Filmmaking Stuff - How To Make, Market and Sell Your Movie
Who says you have to shoot all your movies horizontally Just as with stills sometimes its fun to turn the camera on its
You'll see that the dialog box changes content and options as you choose different items from the drop-down menus. In this case, two of the goodies you can access are found in those rotation arrows in the lower-right corner. Click on the one that rotates your movie in the desired direction, as shown in Figure 5-17. Like magic, your movie and its controls are now oriented the way you originally intended.
Stereo sound allows artistic film-making with SLR picture quality. You can even use the art filters in movie mode. Add to that 12.3 Megapixels, 3fps, image stabilisation with 4 EV steps, and AF Live View for real-time effect and you start to get just a hint of the creative power available in the palm of your hand. The new Olympus PEN - yet another Olympus revolution.
The amount of time that you develop your film will determine the density of the negative's highlight areas and its overall contrast. Just as exposure has its main effect on the shadow areas of the negative, the film's development time will determine how white or gray the lighter areas of the print will eventually be. If you inadvertently over- or underdevelop your film, the highlight densities will be difficult or impossible to print well.
The everyday tool of documentary film makers, a staple of crews working to create film at 11 00, and the object of technolust by amateurs chaffing under the restraints of the common camcorder, the professional videocam is the answer for anyone aspiring to be the next Spielberg. The latest models are capable of HDTV-quality images. Not only is it packed with features that matter to a pro, it is built rugged enough to survive daily use under adverse conditions not usually encountered at a six-year-old's birthday party. Finally, let's not forget the cool factor. While the size of consumer camcorders is shrinking, almost by the hour, the videocam is a heavy, glowering monster a camera that tells the world you're serious about your video, serious enough to pay the big bucks and endure the big backaches.
Sometimes you don't need to convert an image to digital format yourself. Professional services can do that for you. These range from stand-alone kiosks at your local department store (with a built-in scanner and printer) to services that your local photofinisher offers. When you take in your film for processing, your local lab can give you the same set of prints or slides that you have always received or return your images already scanned onto a Kodak Photo CD or Picture CD. Some mail-order firms offer the same service.
Looking for a truly spectacular shot You can double-expose your film to include the full moon with the fireworks. In 1998, full moons appear on June 9 or July 9. To double-expose, shoot a full roll of film of your subject (moon or fireworks), then rewind the film and re-use it to photograph the alternate subject.
A CERTAIN PRESUMPTION OF whiteness has always troubled photography. Think of the old trick for reliable metering when you didn't trust your SLR's averaging system to deal with a subject's mix of tones, and hadn't packed an 18-percent gray card Take a reading off the flat of your hand, then open up a stop. The technique worked if you were white, but if your skin was brown, your film could end up overexposed.
Vegas Movie Studio+DVD Platinum software takes you further than any comparable application, offering support for DV and HDV (High Definition Video) editing as well as many other advanced features, its comprehensive set of tools, including advanced color correction, lets you create video productions complete with subtitles, soundtracks, special effects, and more. Included DVD authoring lets you easily showcase and distribute your projects. Platinum Edition is perfect for independent filmmakers, videographers and photographers, or anyone who needs professional video production capabilities in an efficient, effective application. Based on our award-winning Vegas software technology, Vegas Movie Studio Platinum and DVD Architect' Studio software together offer opportunities to explore your movies and photos from a new perspective. Its HDV capabilities prepare you for tomorrow. The included guide to DV HDV, 400 bonus special effects and transitions, and ACID XMC software for music...
Those features are opening new doors of opportunity for manufacturers to expand their customer base. The recently released Canon EOS 5D Mark II includes HD video, a capability that has caught Hollywood's attention. In the article Hollywood Comes Knocking by Daniel Etherington in the British Journal of Photography, Hollywood cinematographer Shane Hurlbut says of the video capabilities of dSLRs, I started playing with the thing and said, 'Oh my God, this is going to change everything.' He had shot the short movie The Last 3 Minutes with the 1080p video-camera function of the camera. This is a far cry from the equipment usually used for shooting such films. Normally, filmmakers use much bigger cameras and lenses. Here you have a portable camera that shoots video in low light and has a wide selection of interchangeable lenses you can use, many of which shoot portraits with beautifully soft backgrounds. When the Canon 5D Mark II came out, it had only one frame rate the television standard...
When film is developed, the silver halide crystals that were exposed to light form small black clumps of metallic silver, called grain, that make up the photographic image. Grain looks a little like particles of sand. You will recognize it when you see it, for example, when you're viewing your film through a magnifier or looking at an enlarged print. The size of the individual clumps can vary according to the type of film you use.
Why Because scanning from film gives you the chance to capture more of what your camera saw when you pressed the button. This is for the simple reason that the information contained in a negative or slide is greater than what can be printed. Some of the detail and spread of tones that was initially captured on your film is lost when it is converted to print.
Getting photos into your camera is easy just point, shoot, and you're done. Getting them onto your PC is another matter. Gone are the days when you could simply pop out your film and drop it off at the photo developer. Nowadays, in order to do the editing, printing, and sharing that makes digital photography so addictive, you need to move your pictures to your PC.
A Focal lengths are different on your digital camera than they were on your film camera.This is because a piece of 35 mm film is the same size in every film camera, but the digital equivalent of film, the camera's CCD is smaller than a frame of film.This means that you need shorter lenses with your digital camera than you would with your traditional camera to get the same effect.To make things even more complicated, different digital cameras have different size CCD's.
Note Extreme Normal Plus Development will result in grainier negatives, which could be a problem for those working with roll-film cameras. An alternative method for increasing the contrast of 35 mm negatives without added grain would be to intensify your film in selenium toner. For more information about this process, refer to Appendix H.
Notice that with N - 1 Development, a Zone VIII negative density is reduced to a density equivalent to Zone VII, while Zone IV only decreases to Zone III 3 4. Because the higher zones decrease in density much more than the Zones below Zone V, shortening the development time has the effect of reducing the overall contrast of the negative. Again, you can determine the exact times for negative contractions by testing your film and developer. It is important to note that when the film is given less than N - 2 Development, there is a noticeable loss of negative density in the lower zones. The remedy for this problem is simply to remember to place your Textured Shadow reading on Zone IV instead of Zone III when the contrast of the scene is extremely high. For further discussion of the effects of extreme Expansion and Contraction, refer to Appendix H.
Traditionally, our (the authors') general attitude about making photographs from public places has been that it is better to ask for forgiveness than permission. However, in today's climate, it may make more sense to try to get clearance, first, and then decide whether the photograph is worth the problems that you are likely to face if permission is not granted. We know of photographers who have recently been arrested for making photographs of bridges, of police officers performing routine operations, and of other seemingly innocuous subjects. Even if you are released and get your film back, the time and emotional costs, and often the legal fees, of dealing with that kind of situation can be extremely high. You need to make a risk-reward analysis when making photographs that you expect might raise issues like these or when approached by an official.You need to be aware that your initial reaction to enforce your constitutionally protected right of expression may be legally justified,...
The ability to review your images after the shot and make immediate corrections is one of the top advantages of digital cameras over the film variety. By the time you have your film processed and prints made, it's usually too late to go back and re-shoot all those blurry pictures you took with the shutter speed set to 1 15th second. With a digital camera you can have instant feedback and correct exposures, errant shutter speeds or white balance settings, and other potential problems after you've taken only a few pictures.
However, once you're at any shutter speed longer than 1 second, you must take into account the reciprocity failure characteristics of the particular film you're using. If you shoot at the indicated value, you'll discover that your slides will come out too dark. Your film has in effect slowed down in this low-light situation, and you must add some more light to get back to correct exposure. This problem is compounded by increases in exposure time, so I would suggest you add
The first decision you need to make when purchasing a new scanner is whether to get a flatbed scanner or a dedicated film scanner (see Figure 4.2). Flatbed scanners are designed for scanning prints, but they are able to scan film by using an attached or accessory transparency adapter. Film scanners, as their name implies, are only able to scan film. Because they are specifically designed for this purpose, they generally offer better quality than flatbed scanners. I, therefore, strongly recommend that you use a film scanner rather than a flatbed for scanning your film for high-quality output (see Figure 4.3). Flatbed scanners allow you to put your film down on the glass surface, illuminating the film from above with a transparency adapter. This means the film is actually being scanned through glass with most flatbed scanners. A few models use special film holders to place the film under the glass, but these are the exception.
There are, of course, many situations where you need to use a higher ASA than the manufacturer recommends. This is called pushing the film, and it is often necessary in low-light situations. Do this with films that are relatively fast, such as Kodak Tri-X or Ilford HP-5+. Faster films generally have more exposure latitude than slower films. The only way to determine what ASA will suit your needs is to test your film and developer.
That's the basic process the following section explains some additional details about customizing your movie settings. First, though, a look at some technical details that may interest the movie geek in the crowd capable of working with AVI files. If you want to view your movies on a TV, you can connect the camera to the TV, as explained in Chapter 5. Or if you have the necessary computer software, you can convert the AVI file to a format that a standard DVD player can recognize and then burn the converted file to a DVD. You also can edit your movie in a program that can work with AVI files.
The genius of digital photography is immediacy. The old days of waiting for your film to be developed and returned from the lab are gone. You know if you got the shot as soon as it appears on your camera's LCD monitor. You also never have to pay for film again. Ever. But for the most part, people have made the switch to digital because they can capture their images on cards the size of a postage stamp, they don't want to worry about film expiration dates, and so on.
Testing Method 1 is designed to allow you to test your film at a wide range of ASA numbers on the same roll or box of film. In this way, you will determine which ASA is best for your purposes. To do this, you are going to bracket your exposures on each roll according to a predetermined plan. The principle that governs this process is very simple. In testing Method 1, you will be filling in a column on the Exposure Record labeled ASA (column C in Figure 62). The ASA numbers that you enter in this column will be the ASA numbers that are equivalent to the exposures in the adjacent columns. For example, Figure 60 shows that ASA 600 is equivalent to stopping down one-half stop from f 16 at 1 60 of a second at ASA 400. At no point in the test should you change the ASA setting on the dial of your meter. Set your ASA dial to the number recommended by the manufacturer, then stop down or open up as indicated by the exposure plan that is appropriate for your film format. After you have...
To establish a personal working ASA (also called your Exposure Index, or EI) for whatever film and developer you decide to use. What you are trying to find is the highest ASA for your film that will give the best shadow detail in your negatives and prints. The result of this test may be a different ASA than the manufacturer recommends, but once it is established, it will be a standard you can depend on for good results.
All this is not to say that you should go back to your film camera when you want to work in less-than-ideal lighting or to photograph a moving subject, however. You just need to adapt your technique to your digital camera's personality, which this chapter shows you how to do. With a few changes to your photographic approach, you can produce excellent photos regardless of the lighting conditions or the speed of your subject.
For example, say you're shooting a landscape with a 100mm lens set to f5.6. When you activate the light meter in your camera, based on the light level and the film speed, it recommends a shutter speed of 1 125s. So your factors are f5.6, 1 125s, a fixed light level, and your film speed. The f5.6 aperture is giving you a medium depth-of-field - a blurry foreground to a sharp background.
While the design of digital SLRs solves many of the problems that may have vexed you with other digital or film cameras, every silver lining can be cloaked in a troublesome cloud. Minor flecks of dust that settle onto your film images can be wiped off or retouched out of the picture quickly and easily, and clean habits can minimize this problem. In contrast, dust that attaches itself to your digital sensor may be almost impossible to avoid (unless you confine your shooting to a clean room) and can mar hundreds of images unless you do something.
Next, review your film development time. Exposure does most to determine shadow tone, but highlight tones are the most influenced by development. While you still aim to reproduce shadows just above the negative's palest tone you can decide to record highlight parts of your test subject as just below the film's darkest tone. The reasoning here is that you make maximum use of film tone range.
You may be wary of X-ray machines so here's the skinny hand-luggage (carry-on) scanners don't significantly affect your film, but checked-luggage (suitcases) scanners, which are much more powerful, often do. So do NOT put film in your suitcases. To rest peacefully, put your film (exposed and un-exposed) in a clear zip-lock bag and drop them in the hand inspection bucket with your wallet or purse. Sometimes the security staff demand that the film go through the scanner - don't worry, your film should be OK. You only need be concerned with very fast film, such as ISO 3200, which can be affected by the X-rays. Keep your film in a dark, cool place. Good shops store their film in refrigerators but, even if you're away for several months, you don't need to. When on a desert road trip, I keep my film in airtight plastic bags in a cooler.
Contemporary spot-flash meters now allow you to take reflected strobe readings of the key areas of your subject. This makes the application of Zone System concepts in the studio a straightforward process. By carefully measuring the contrast of your subject you can previsualize your image and determine how much extra light to add with fill-cards or lights. Once the contrast has been balanced and adjusted your film is usually given Normal Development.
If your film is completely black and without data numbers or lettering visible along the edges, it is most likely to have been heavily fogged (exposed) to light in some way. Perhaps the camera back was open as the film was rewound. Or a child, playing, pulled the film from its cassette (and then wound it back in). Alternatively, your camera back may not be sealing correctly and therefore letting light leak onto the film whilst you are photographing. Exceptionally, this can be the result of chemical fogging during processing (see Figures 22.1-22.7).
Indeterminate shaped patches of fog and perforation shape patterns along the whole length of the film, as well as images, usually means that your film has been partially fogged to light, probably during processing. With some processing systems, films are spliced end to end before going into the machine. Other systems place the film in a light-tight container before
As the enlargement factor of your film increases, so does the grain structure of the film itself. Beyond a certain size, film grain will often be the limiting factor with regard to detail resolution. Highspeed emulsions simply resolve less image information, due to the prominence of grain, as seen in Figure 4.48.
Almost all pointandshoot digicams capture video footage in addition to still photos But how do you turn those short
These days, most people shoot video with a digital video (DV) camcorder. DV is becoming the format of choice. Once you record your movie clips, you can plug the camcorder into your personal computer and an application on your computer launches, ready to download and edit your footage. On the Windows platform, you might use Microsoft's MovieMaker on the Mac, you could use Apple's iMovie or Final Cut Express. Now you're in business. You need to learn only three commands in QuickTime Pro to edit your movies
The ISO system also gives you a really handy way of figuring out outdoor exposures without using a light meter. Look at Table 1-7. You use this table by first setting your shutter to 1 over the ISO number. That is, if your film is ISO 125, start with 1 125 second. If the ISO is 64, use the closest speed you have, i.e., 1 60 second.
One of the biggest differences between film and digital photography is that once you had your film developed, you'd have to jump through hoops to do anything with them. But with digital photos, once you get them into your computer (see Chapter 17), you're limited only by your imagination. (To be fair, you can do everything we describe in this section with film-based photos, but only after you've scanned them or had them burned onto a CD.)
Your film processed and each image is scanned to a JPEG tile and written to CD-ROM at the time of processing. Price includes film processing. Your film processed and each image is scanned to a JPEG tile and written to CD-ROM at the time of processing. Price includes film processing.
If you're handling your digital images the same way you did your film ones by getting photographic quality prints made then your approach doesn't have to change all that much. You still have your prints (which if cared for properly can last decades or longer), and, if you plan properly, you can still have digital backups from which you can make additional prints years from now.
Don't put the fixer in first - this will destroy all your pictures Check temperatures before and during development, and be careful with timing, otherwise it is easy to under- or overdevelop (see Figure 32.6). Avoid putting finger-marks or splashes of any kind on your film - remember too that the film surface is easily damaged by scratches, dust and hairs when drying. If your film is clear with no images, check to see if edge printing is present. If the information is there you have either processed an unused film or the camera was faulty - shutter not opening or film not winding on. If the edge data is not present, the fault is almost certainly processing. Perhaps the developer was totally exhausted or solutions used in the wrong order. Most of the time, however, faults are concerned with negatives that are a bit too dark ('dense') or too pale ('thin'). At first, it is difficult to tell whether, say, a thin negative is due to underexposure or insufficient development. Of course, if...
When your volume of work starts growing, you have to think how to organize your processes. You may want to give your films and prints out to professional laboratories for processing or you may decide to become self-sufficient in all your processing. In this case, you must afford the necessary equipment and the expense of running it. You therefore have to see first if you have a sufficient volume of work that can justify the use of automatic machinery. You also have to conduct process control to ensure high image quality of the processed films and prints. The processing procedure consists of a sequence of stages set out by the manufacturers. You do not need to know in detail the chemical basis of what is going on, but it is essential to keep the solutions in good condition, and organize timing, temperature and agitation required for each step of the process. This way you will ensure that the processing will have its proper effect, otherwise you can ruin expensive solutions or be left...
Colour negatives are also much more tolerant of wrong or mixed colour temperature subject lighting than reversal materials, but do not overdo it - underexposure or overexposure of one colour recording layer inevitably narrows the subject brightness range that your film can accurately reproduce (Figure 5.4). Nevertheless, colour negative films are a better choice if you are shooting under varying or mixed lighting, and they give you an extra safety margin taking available-light pictures in situations where the illumination is unknown.
Turn on the light, and inspect your film. Except for the fact that the negatives are bigger, they will look just like the 35mm or 120 negatives you have processed in the past. 2. After all the trays are filled, lay out your film holders and turn off the lights. The negative that needs the longest development should go in the first tray. The second tray is for the second-longest development time, and so forth. Unload your film holders. Make sure each piece of film is completely submerged in its presoak tray. Put the emulsion side of the film up in the presoak tray to make sure that there aren't any bubbles on the film's surface. 7. When you are finished fixing your film, you can turn on the lights and look at the results.
Before you begin loading film onto a processing reel, check the room to make sure it is lighttight. Gang darkrooms often have dedicated film-loading rooms for just this purpose. If you are working at home or elsewhere use any room you can make lighttight, such as a closet, bathroom, or some other small, win-dowless space. Turn off the lights and check for any light leaking in. If there are light leaks, block them. You can shove a towel against the bottom of the door if the light is coming from there (and it often is). If it's coming from some other source, you may have to tape up or otherwise block it out. When you are ready to load your film, follow these steps With lights on, clear off a counter top, making sure it is dry and clean. Arrange your film and all the needed equipment on the counter, so you can find everything when the lights go out. Aside from your film, you will need reels, a processing tank, a bottle opener, and a pair of scissors. Make sure the processing tank is open...
The upgraded SilverFast software includes multi-exposure capabilities that streamline creating high-dynamic-range (HDR) images, pulling extra detail out of the darkest areas of your film originals. There also are 120 preset negative film profiles, as well as sophisticated grain, noise, dust, and scratch elimination.
Overexposed slides are not suitable for printing because all the detail in the highlights is lost. Choose slides which have medium or low contrast. Also you may prefer to print slides slightly underexposed because the highlights will have detail and can lighten the image in printing. Make sure your film is spotlessly clean. Any debris on the slide prints as black, which is much more difficult to spot-out than the white specks this would produce on negative positive prints.
Set up your film in the enlarger, focus the image, stop down the lens and initially set the filtration as recommended by the paper manufacturer for your brand of slide. Test first for correct exposure, then for colour as in negative positive printing. Vary each band of exposure by about 50 around what you estimate (or measure) to be correct. Try to keep exposure time within 5-30 sec (see page 295).
Digital cameras can take the guesswork out of film photography by allowing you to preview the composition and lighting
One of the advantages of sticking with a camera brand such as Canon, Nikon, Minolta, or Olympus as you move from film to digital is that many of the accessories that work with your traditional SLR should be compatible with your prosumer or digital SLR. This benefit shines brightest when dealing with the challenges of flash photography with your film camera. This brings us back to staying with the same brand name so that your accessories work on both your film and digital cameras. For the last couple years, I've been using a Canon EOS Elan 7 to shoot weddings. But for proofing, I also keep a Canon G2 digital camera in my bag. The G2 has the same hot shoe as the Elan 7 (see Figure 8-19), which means that it accepts the same external flashes. The Canon flashes behave the same way for the G2 as they do for the film-based Elan.
A M ith the introduction in the past few years of 200- 300 scanners WW designed especially for film, slide and negative scanning has finally come of age. If you have a collection of 35mm slides or discover a treasure trove of family negatives, you can now bring them into the digital realm easily and inexpensively. Although film's days as a primary snapshot medium are numbered, there's no reason why you can't enjoy working with your film-originated photos in your image editor.
A traditional hand-meter (Figure M.1) has a light-sensitive cell at the front to measure the light reflected from your subject. You first set the ISO rating of your film in a window on a large dial, point the meter, note the number shown under a moving needle, and set this against an arrow on the dial. Suitable combinations of lens aperture and shutter setting, all of which will result in correct exposure, then appear lined up in the upper part of the dial. You choose the one giving the depth of field or movement blur effects you need, and set the camera accordingly.
We owe prints of digital pictures we've taken to so many people we've lost count. The fact is it's very time-consuming and labor intensive to select, edit, and output photos. Don't you long for the days when all photography required of you was to take pictures Then, you'd drop your film off at a minilab or drug store or send it through the mails to a photo finisher. Soon, you'd have prints in your hands.
Locate the colour temperature of your subject light source in the left-hand column. In the right-hand column find the colour temperature to which your film is balanced. Use a straight edge to connect these two figures (see example) and read off the number of the correction filter you need from the middle column. In the example shown a subject in 5500 K daylight exposed onto type B tungsten film requires use of an 85B filter.
Most advanced 35 mm (and some medium-format) camera systems allow you to replace the regular camera back with a dedicated program or data back. The substitute back is considerably thicker and carries electronic keys and a battery compartment. It extends the camera's electronic facilities in various ways. For instance, some backs for motor-driven cameras allow you to program autobracketing - a quick series of frames each shot at a different level of exposure such as half, one or two stops' progression. The same back may also act as an 'intervalometer', so that you can trigger pictures at intervals of seconds, minutes or hours, and preset the total number of frames to be shot. Usually the inside face of the back carries a printing panel of low intensity LEDs to expose characters and figures through the base of your film, alongside or just within each frame. (The diode brightens or dims by varying its pulse rate to suit the slow or fast ISO speed set for the film.) This feature allows...
As we noted earlier, most newspapers will ask you to come in and allow them to process your film. This is standard procedure and you can generally trust the newspaper. Most newspapers will be able to develop your film (color or B W negative) within an hour after you reach the newspaper. In short order, someone (either the Photo Editor or another editor) will look at your processed film and tell you whether the paper is interested.
If you look on the instruction sheet that comes with your film, you will find that specific developers are recommended. Realize however that film manufacturers will usually recommend only their own developers. Kodak only recommends Kodak products, for example. While we can't fault Kodak products, we should note that there are other good products on the market.
During the long ago era known as my college days, part of my studies involved courses in filmmaking. Back then more years in the past than I care to think about creating even a short movie was backbreaking and time-consuming. You had to lug around a huge film camera, plus a second monster machine for recording audio. After you shot your masterpiece, you had to wait for the film to be developed and returned from the lab. Then, to turn the raw footage into something that might convince the professor to give you a passing grade, you spent hours in the post-production lab, carefully splicing film frames and audio tape to cut out any bloopers and make sure that the audio synced to the action.
Looking through the viewfinder on the top and back of the camera, you can compose your subject the way you like it. But you also must make sure that the film is receiving the right amount of light (exposure) to record the subject. The first step for correct exposure is to set your ISO number, or film speed, on the camera so the built-in light meter knows how much light your film needs. Most modern cameras set the film speed automatically by reading a bar code on the film cassette. On older or fully manual models, you must set the film speed yourself, often using a dial located on the top of the camera body.
A quick click on the UR Pro website will tell you that UR Pro's Colour Correction filters are not only well used but also well loved by underwater cameramen and filmmakers. The Stan Waterman's quote sums it up really URPRO filters provided dependable color balance to an otherwise monochromatic blue world .1 depend on them . More recently photographers have discovered that UR Pro's filters can work similar wonders when combined with digital still cameras. I am a big fan of their CY filter, designed for clear, tropical water and when I heard that they were releasing a new product, the shallow water CY filter (SW-CY), I had to try it.
Digital cameras also save you a great deal of money. Needless to say, you don't spend anything on developing. Printing out pictures on a photo printer at home costs money, but few people print every single shot they take. (Nor should they. After all, where are most of your film prints now In a shoebox somewhere )
Digital SLRs appeal to film shooters who have already invested in lenses for their particular models. Purchasing a digital SLR from the same manufacturer as your film system makes sense because you can still use the lenses in which you have invested. When choosing a digital SLR, keep in mind that you are also locking yourself into a system, because each manufacturer has proprietary lenses and accessories that only work on their brand of camera.
The simplest way to define a good exposure is to say that it means choosing a combination of f stop and shutter speed that will allow the right amount of light to expose the film. It is important to understand that if the film receives less than this optimum amount of exposure, the negative will be too thin in the areas that correspond to the darker parts of the subject. What makes proper exposure so crucial is that the only time your film can record visual information in the darker shadow areas of your subject is during exposure.
The news photograph should tell a story and the subject matter should be identifiable. This is not to say that the image must always be sharp and without grain. (This does not mean you can be careless in your work.) These imperfections sometimes enhance a photograph and, depending on the subject matter, can provide impact. In news photography, you may not have control over the position of the subject matter, lighting, or even your own position. It is possible that the action of an event may unfold so rapidly that the only choice you have is to aim the camera and shoot. Thus the only control you may have is the instant that you take the exposure. Although the ideal scene conditions may not exist, your film may be the only record of an event. To return from a news assignment without recording the event because of undesirable scene conditions is gross neglect of duty.
Color, even though they are exaggerated when photographed. But it would be a mistake to shoot a portrait lit by the pink light of dusk, or by the floodlighting on the foreground terrace. Skin rendered pink by one and yellow by the other looks odd in isolation, and is probably beyond the ability of your processing lab to normalize in printing. Keep to using a lighting source that your film or camera 'white balance' setting is suited for.
Note Paper grade 2, or variable contrast filter 2, is usually considered the standard for Normal contrast negatives. You can determine the exact time for Normal Development by testing your film, as outlined in Chapter 8. Note Paper grade 2, or variable contrast filter 2, is usually considered the standard for Normal contrast negatives. You can determine the exact time for Normal Development by testing your film, as outlined in Chapter 8.
The same way are also published for different kinds of photographic films. As explained in Chapter 5, the resolving power limits of films range between about 200 and 25 lp mm according to speed, grain, level of exposure and type of development. So you can combine the performance of your camera lens and your film to get one graph plot representing the complete imaging system from subject to processed result. This is about the closest anyone can get to representing photographic image quality through diagrams or figures (see page 94).
Courses in advertising, marketing, photography, filmmaking, set direction, layout, desktop publishing, and fashion are also important for those interested in becoming art directors. Specialized courses, sometimes offered only at professional art schools, may be particularly helpful for students who want to go into art direction. These include typography, animation, storyboard, Web site design, and portfolio development.
With either type of scanner, the ability of the film holder to keep your film flat is crucial for achieving the sharpest possible scans. A scanner's lens has a very shallow depth of field. Most flatbed scanners have just two focus settings one for items resting directly on the glass the other for objects mounted in film holders that raise them a few mm above the glass. While some film scanners boast an autofocus feature, they are still limited to focusing at a single distance with a shallow depth of field. Since many holders simply grasp a thin piece of the film's edges, the center of the film can bow This occurs most often with 120 film, which may be curled to begin with, and large format film in which a greater mass of film area is without support. When the edges and center of the film are at two different distances from the scanner lens, it is simply not possible for both of them to be in identical focus. And in the resulting scan, one of these areas will be noticeably soft. Some...
A typical manual-only camera, like the one shown in Figure 8.11, is very rare these days as most SLR cameras have some form of automatic control built in. A manual SLR has setting dials for shutter, aperture and focus, and also a film wind-on lever and a rewind knob. Having loaded and set the speed of your film, you look through the eyepiece and turn the lens focusing ring until the most important part of your picture appears sharp. Typically, you then set a shutter speed such as 1 125 second if you are hand-holding the camera (see page 64). Look through the eyepiece, half depress the shutter release and turn the aperture control until a signal light or needle next to the focusing screen indicates that the exposure set is correct. Alternatively, you can first make an aperture setting because depth of field is important (see page 66) and then alter the shutter setting until correct exposure is signalled. Pressing fully on the release then takes your picture, and you must use the...
1 dSLRs These are the gold (or platinum) standard of the digital photography world. Expensive (but coming down in price), these cameras do their best to replicate the best 35mm film cameras. (And an added bonus, you can use the lens from your film camera on the dSLRs.) You can change lenses on your digital SLR camera just like you can with a film SLR camera. And best yet, you can use some of the same lenses from your film camera. This isn't possible with a fixed-lens digital camera. If you're moving to digital for good and don't want to waste your investment in lenses, consider investing in a dSLR model of the same brand as your film camera when switching from film to digital.
Light sensitivity is shown by your film's ISO (International Standards Organization) speed rating. Every doubling of the ISO number means that a film is twice as fast. Regard films of about ISO 100 or less as slow in speed, ISO 200 and 400 as medium, and ISO 800 upwards as fast.
Filters can be added together and this may prove useful when you do not have the filter with the exact mired value for correcting the colour temperature. If your colour-temperature meter, or simple calculation, shows that a +127 M filter is needed to colour balance the light source to your film you can either use a Kodak 85B (+127 M) or combine an 85 (+112) with an 81A ( + 18). If mireds are not already shown on your filter containers, calculate and mark them up. If you have a colour-temperature meter you can finally check any proposed filter by holding it over the sensing head and remeasuring your light source. The meter should show correct colour. A Kelvin mired conversion table is given in Figure 4.15.
You do not have to invest in a lot of new computer equipment. Online facilities such as Snapfish provide relatively inexpensive film processing, and your film can be digitized onto a CD for e-mailing. One-hour processing labs usually provide this service. Once those pictures are in hand, the bulk of the back end process is complete. Put the best shots in your album, mail some prints to the grandparents if they don't have e-mail, or e-mail them from the CD if they do.
We can now make a general statement that defines a precise method of determining how to properly develop your film Because the contrast of this portrait is Normal (and because the placement of the shadow value is correct), Normal Development will result in a negative that will print well on a normal grade of paper, usually grade or filter 2. Of course, the effective Normal Development Time for your film and developer can only be determined by testing them under controlled conditions. Chapters 8 and 9 offer very simple methods of testing various films and developers.
Does it have enough coverage for your film size The best test is to put the lens on a camera and move the front through the swings, tilts, rise, fall, and shift. If it is an older lens, check to see if it will produce an image that is sharp all the way to the edge of the image circle. A lens can only be moved in relation to the film area up to the point where the lens stops producing a sharp image.
You may still be wondering why you've never had to set anything on your film camera before and, if that's the case, why the option is on your digital camera.To answer the first part, point-and-shoot film cameras adjust their light meters automatically to match the special ISO coding on the film and only people with manual cameras need to set the two to match. So, while you doubtless understood that 1000 film was quicker than 100 and chose your film according to the amount of light you expected for shooting, you may never have actually worried about an ISO setting on your film camera. And that brings us back to your digital camera and its ISO settings. Basically, you can use them in the same way you would have chosen and may still choose film of a certain speed for your film camera when shooting in certain conditions. However, be careful when changing ISO settings on your digital camera for shooting in low light situations. Unlike film cameras where you can achieve predictable results...
Maybe you want to use a wide aperture of say f 2.8 to have a limited depth of field, picking out just the subject sharply from a blurred background EV10 tells you the shutter speed needs to be 1 125 sec. Alternatively, you may want to emphasise movement and create subject motion blur by using a longer shutter speed of say 1 2 sec - the same EV10 reading then tells you that you will need an aperture of f 22 to achieve the longer shutter speed. Having that EV number first doesn't pin your mind to a specific photographic approach. It lets you consider the amount of light you have relative to your film speed or chosen digital ISO sensitivity, then encourages you to decide how to divide up that energy between intensity and duration.
We invite you to participate in the festival which gathers the best films and photos every year. The festival is a place where famous filmmakers, photographers, journalists, sportsmen and everybody who likes diving can meet each other. It's a place where people get new ideas and share their latest experience. During the festival there are always exhibitions of diving equipment and everything for sport life.
The Zone System isn't the only way to make good black-and-white photographs (see chapter 10, Zone System Myths ). By doing a series of tests that are simpler and a bit more intuitive than the Zone System, you can discover the benefits of adjusting your film developing and see how it relates to the film exposure. This test is laborious, repetitious, and somewhat tedious. However, it can be a shortcut to understanding and improving your negatives. In and of itself, this research will give you no more information than if you made similar changes through trial-and-error methods. If you largely understand how the film exposure and developing change the subsequent photographs, there's little need to go through the procedure. But if you've never seen the differences clearly, or don't understand the underlying principles, this test can be invaluable. It can also aid you in standardizing your film speed and developing time.
When you finish almost every job, you need to prepare a client invoice. If the job is complex, you probably need to prepare additional documents that break out all the job expenses in excruciating detail. Then, when you deliver your film, prints, or image files to the client, you need to include a delivery memo and rights license.
Considering the benefits stated above and the fact that many digital converts still carry a film camera for shooting in certain conditions, this may be the best option despite the costs. For example, if you're a photo enthusiast with a mid-range point-and-shoot digital camera, it is not likely you're going to leave your film SLR camera with multiple lenses at home on a trip to the tropics. But it is just as unlikely that you'll be satisfied to keep all your best wildlife photos in film format.
There are times in field photography when you'll want to use a shutter speed or -stop that requires faster film than what you're using. If you don't have a faster film with you, the best solution is to push your film. When you take your film in for processing, you must tell the lab what you've done. Separate this roll, tell them what film speed rating you used and that's it on your part. The lab will then push process the film at an additional charge to you beyond their normal processing fees. Films are developed chemically for a certain time and temperature. The lab can adjust this recipe to account for the fact that you've done something out of the ordinary. what speed ratings you can use. You mark the canister as to what you've done, then pay your lab the appropriate extra cost. I might mention that the more stops you push, the more your lab will charge for processing. Apart from this particular Fuji film, I would advise you to stick with pushing a maximum of 1 stop unless you...
The colour temperature of light is assessed in relation to the colour emitted by heated metal. As metal is increasingly heated it begins to glow, first red then orange, yellow, white and finally blue (see page 72). These colours can be matched to the temperature at which they occur. So, for example the filament of a traditional 100-W-domestic light bulb heats up when switched on and glows. Measured on the Kelvin scale (K) it would have a temperature of around 2900 K. A domestic tungsten filament lamp looks yellow when compared to daylight as it radiates more yellow and red than blue light (see Figure 4.10). Hydrargyrum (mercury) medium pressure iodide arc (HMI) lights are the most favoured continuous light source for photographers and filmmakers they are the same colour temperatures as daylight and are very bright, though very expensive.
LAST YEAR, Popular Photography reported that DSLR video was coming as a serious tool for filmmakers. Today, HDSLR cinematography, as it's known in the industry, is here. And not just in independent productions DSLRs are being used to shoot broadcast television and feature films. The season finale of Fox's House M.D. was shot using the Canon EOS 5D Mark II. The good news about HDSLR You have a platform for stunning cinematography. And you capabilities filmmakers never had before, such as the ability to shoot at ISO 51,200, where only night vision could go before.
The main problem here is contrast, and to a lesser extent the dimness and color of the light. The lighting range between, say, the most shadowy corner of an interior and outside detail shown through a window is often beyond the exposure capabilities of your film or sensor. To avoid this
Lens performance, flare and atmospheric conditions all influence the tone range of the image reaching your film. Combined ill-effects tend to be like mild diffusion, a tendency for shadows to become diluted and compressed (see Figure 8.1). 8 Image manipulations after processing. This includes chemical reduction or intensification of your film to improve a poor tone range. Less drastically, you can 'mask' an image by sandwiching it with a weak negative or positive version which respectively reduces or increases the tone range before printing or (slide) duplicating. In digital work a range of post-camera options are possible using computer software programs such as Adobe Photoshop . When you have excessively contrasty negatives you can reduce the effective tone range of prints by using the method of 'flashing' the paper to light (see page 176). 10. Input and output devices of digital images. The reproduction of tones may differ from one input device (for...
In playback mode, movie files appear surrounded by a frame that's designed to resemble the sprocket holes in traditional movie film, as shown in Figure 4-39. The thumbnail shows you the first frame of your movie. Figure 4-40 Select Movie Play and press OK to start viewing your movie. Figure 4-40 Select Movie Play and press OK to start viewing your movie.
Not so for Belarus-born Mitchell Kanashkevich. It may sound obvious, but the way light interacts with a subject is his top priority 'Light is very important to me, whether natural or artificial,' Mitchell says. 'My training in film-making gave me an insight into the theory of
Table 4.3 illustrated the need to consider the resolution requirements for your film enlargements, but that is only half the battle in achieving the best possible film scans. Simply capturing a greater number of pixels does not always return more image detail. A more accurate measure of resolution is to determine a scanner's ability to distinguish fine detail.
In reality if you expose film long enough to moonlight, the resulting image is identical to daylight photography. Let's say you have a white ball and you leave this outside and expose your film for hours under moonlight illumination, the specular area of the ball will not be colored blue but white. This is also true for short exposures and shadows. For a more visually appealing rendition, it is preferable to have your highlights come out as white rather than blue because blue can make your scenes look artificial.
Exploring lighting, given the freedom offered by a studio, is interesting and creative - but be prepared to learn one step at a time. Firstly, if you are shooting in color, match up the color balance of your film with the color of your lighting as closely as possible. Table 25.1 shows the code number of the blue conversion filter needed over the camera lens with daylight color film (print or slide) using 500-watt lamps. A few color films, mostly slide, are balanced for artificial light and so need different filtering, or none at all. These films are often referred to as tungsten balanced films.
When you expose your film normally and develop it normally, you should get a normal negative. There is a wide range of densities, but no areas are so dense or so thm that they lose printable detail. From such a negative, you get a print in which detail is clearly visible both in the brightest highlights and the darkest shadows. This is your usual objective a normal negative.
In theory, you can take a picture in almost all light conditions, even when the light is very low. But in practice, dimly lit scenes often present a real challenge. After all, exposure depends on the amount of light that reaches the film. And if there isn't much light, your film can easily be underexposed and very often is even if you seem to be doing everything right when metering your subject and setting your f-stop and shutter speed. Note that some light meters are more likely to provide inaccurate readings in very low light conditions than they are with brightly lit scenes. They may effectively underestimate the amount of light you will really need. If you are not using a tripod, consider ignoring the light meter altogether. Just use fast or ultrafast film, open your lens to its maximum f-stop, and set your shutter for the slowest speed you can safely handhold without moving the camera usually 1 30 or 1 60. Don't worry about overexposing the film, because in low light...
The printer resolution is quoted in dots per inch (dpi). As mentioned in the section on scanners, you should take into account the printer resolution and the final dimensions of your image before scanning your film or print. You will not gain higher quality if you have a digital image with higher resolution than the output device. The additional information will not be used by the printer.
The shorter actual focal length of digital camera lenses when used with cameras that have a lens multiplier factor also makes it difficult to produce effectively large maximum apertures. For example, the equivalent of a 28mm lens on a full-frame camera with a camera having a smaller 1.6X multiplier sensor is an 18mm lens. There's a double-whammy at work here. Although providing the same field-of-view as a 28mm wide-angle, the 18mm optic has the same depth-of-field as any 18mm lens (much more than you'd get with a 28mm lens). Worse, the mechanics of creating this lens complicates producing a correspondingly wide maximum f-stop. So, while you might have used a 28mm f2 lens with your film camera with a workable amount (or lack) of depth-of-field wide open, you'll be lucky if your 28mm (equivalent) digital camera lens has an f-stop as wide as f4. That increases your depth-of-field at the same time that the actual focal length of your wide angle (remember, it's really an 18mm lens) is...
Remember that the larger your film format is, the longer your lens has to be to maintain a normal view. The normal lens for a 35mm camera is 50mm, whereas a 2Vi x 3 i view camera requires an 80mm to 100mm lens, a 4 x 5 camera requires a 150mm 6 lens, and an 8 x 10 camera requires a 300mm 12 lens. If you stood in precisely the same spot and took a photograph with each of these cameras and its normal lens, the size, shape, and placement of the objects in the image would look very similar. Actually, there is some variation in what is considered a normal lens with each camera size. A normal lens for a 2Va x 3 4 view camera can be anything between 80mm and 105mm. For a 4 x 5 camera a normal lens will range between 135mm and 180mm, and for an 8 x 10 camera, anything between 270mm and 360mm could be considered normal.
Don't expect miracles, however, when your film exposing technique has been faulty. Very pale and flat negatives caused by underexposure and underdevelopment, and dark negatives caused by overexposure and overdevelopment, are both too lacking in shadow or highlight details respectively to be correctable by any contrast grade in printing.
A filter factor is expressed as a number followed by X, such as 2X. You will need to increase exposure by one stop for every factor of 2. For example, if your yellow filter has a 2X factor, you will need to give your film one stop more exposure, so if the meter suggests f 8 at 1 250, use f 5.6 at 1 250, f 8 at 1 125, or the equivalent instead with a green filter (4X), you will need to give your film two stops more exposure f 4 at 1 250, f 8 at 1 60, or the equivalent.
Back onto the camera so the monitor is upside down, as it were. Ikelite has placed a fold-in mirror on the left side of the housing so you can still work with the LCD monitor. To prevent you from having to watch a reversed image on the LCD monitor, Ikelite built in some electronics that turn round the image again. It requires attaching a cable to the camera. If you choose to use this electronic possibility, you will lose the option of capturing sound with your movie. I found that the mirror doesn't work as good in practice as it sounds in theory. The mirror is very small and I had difficulties deciding the composition through it. Moreover, you can't hold
2 Light-tight plastic tank containing a reel. You push or wind your film into the spiral groove of the reel in the dark the whole length is held only along its edges, with each turn slightly separated from the next so that processing solutions act evenly over its entire surface. Each solution is poured in through a light-proof hole in the tank lid. You block off the hole and invert the tank at set intervals to agitate the solutions some tanks have a plastic rod to rotate the reel for the same purpose. 3 Bottles containing developer and fixing solutions. Start off by using the developer recommended on your film's packing slip. A standard fine-grain developer such as Ilford ID11 or Kodak D76 (made up from powder) is
Big cameras and nice lenses aren't very discrete items to carry around, and they tend to scream, Steal me to everyone around, especially in underdeveloped countries where many of the great treks and climbs are located. Expensive-looking electronic equipment tends to disappear from checked-in luggage, and in foreign cities, a moment of distraction is often long enough for a camera bag to walk away. There are a few rules to be observed On airplanes, always pack anything fragile or expensive (as well as your film rolls, if you still use film) as carry-on luggage. Never leave bags out of your sight, and if on the ground, always keep them attached to yourself for instance,
Note Kodak T-Max developer isn't recommended for use with any sheet film. Occasionally a dark, blotchy coating called dichroic fog will appear on the emulsion side of your film and can only be removed by vigorously washing the film by hand, which carries the risk of scratching the image. Because roll films don't use the same adhesive coatings as sheet film between the emulsion and the film base, dichroic fog isn't a problem when T-Max developer is used with roll films.
If you have ever wanted the secrets to making your own film, here it is: Indy Film Insider Tips And Basics To Film Making. Have you ever wanted to make your own film? Is there a story you want to tell? You might even think that this is impossible. Studios make films, not the little guy. This is probably what you tell yourself. Do you watch films with more than a casual eye? You probably want to know how they were able to get perfect lighting in your favorite scene, or how to write a professional screenplay.