traditional fine arts photographer. Works of fine art photography, perhaps originally defined as those intended to delight the eye and arouse the intellect, now include works that shed light on the human condition.

Piezography and the Quad Black Revolution

Jon Cone's Piezography system was the first commercially available method of producing fine art black-and-white prints in the digital darkroom. A large part of its appeal lay in the fact that it was developed for use on desktop Epson printers, providing a low-cost entry to fine art printing.

How To Be A Fine Artist

Where does fine art come from From inside. Be ruthless and honest in looking at your work. In the profile of Joyce Tenneson, below, you'll read insightful words about finding the artist inside you. If you track the progress of her work you'll see she never wavered from her commitment to her artistic exploration. Her art evolved but has always been true to her inner self. As Tenneson puts it, a fine art photographer must mine their inner territory.

Markets Promotion And Clients

Fine art photography can be either a consumer or commercial client If the photography is for display in the home of an individual for noncommerce purposes, then it is a consumer client. If the photography is for display in the office and lobby of an individual's business, then it is a commercial client.

The everyday and the mass media

At the same time that this later generation of street photographers championed by Szarkowski was busy exploring the particular kind of image that could be produced with a camera, artists began using photographs in an altogether different way. Many of them didn't give a damn about which characteristics were peculiar to the medium they cared even less about a convoluted art-photography. By the 1960s, the discourse and the practice of medium specificity 5 seemed played out in adventurous art (it persisted a while longer in art-photography) the art produced according to this conception was increasingly formulaic and empty, and rather than acting as an impetus to critical thought, the ideas had become a barrier to it. In any case, this version of modernism was never totally hegemonic some artists had continued to produce representations or work in deliberately hybrid and 'impure' forms. In this vein, it made sense that some artists became interested in exploring the effects and forms of...

Part The phot shoot

Some art photography provides viewers with a clear focus of an object or a part of an object, like this bridge in Hanoi, Vietnam (see Figure 8-17). The color red among the contrasting green background of foliage and water provides a clear focus based upon color. The f-stop was set high so that the picture has a clear foreground and background. The exposure compensation was set to -.5, making the colors appear saturated.

Digital in Photography Schools

At this moment photo schools seem to be divided in their approach to teaching film and digital. Some schools teach only digital in the recognition that it's what today's students will need. They want to help the student get a grasp of the contemporary photography techniques as speedily as possible arguing that they save students money by avoiding teaching the arcane and unnecessary film process

Describe your background

I studied at University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and graduated with a BA in English with photojournalism and fine art photography as part of my studies. While still in college, I did photography and graphic design for the college magazine, and after graduation, I worked at several newspapers as a reporter and photographer. Since my background was not portraiture, I wanted to learn all I could about this new area, and joining WPPI and PPA were great avenues.

Blackand White Inkjet Printing

We've never had it so good. But with choices, come decisions. And the hardware and consumables necessary for fine art printing represent a considerable investment when your aim is to keep your printing needs in-house. So it's important to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the available options. In this chapter, we'll look at ways to judge features with your specific printing needs in mind. We'll discuss recent advances in printing technology, as well as the importance of paper selection. I'll offer some basic preventative maintenance and explore some of the noteworthy features of OEM printer drivers and third-party RIP software. We'll end the chapter with a consideration of the element of craft that each of you, as printmakers, can imbue into your own work.

Fine Art Galleries And Curators

Having come into its own in recent decades, fine art photography has provided a flourishing business in buying and selling prints. Though the fine art photography establishment tends to hold itself aloof from the commerce associated with assignment photography, the fact is that fine art photography is big business. Prices have risen sharply to levels not even imagined ten years ago.

Moving from air to glass to a denser medium causes light to slow down

In lighting devices, refraction is used with spotlights and spots with Fres-nel lenses. These lenses, placed close to the light source, gather and focus the light into a condensed beam that is more intense and useful over a greater distance than an unfocused light of the same intensity. Spotlights are theatrical in nature, allowing the players on stage to be lit from above or the side by intense but distant lights, but they also have many applications in contemporary photography.

Visit to a Photography Gallery in New York City

The Laurence Miller Gallery in New York City is a good example of a gallery that deals with both current and past artists. Miller represents well-known photographers of the past, including Helen Levitt (refer to Chapter 21) and Ray K. Metzker, a photographer who became well known for his unique ways of developing film and his use of light and shadow in urban settings. Miller also represents a small number of new photographers. His gallery is a contemporary art space that deals with vintage and contemporary photography, where he showcases photographers in different exhibitions throughout the year. Half of our business is Helen Levitt and Ray Metzker and older artists, and the other half is younger contemporary artists, he commented in a 2011 interview for this book. I take on about one new photographer a year. In contemporary photography, Miller is not interested in redundancy. Every new artist has to add to my knowledge of what photography can do, he says. One of the photographers he...

There are always flowers for those who want to see them Henri Matisse

Untitled Some photographs are labeled Untitled so as not to direct or influence the viewer's response. The paradox is that by titling the photograph Untitled, it is given a title. However, it does provide a way to identify photographs. A friend who is a recognized fine art photographer and has a PhD in art history was asked whether he captions his prints or titles them. His reply was that he titles them, but that most are untitled with a number and date. Dictionaries seem to be unclear as to the difference between a title and a caption. The best distinction found was by a linguist who said that a caption is a definition, or an explanation while a title is a suggestion. A title for this photograph could have been Tree of Sorrow or Weeping Branches.

Documents and pictures

Marcelin Portraits Yesteryear

This chapter and the one that follows examine a central division in photography - that between 'documents' and 'pictures', or, to put it another way, between 'documentary' and 'art-photography'. All of these terms are problematic, but the distinction is real and has generated much of the photography we routinely encounter. The photographic document, like other kinds of document, is typically perceived to be a neutral, styleless, and objective record of information. The document is usually thought to be devoid of subjective intention, even of human will - it is frequently claimed that the camera produces images automatically, as if unaided by an operator. For instance, a French caricature from 1840 makes fun of a photographer dozing while his apparatus does all the work. Photographic art, in contrast, lays claim to intention, subjective expression, spiritual uplift, and aesthetic effect. Rather than snooze, photographic artists must be alert. argument not least because the standard...

Using Layers to Create a Theme

For the purposes of this book, I leave heavy rendering of dozens of images to graphic designers. From a photographer's perspective (more specifically, this art photographer), if a photographic image is overdone with Photoshop, you move it into a different category of art more toward graphics. For now, digital photography graphic designs have not sold widely as prints without the aid of mass production. In other words, designs do sell but mostly if they're part of a poster produced as part of an event, a gallery opening, movie premiere, or stage production. But, in the art world, you never know when this will catch on.

Create a Limited Edition Book

If you specialize in fine-art photography or want to move some of your commercial work into that arena, you might find that the high cost of large prints and the lack of consumer wall space (given today's high cost of real estate) are limiting the market for fine-art prints. You might consider a fairly new idea that is catching on quickly in the fine-art worldthe limited-edition book, which is sometimes referred to as a monograph. Monographs are bound volumes of limited-edition fine-art prints. At press time, a typical price for a book of 8x10 prints on 11x14 paper from a credentialed but not internationally known artist is between 400 and 1,200.

Using Photoshop for Special Effects

Hotoshop has literally hundreds of effects that you can use to manipulate an image. The choices available range from subtle to dramatic to (in my opinion) downright bizarre and surreal. How far you want to take your art photography from its original state is a matter of your taste and the outcome you desire.

Influential Movements And Styles

A photographic movement that reached its height in the early 20th century, then declined rapidly after 1914 with the widespread emergence of Modernism. Pictorialists subscribed to the idea that art photography needed to emulate the painting and etching of the time. Among the methods used were soft focus, darkroom manipulation, and rough-surface printing papers that broke up a picture's sharpness. Pictorialist photographers whose work is characterized by soft focus and atmospheric effects have also been called Impressionists.

The Photographers 119

Larry Peters is one of the most successful and award-winning teen-and-senior photographers in the nation. He operates three highly successful studios in Ohio and is the author of two books, Senior Portraits (self published, 1987) and Contemporary Photography (self published, 1995). His award-winning web site is loaded with good information about photographing seniors

The Rebirth of Pictorialism

The art of pictorialism was refined to capture the pathos of the human spirit and was influenced by the notion of Naturalism, an art photography form of the mid- to late-19th century that was built upon the rejection of the Industrial Age. While Naturalism considered photography images to be more realistic than the pictorialist, both considered the common man doing menial work among vast landscapes. Peter Henry Emerson, a Naturalist, sought to capture the tranquility of the old life, simple images of people living off the land. The nearer we get to Nature the sweeter will be our lives, Emerson wrote, and never shall we attain the true secret of happiness until we identify ourselves as part of Nature.1

Other Alternative Processes

Alternative Photo Processes Images

Fine-art photographer Dan Burkholder pioneered the use of digital negatives in 1992, and he helped popularize the process with the release of his groundbreaking book Making Digital Negatives for Contact Printing in 1995, now in its second edition. Burkholder, who states that over a decade has passed since I made my last traditionally enlarged negative via wet processing, also maintains an active website ( with updates to his custom Photoshop Curves that are crucial to the process.

Zakia Shakir Use Lens

But, you can do anything to the photograph, if you are an advertising photographer, tine art photographer, or do any type of photography where your creative thought is more important than the means to show that idea. So, you can do double exposure, posterization, solarization, or anything which modern technology allows.

Idyllic Winter John Earl Brown

Of course, no one has actually ever encountered the exact scene pictured, because it is, in fact, a clever composite, produced by stitching two compatible images together. John Earl is a fine art photographer and Photoshop master (as you'll see in three of his images presented in Chapter 6) who creates painterly visions from ordinary scenes. In this case, he tackles a very difficult subject a snow scene populated with trees, a bridge, and a nearly frozen

Digital Photo Print

Johnson explains that while the printer is remote, the relationship hasn't been. With good technical support, I've been able to keep close to the action. There's a consistency and an understanding of just how important the work is to the art photographer. The printing itself is one thing I don't have to worry about. Calypso also offers exhibition framing, so prints now can be shipped direct. However, when signed prints are required, they must still go back and forth.

The small formats 645 and 66x44

This is an excellent format lor color, at least to 12x16in 30x40cm or thereabouts, though for optimum quality in monochrome, anything more than 10x12in 25x30cm (6x) should be approached with caution because of the half-tone effect (page 14). For many commercial applications (including weddings) there is no real need to go any bigger than 645, though for very high quality advertising or fine-art photography this format is marginal and 6x7cm or 6x8cm may in fact be preferable.

Museum And Notforprofit

The longest running and one of the foremost exhibitions of fine art photography, was presented by the Association of International Photography Art Dealers (AIPAD) March 26-29, 2009. More than 75 of the world's leading fine art photography galleries presented a wide range of museum quality work by contemporary, modern, and 19th century masters at The Park Avenue Armory at 67th Street and Park

Getting Results with Digital Black and White

Start with a well-cared-for black-and-white negative that is carefully scanned, says Los Angeles photographer and printmaker Antonis Ricos, who, with fine-art photographer Martin Wesley, runs one of the most important e-mail discussion lists for digital black-and-white pros For large prints and 8 X 10 negs, drum scanner technology may still have significant advantages over a CCD, depending on the neg and the size of the final print. Scanning at resolutions beyond what the best CCDs offer and doing so with a single, focused point of light extracts more accurate information from certain originals like large format or high-contrast negs. Drum scanning is also able to keep any film (especially 35mm) flatter and therefore sharper than other scanners. However, for formats up to 4 X 5, you can get very decent results with the Imacon scanners, especially the latest models that offer autofocus and a cooled CCD. If you're starting from a color capture or scan, there are numerous ways of...

Additional Books

Fine Art Printing for Photographers Dedicated to techniques for producing gallery-grade digital prints. Addresses choice of printer, types of paper and ink (and their compatibility), as well as printer profiling. Print preparation and actual printing are covered using various printers as examples. The book 16 also looks at how to frame prints. We try to make our individual books as comprehensive as possible, so there will always be some duplication of content. Almost every book we write contains a section on basic color management and color management in relation to the specific theme of the book. For example, the RAW book explains how to profile your camera, while the Fine Art Printing book tells you where to find printer profiles and how to generate your own. Image optimization is a subject covered by all three books, albeit with differing emphasis and differing degrees of detail. The Fine Art Printing book is reproduced in heavily abridged form in chapter 12.

Turning professional

In art photography the product is driven variously by a commitment to a particular theme or visual strategy. The theme may be linked to a particular social observation or critique. It is also important in most cases to have the ability to present ideas, informed by contemporary debates, in both verbal and written forms.


There is a further breakdown in these four areas (publication photography, consumer photography, service photography, and fine art photography) where a photographer may carve out a specialty niche. The fine art photographer will create a specialization defined simply by his or her vision. The style will determine a specialty to some degree. Subject matter can also define a specialty. Some fine art photographers do nothing but close-ups of flowers others do allegorical photographs of women nudes, while another might shoot haunting vignettes of industrial decay.

Archival atmospheric

See fine art photography. ASA. See American National Standards Institute. ASA system. Created by the American Standards Association (now called the American National Standards Institute), a rating system describing the sensitivity of film to light. Now superceded by the ISO system.

Table of Contents

One of the key strengths of digital photography is that the type of film can be changed after the photo has been taken. Print on sepia toned digital photo paper for an art photography look. See Convert a Color Photo to Grayscale in Chapter 8 for the step-by-step procedure.


Traditional (analog) printing is a mechanical process that uses a physical master or matrix for making repeatable prints. Commercial and even traditional fine-art printing presses use pressure or impact to transfer the image from a carrier, plate, or blanket the matrix to the receiving paper. Similarly, with old-style photography, the negative or a transparency is the matrix through which light travels to expose the print.


For the sake of simplicity, we can organize the myriad of freelance choices into a few large categories commercial photography, retail photography, and fine art photography. These categories differ mainly in the way images are marketed and sold, by the way, and less by image content, talent, or skill. Examples of commercial photography include annual reports, freelance editorial, advertising, fashion and lifestyle, and product illustration. It is a very diversified field. Photographers who choose a commercial photography career do not usually deal with the general public. They most often market and sell their work to art buyers and art directors, graphic designers, and editors. Retail photographers, on the other hand, do market and sell directly to the public. This would include portrait studios and event and wedding photography, for example. Fine art photographers also sell to the public but generally try to work with galleries or agents to market their work (and will pay a...

Looking at History

Twenty years ago the casual perception was that to be an editorial photographer, all you needed was a couple of Nikons and some fast film. At that time, advertising photography was characterized as a business of large productions in a studio with set constructions, legions of assistants, models, and stylists, using huge amounts of strobe light, most often with a medium- or large-format camera. Then things came full circle. Now editorial shoots often require sophisticated lighting, models, and sometimes sets. They may be more production illustration than traditional documentary editorial. At the same time, the advertising pendulum has swung the style sometimes mimics the gritty look of real life instead of polished perfection that once was standard. The scenes and models are still carefully controlled and of high production quality, but shot with a grainy look and staged to create the feel of spontaneity. Fine art photography and photographers have been added to the mix, as advertising...


Today, the quality and stability of the digital print have reached levels unimaginable just a decade ago. The best examples of digital output compare favorably to even the highest standards of darkroom printing. For the fine art photographer concerned with image detail, wide tonal range, and print longevity, there has never been a better time to print digitally

Digital Artists

In her studio, Freer works with digital photos taken with her digital camera, software and filters, and also what she calls screen painting by using a digital graphics tablet. She produces her own inkjet prints on fine-art paper, and she markets them through galleries and her website. In addition, Freer has started to do digital art photography and printing for other artists in her local area.


A college in Wiltshire will celebrate 50 years as a centre for courses in photography, film and television by staging an exhibition next month. Wiltshire College Salisbury plans to hold an exhibition of former students'work to include'some of the leading names in contemporary photography today'. The show will open in'late March'. For details of courses visit courses.


There is another approach to documentary, though, which seems more defensible and more interesting. The art-photographer Ansel Adams criticized what is probably the most famous documentary project, the Historical Section of the Farm Security Administration, which produced 270,000 photographs of American society between 1935 and 1943. Adams claimed that those working for the FSA (including, among others, Arthur Rothstein, Dorothea Lange, and It is important to grasp that Adams was committed to art-photography as a form of self-expression for him, significant photography involved the production of pictures, not mere records > or documents. In one sense, Evans echoes this perception, referring S to photography of a 'sociological nature', but there are other IS features from his itinerary that suggest another conception 'graphic records' and, crucially, 'documentary in style'. The latter idea represents an early articulation of a distinction that Evans returned to during the 1970s, when...

Film flag

The production of images to fulfill the creative vision of a photographer. Generally sold to dealers, collectors, or curators as high-quality archival prints. These prints are also sometimes produced for exhibition in an art gallery. Synonymous with art photography.


To speak of photographic 'art' is fraught with problems, not least because there are at least two, and possibly three, traditions out of which this category has been put together. Firstly, there is 'art-photography', stemming from the 1860s, which involves photographers making pictures that claim the status of art. This tradition includes quite diverse tendencies stretching from 'trick' photography to the injunction against any manipulation from soft focus to technical precision from subjectivism to objectivism. Secondly, there are lots of examples of artists using photography (though, as one colleague wryly noted, no one ever speaks of 'photographers using art'). Thirdly, 'street photography' or 'auteur documentary' is often grouped with art-photography. In an important sense, the idea of an art of photography is an 'invented tradition'. Powerful institutions, curators, and collectors have drawn images from contexts as diverse as campaigning publications and scientific archives to...

The avantgarde

While the judgement of later photographers on the 19th-century art-photography would be harsh indeed, in reality the break with the predominant sensibility probably began as a tendency within Pictorialism. The trend known as 'second-wave' Pictorialism -associated with Steiglitz and Alvin Langdon Coburn - forsook arty-printing techniques and abandoned literary mythic subjects for an increased focus on modern life and the metropolis. Some of the most astute recognized that what counted as art had changed among connoisseurs and artists the aesthetic of Whistler gave way to the new painting associated with Henri Matisse, Pablo Picasso, and the Italian Futurist group. In the final issue of Camera Work, which appeared in 1917, Stieglitz showcased the work of Paul Strand, which has frequently been seen as marking a shift in photographic paradigms. Strand's pictures exemplify what came to be called photographic 'modernism' his artworks were not predicated on existing approaches to art....

Photographing People

When you think of photographing people, you probably have the standard smiling portrait head shot in mind, kind of like what you expect for a yearbook. Tilt your head a little to the left. Now lift your chin a bit. That's it, perfect Now smile Not that anything is wrong with this traditional type of portraiture, but with a little creativity, you can create portraits of people and non-living people with a decided art photography twist.


It has not been in the tradition of fine art photography to use the word marketing in the same breath with fine art. However, artists energetically seek gallery representation and show their work with the hope of being recognized and rewarded (paid) through sales of prints. They also seek the attention of curators or buyers of fine art photography for use in corporate collections. That being the case, the idea of marketing and self-promotion for a fine art photographer should not be anathema, an abhorrence, an abomination it's a reality if you are to earn a living as a fine artist. It's no less important for an artist to promote him or herself to galleries and curators than it is for an assignment photographer to do so to clients. The only difference is that the usage is exhibition instead of advertising or editorial. However, getting the attention of that corporate buyer or gallery owner is every bit as critical as it is for an assignment photographer. An interior designer or...

The Granny Standard

The standard answers the following question based on this assumption A pregnant 30-year-old digital artist and fine-art photographer makes a color print of her favorite image and frames and displays it proudly in her living room. On her son's 30th birthday, the artist gives him the framed print as a present just after his baby daughter is born. The son hangs the print in his living room and then gives it to his daughter on her 30th birthday. It's now been 60 years. Question Has the print lost any of its image quality or experienced any noticeable fading or other deterioration (It turns out that Granny was pretty smart and kept a duplicate copy in an acid-free envelope stored in a dark, dry dresser drawer all these years. When her granddaughter asked the question, she was able to pull that print out and compare it to the family heirloom version.)

Contract Forms

The contracts in this chapter are reproduced by permission from Business and Legal Forms for Photographers by Tad Crawford. Business and Legal Forms for Photographers has a large number of forms, all on CD-ROM for ease of use, as well as explanatory text and negotiation checklists. The forms selected for this chapter meet the basic needs of commercial photographers, wedding and portrait photographers, and fine art photographers. This chapter has the basic contract forms you need to get started, whether you are a commercial photographer, wedding or portrait photographer, or fine art photographer. While the needs of the disciplines differ, the photographer must always balance what the client needs against what the photographer is willing to give. This may be an issue of reproduction rights or of ownership of physical objects, such as prints.


I often say that fine art photography has two aspects technical and creative. This process addresses both of these aspects. It is important to have good technique when moving and processing these images. However, it is equally important to be creative when selecting the subject and the light and when making processing choices in regards to color balance, color harmony, contrast, color palette, and so on.

Photo Researcher

A photo researcher works for and with virtually all other types of buyers and clients including ad agencies, design firms, publishers of books, magazines, newspapers, encyclopedias, and content developers sometimes known as book packagers. The services they provide include photo research, not only of contemporary photography but also of historical photographs, prints, drawings, and other fine art works. The photo researcher or their assistant will also handle rights and permissions for the visuals researched, gathering the digital file needed by the client, and may also handle image and archive management.

Gallery Owner Manager

Galleries display fine art photography for sale. Gallery owners manage the business of finding and selling fine art photography. Gallery owners are constantly searching for genuine new expressions, a unique voice in visual form. Part of their search involves looking at the portfolios of many hopeful fine art photographers. The search is exhaustive and not many are chosen. Since space and time to present an exhibition are limited, gallery owners must judge the impact and likely staying power of a new artist. There is a massive amount of work in handling this and the installation of new shows, publicity for a show, arrangements for an opening reception and then the sales of prints. Frequently a gallery assistant helps with these tasks being an assistant in a gallery is a promising way to learn the insides of collecting. (A little-known side use of stock photography comes about when fine art gallery owners and artists license stock photography to aid in the installation of shows for...

Get Into The Frame

Siege Jhansi

F I owe a lot to my family I for mustering up the I courage to send me to Light & Life Academy for my training in photography, but I must admit that it was at America On-line Limited (AOL), Bangalore where I really grasped the tricks of the trade, acknowledges Jyothy Karat who specializes in photojournalism, travel and fine art photography.

Moral Rights

Has very limited application in the world of commercial photography, and it is therefore still important to contractually protect your right to a credit line and the publication of your work without distortions. With respect to moral rights and fine art photography, see Legal Guide for the Visual Artist by Tad Crawford.

Using Computers

Although Tom is a classic photographer in every sense of the word, he is on the frontier exploring the use of computers and digital imaging in fine art photography. He feels that many photographers have not yet made the connection that it is possible and EASY to make beautiful

Artist Statement

The simplicity of an instant image undermines fine art photography, at the same time belying the complexity of meaning the photographs hold as a group. The randomness of the moments depicted and their equal treatment subvert the importance of any single portrait. Their diaristic candor breaks down personal boundaries and presents a series of surrogate selves for the viewer. Together the photographs depict universal experience their raw,

The 19th century

During the 19th century, art-photography meant, first and foremost, asserting the active presence of the photographer. The dominant historical perspective on 19th-century photography has, however, focused on the idea of a 'new medium' a proposition first advanced by Elizabeth Eastlake in 1857. The problem, though, is that Eastlake's suggestion is read anachronistically from the perspective of the modernist aesthetics that held sway from the 1920s until, at least, the 1970s. Photography, modernists claimed, represented a new way of looking at things - a 'new vision' - that broke with traditional pictorial forms, creating new modes of composition and offering new visual experiences. The new vision, or camera vision, meant working with those characteristics that were specific to the medium of photography. This argument suggests that > the camera shows things in a new and unique way clear, precise, S without selecting with novel framing effects and new vantage IS points. This attitude...

Senior Style

Wisconsin photographer Chris Nelson got his start in professional photography as a photojournalist, although he also studied fine-art photography as a minor in college. As a result, he brings a unique set of skills to his portraiture. Since then, he has continued to expand his skills, studying within the photographic industry under such notable photographers as Monte Zucker, Don Blair, Larry Peters, and Michele Gauger, who has been his mentor for more than a decade. Classes I've taken from photographers that I admire have really accelerated my learning, says Chris. In fact, his learning has progressed so well that he himself has become a respected teacher. CHRIS NELSON is a graduate of the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, where he earned a B.A. in English (applied writing and journalism), plus minors in philosophy and fine-art photography. In his days as a photojournalist and reporter, Chris supplemented his small-market wages shooting weddings, advertising images, and senior...

Part III

This part covers all things Photoshop. For the lowdown on repairing or jazzing up old photos, Chapter 12 is your guide to Photoshop tools and techniques for restoring faded color and eliminating the ravages of time, like creases, scratches, and dust. Peruse Chapter 13 to see how to use Photoshop to merge images into a single, giant photograph. Chapter 14 presents Photoshop layers, which are a great tool for creating digital art photography. And because Photoshop offers so many creative and tempting filters, I dedicate a whole chapter here to them (Chapter 15).

Aperture Advances

In a slick video touting Aperture 3, photographer Chase Jarvis focuses on his fine-art photography in nightclubs.3 He glides through the Quick Brushes Dodge and Burn tool, complimenting himself as he progresses. The video ends with a pleased Jarvis saying, All the barriers between me and my subject, they just go away and that's a lot like using the new tools in Aperture, and I feel way more connected to my images in post-production now than I have been before.

Medium specificity

In the catalogue accompanying the exhibition The Photographer's Eye (MoMA 1964), Szarkowski insisted that a proper account of photography had to encompass, as 'intimately interdependent aspects of a single history', both art-photography and the 'functional' uses of the medium. He was to make 'vernacular photography' central to art-photography. The term 'vernacular' is employed, typically with regard to architecture or articles of use, to describe anonymous forms that come into being over a protracted period. In contrast to 'architecture', associated with named makers and conscious stylistic trends, vernacular buildings are lowly, everyday, and traditional. A barn is often a vernacular building, a bank rarely is. Vernacular photographs include amateur snapshots of family high days and holidays, or the types of functional document found in specialist archives police images, technical records, and so on. Strand's examples from the National Geographic or aerial surveys convey the point...

Adding a Chop

Left Chop by New York's Marty Friedman, who for many years was a traditional fine-art printmaker with his own atelier where he did printing for such artists as LeRoy Neiman and Salvador Dali. Always a photographer, Friedman is now starting to use the chop on his digital prints, one of which is shown. Right New Mexico digital fine-art printmaker Lynn Lown uses this chop on the work he produces at his studio. Lown trained as a traditional printmaker in intaglio, lithography, and photography, and in 1996 he opened New Media Arts, Santa Fe's first archival fine-art digital print shop. Left Chop by New York's Marty Friedman, who for many years was a traditional fine-art printmaker with his own atelier where he did printing for such artists as LeRoy Neiman and Salvador Dali. Always a photographer, Friedman is now starting to use the chop on his digital prints, one of which is shown. Right New Mexico digital fine-art printmaker Lynn Lown uses this chop on the work he produces at his studio....

Display Aesthetics

Figure 9.12 Fine-art photographer Henry Reichhold stands next to one example of his walkway art. In this case, the single piece of multiple inkjet prints spans the top walkway of London's Tower Bridge. The Canon large-format inkjet prints are glued end-to-end and over-laminated for hard use with the public walking on them, which he encourages. Figure 9.12 Fine-art photographer Henry Reichhold stands next to one example of his walkway art. In this case, the single piece of multiple inkjet prints spans the top walkway of London's Tower Bridge. The Canon large-format inkjet prints are glued end-to-end and over-laminated for hard use with the public walking on them, which he encourages.

Whos Your Audience

Larry Davis is a fine art photographer and president of the Soho Photo Gallery. This cooperative gallery was established in 1971 as a means for serious photographers to show their work, exchange ideas, and grow as artists. The gallery holds monthly portfolio reviews and also runs three national photography competitions. Larry shares with us his thoughts on a variety of topics that come into play when submitting work for review. What we see happening digitally is that there are so many things Photoshop allows you to do, that you would not ever think of doing in the darkroom. There's this new crop of photographers now that have never been in the darkroom and are just going wild with all the filters and all the other features in Photoshop just to try and turn snapshots into fine art photography. Its quite disconcerting. Fortunately, we're able to weed out these examples from the work of people who are obviously putting their blood, sweat, and tears into creating images.

Finding Inspiration

Fine art photography books, like those in Figure 9.6, have even more obvious parallels to your portfolio. The images are sized more closely to those you would find in most portfolios. And the issues related to horizontal or vertical format are quite similar, as either orientation must fit within the fixed dimensions of the book. As you look through some of your favorite photography books, consider how this collection of individual images fits into a broader unifying theme. Even if the book is a retrospective spanning a long career, chances are that the images are grouped in such a way that there are similarities in style, mood, or tone between adjacent images.

Alain Briot

Alain Briot creates fine art photographs, teaches workshops, and offers DVD tutorials on composition, printing, and marketing photographs. Alain is also the author of Mastering Landscape Photography and Mastering Photographic Composition, Creativity, and Personal Style. Both books are available from Amazon and other bookstores as well as directly from Alain. Alain's third book, Marketing Fine Art Photography, will be published by Rocky Nook in 2011. You can find more information about Alain's work, writings, and tutorials on his website at http www.bea utifu l-la ndsca

What To Look Out

Los Angeles fine-art printing consultant, printmaker, and UCLA digital printmaking instructor Andrew Behla (see Figure 10.4) explains it like this An eye for color, a knowledge of color theory, and an understanding of the digital imaging process are the foundation blocks for making successful prints. In addition, utilizing color management and developing Photoshop wizardry are two other important resources needed in the printmaker's toolbox. So, what is the most useful tool to have Ultimately, it is your eye. Developing your own visual sensibility and effectively using your printmaking tools to facilitate the process are crucial. A music producer once summed it up for me like this 'It's not the gear, it's the ear.' The art of digital printmaking is found in the eyes of the printmaker.

The Artist Statement

Chris Jordan, a fine art photographer based in Seattle, attracted widespread attention with his series, Intolerable Beauty Portraits of American Mass Consumerism. In his artist statement, he gives insight into the personal significance of this work. Reading this gives us a much richer context in which to place the image in Figure 9.14.


Detailed advice on exploring markets for your work is beyond the scope of this book. But the range of potential uses for fine art photographs is broad. So it becomes very important to choose a presentation most appropriate for your audience and the content of your work. The Web is an invaluable research tool, but there are also publications like Art in America Magazine's annual guide that lists all of the upcoming gallery and museum shows. Photo-Eye Booklist magazine is devoted exclusively to fine art photography. One of the reasons I started my blog was to keep people informed about new opportunities. You see fine-art photography being reproduced as illustration in every issue of The New Yorker magazine. You cannot walk into a bookstore without seeing amazing work on the cover of recent fiction. Even biographies today tend to avoid photos of the subject, opting instead for images that reflect that era or the subject's particular expertise a more metaphorical approach. Esquire ias a...

Getting Started

Many young people start their careers by working as photographic studio assistants. They may help collect props, prepare sets, arrange products to be photographed, and process images. Working under a successful professional is a time-honored way of learning the business and provides real-life training for opening one's own business in the future. A growing number of galleries and museums employ people knowledgeable about fine art photography and photographic history to manage their photography collections and organize exhibitions. Many photographically minded people work in website design and desktop publishing. Careers also are open to people who can teach or write about photography. Other areas include photo processing and printing, photo editing, image library maintenance, equipment manufacturing, sales of equipment and supplies, and equipment maintenance and repair. Technically minded people can follow paths in research and development of new photographic equipment and products.

Types of Paper

Since Arches Watercolor paper is probably the most well-known fine-art paper in the world, I thought I would try printing on it, especially since the history of digital fine-art printmaking started on Arches uncoated (David Coons printed the first images for Graham Nash on it in Los Angeles back in 1989), and many artists still use it for inkjet printing.