Electromagnetic Radiation and Human Health

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Photographic light sources

White-light sources vary considerably among themselves and from daylight. Because of the perceptual phenomenon of colour constancy these differences matter little in everyday life, but they can be very important in photography, especially when using colour materials or where there is 'mixed' lighting. It is essential that light quality is described in precise terms. Light is a specific region of the electromagnetic spectrum and is a form of radiant energy. Colour quality may be defined in terms of the spectral power distribution (SPD) throughout the spectrum. There are several ways this can be expressed, with varying degrees of precision. Each method has its own advantages, but not all methods are applicable to every light source.

Colour of light and white balance

We have so far talked about light as if it were neutral white light. The colour of illuminating light is important in photography and an understanding of the colour theory of light is essential. Light is a narrow band of electromagnetic radiation to which the human eye is sensitive. This band has no exact boundaries as sight and perception differ between individuals but typically the human eye is receptive to a range of wavelengths of light between 400 and 700 nanometres (nm). (A nanometre is one millionth of a millimetre.) Between 400 and 700nm lie the familiar colours of the rainbow (red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet - there is now no indigo as modern science no longer considers it a usefully separate colour). White light contains an even mix of all these colours.

Basic Sensor Structure

Last, in the construction of CCD or CMOS sensors there needs to be a way to remove unwanted energy sources from becoming part of the captured picture. These silicon-based sensors are highly sensitive to infrared radiation. Since this part of the electromagnetic spectrum is not visible to humans, we want to eliminate or filter infrared radiation before it reaches the sensor surface so it does not appear in the captured image. This is accomplished in one of two ways. A light cyan filter can be used over the top surface of the sensor to filter unwanted infrared wavelengths. The other alternative is to use a device known as a hot mirror to reflect these wavelengths away. Photographers who wish to capture reflected or near infrared often have their cameras modified to remove the cyan filter or hot mirror, or they purchase a camera that is constructed without either device above the sensor. It should be noted that we are not referring to the heat commonly thought of as thermal infrared....

Noise comes from many sources

Photographers should avoid placing external battery packs close to their digital cameras. Some of these packs contain transformers that raise voltage levels for faster flash recycling and emit electromagnetic interference at the same time. This can result in severe degradation of digital image quality with heavy banding effects. In such cases, the best work-around is to carry the battery pack on a belt or a photo vest while connecting it to the flash unit via a cable. 2. Photographers should also avoid taking pictures close to other strong sources of electromagnetic energy. For example, it's quite common to see heavy banding in digital images shot from the observation deck at the Empire State Building in NYC due to the presence of strong antennas at the top of the building. Similar situations can occur in sports photography when the photographer is standing too close

Multispectral Effects

Artificial Turf Spectral Reflectance

As humans, we view the world through a narrow range of electromagnetic radiation, the visible spectrum (0.40.7 mm wavelength see Fig. 2-1). Film photography extends this range from near-ultraviolet to near-infrared (0.3-0.9 mm). Black-and-white infrared film was developed in the 1920s and was utilized for aerial photography already in the 1930s (Colwell, 1997). World War II spurred a great need for aerial camouflage detection, and color-infrared (CIR) film was perfected. Nowadays both CIR film and digital cameras are available for small-format aerial photography.

Polarized Direct Reflection

Polarized Direct Reflection

We have seen that the electromagnetic field fluctuates around a moving photon. In Figure 3.9 we have represented this fluctuating field as a jump rope being swung between two children. One child is spinning the rope while the other simply holds it. Now, let's put up a picket fence between the children, as shown in Figure 3.10. The rope now bounces up and down instead of swinging in an arc. This bouncing rope resembles the electromagnetic field along the path of a photon of polarized light. 3.9 The oscillating electromagnetic field around a photon represented as a jump rope. The child on the left is spinning the rope while the one on the right holds on.

The Sun A Continuous White Light Spectrum

The sun radiates white light, which is a continuous spectrum of all the visible wavelengths produced by the elements burning on the sun's surface. As these wavelengths are separated out by absorption and reflection, we see them as color. The shortest wavelengths appear as violet, the longest as red, and all the other colors fall somewhere in between. The human eye can only detect a tiny portion of the electromagnetic spectrum known as the visual spectrum. The ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths occupy the range just beyond the blue-violet end of the visual spectrum and are too small to be seen by the human eye. The infrared (IR) part of the electromagnetic spectrum begins just beyond the visible red wavelengths, which are too long to be seen with the human eye.

Infrared Beauty Colors beyond the Visible

For over 25 years, Steve has been experimenting with infrared photography. Near infrared is the extension beyond visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum, Steve explained to us. It's the wavelengths of light beyond red. We can't see it, but it's there nevertheless. When you filter out all visible light, a camera can capture the infrared that is reflected by objects. It's this ability to capture infrared that has been such a boon to astronomers trying to uncover the secrets of the universe. But for Steve and other art photographers, it's the strange and wondrous bending of reality that attracts them to infrared photography. Steve is fascinated by the distortion of the tonality that we've come to recognize as the world that we know it's the challenge of being able to previsualize with a distorted palette that's compelling. Trees, grass, and other green-growing plants reflect a great deal of infrared back to the camera, and the result is what looks like eerily snow-covered bushes...

Optical Systems Models

In the study of geometric optics, it is assumed that light rays always travel in a straight-line path in a homogeneous medium. By this assumption, a bundle of rays passing through a clear aperture onto a screen produces a geometric light projection of the aperture. However, if the light distribution at the region between the light and dark areas on the screen is examined in detail, it is found that the boundary is not sharp. This effect is more pronounced as the aperture size is decreased. For a pinhole aperture, the entire screen appears diffusely illuminated. From a simplistic viewpoint, the aperture causes a bending of rays called diffraction. Diffraction of light can be quantitatively characterized by considering light as electromagnetic radiation that satisfies Maxwell's equations. The formulation of a complete theory of optical imaging from the basic electromagnetic principles of diffraction theory is a complex and lengthy task. In the following, only the key points of the...

The Inverse Square

Inverse Suare

Since light is a part of the electromagnetic spectrum, it is nothing but the emission of energy as it is transferred around and seeks a lower, more stable stage. Maxwell accounted for the existence of heat as nothing but radiation that we cannot see but only feel. Our eyes are not sensitive enough to see the extreme far red called infrared. When you approach a light source, it gets hotter as you get closer and cooler as you increase the distance. You will notice that the rate of its warmth or coolness is not directly proportional to the distance. It gets hotter or cooler more quickly than the covered distance might indicate. This property of fading over a distance is also shared by light and is called the inverse square law.

Navigation neutral

Electromagnetic energy with wavelengths from about 7oonm to 9oonm. This is the energy recorded in most infrared photography. near point. Point closest to the lens that is rendered in focus. near ultraviolet. Electromagnetic energy with wavelengths from about 25onm to 4oonm. Most photographic emulsions are sensitive to this range.

UV and IR Photography

The human eye can only see a very narrow band of radiation between about 400 nm and 700 nm that is defined as the visible region. Thus we are restricted to a region of the electromagnetic radiation spectrum where the frequency varies by only a factor of 2. At first glance, this seems remarkable since the complete spectrum from gamma rays to radio waves encompasses almost 15 orders of magnitude change in frequency. However, humans evolved the ability to see

Spectrophotometer sports 113

Spectrum. (1) A band of colors, as seen in a rainbow, produced by separation of the components of light by their different degrees of refraction according to wavelength. (2) The entire range of wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation. (3) An image showing types of electromagnetic radiation arranged by wavelength. See also electromagnetic spectrum.

Photographing the invisible

The human eye is limited to perceive only a very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum which extends from the blue-violets to deep reds at wavelengths from 380 to 700 nm. The sensitivities of photographic material and sensors extend beyond the visible and can record properties in the world around us that the eye does not see. The interaction, by way of reflected or absorbed energy from particular subjects of UV or IR rays yields information that can be used for scientific purposes, but equally may enrich the creative photographic experience. The properties and proper use of photographic sources, media and methods for recording beyond the deep reds and the blue-violets are discussed later.

Photoscience Consultant Addresses The Way Lenses Turn Light Into Images

We see objects by the light they reflect, which presupposes that a source of light is present - no light, no see. There are two 'constant' natural light sources the sun and the moon, though the moon just reflects the sun's light. Then there are artificial light sources, including incandescent lamps (such as domestic bulbs), fluorescent lamps, halogen lamps and electronic flash - even candles. All light sources, whether natural or artificial, radiate electromagnetic energy. The unit is the photon, which is considered as a particle with a waveform or shape. The higher the

Caring for the Camera and Battery Cautions

Do not use or store this device in the vicinity of equipment that generates strong electromagnetic radiation or magnetic fields. Strong static charges or the magnetic fields produced by equipment such as radio transmitters could interfere with the monitor, damage data stored on the memory card, or affect the product's internal circuitry.

How Photographers Describe Light

Even if we confine our attention to the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, everyone knows that the effect of one group of photons may be radically different from that of another. Examining our album of mental images, we all see the difference between an autumn sunset, a welder's arc, and an early morning fog. Even in a standard office location, the decision to install fluorescent tubes, tungsten spots, or large skylights can have a major effect on the decor (as well as on the mood and the productivity of the occupants).

Fundamentals of light and vision

Many forms of wave besides light travel in space at the same speed as light they are termed the family of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic waves are considered as vibrating at right-angles to their direction of travel. As such, they are described as transverse waves, as opposed to longitudinal waves such as sound waves, in which the direction of Different kinds of electromagnetic waves are distinguished by their wavelength or frequency. The amount of displacement of a light wave in a lateral direction is termed its amplitude. Amplitude is a measure of the intensity of the light. absorption by the metal causes emission of a photon, each emitted electron arising from the absorption of a single photon. The energy of the photon is proportional to the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation, given by the following equation The electromagnetic spectrum Of the other waves besides light travelling in space, some have shorter wavelengths than that of light and others have longer...

V1 V2 V3 V4 Visual Cortex

The exact location of visual processing is not the primary concern here, but rather the fact that neural processes deep in the visual cortex of the brain are the origin of color. Objects don't have color, and neither do light beams. Objects simply absorb, transmit, and reflect various amounts of incident electromagnetic radiation, and the radiation is characterized by wavelength and intensity. If radiation falls in the range of about 400 nm to 700 nm, the photoreceptors in our eyes can respond to it (see Figure 14.3). The response is processed and used in various ways to analyze the visual field

Remote Sensing

Small-format aerial photography is a type of remote sensing, which is the science and art of gathering information about an object from a distance. In other words, measurements or observations are taken without making direct physical contact with the object in question. The electromagnetic spectrum is the energy that carries information through the atmosphere from the Earth's surface to the small-format camera. Most film and digital cameras are capable of operating in the spectral range that includes near-ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared radiation, which is the spectrum emphasized in this book. For the most part, this electromagnetic radiation represents reflected solar energy -in other words natural sunlight that illuminates the scene, reflects from surface objects, and exposes the film or electronic detector of the camera. There are several aspects in which actual SFAP deviates from ideal remote sensing (adapted from Lillesand and Kiefer, 1994).


Colour is produced by light rays reflected or transmitted from an object. A light ray can be considered as an electromagnetic wave, part of the wider series of electromagnetic waves that travel in space, and is described by its wavelength and frequency. The wavelength is

Light and colour

The electromagnetic spectrum extends from wavelengths of 0.0000001 nm to 1000 km. What we call light is the visible part of the spectrum, from approximately 400 nm to approximately 700 nm. If you take into account that 1 nm is equal to 1 1 000 000 000 m, you see that the visible spectrum is a very small part of the electromagnetic spectrum.


Without delving into a lengthy description ofphysics, it is sufficient to say that photons are the raw material of light. When we see visible light, we are witnessing countless numbers of photons moving through space as electromagnetic waves. Photons are produced by light sources and reflected off objects. On an atomic level, light works like this an atom of material has electrons orbiting its nucleus. Different materials have different numbers of electrons orbiting their individual atoms.

E6 electromagnetic

See electromagnetic spectrum. electromagnetic spectrum. The massive range of frequencies or wavelengths over which electromagnetic radiation extends. Only wavelengths between roughly 400 nanometers (nm) and 700nm are visible. Other wavelengths are photographically useful but cannot be perceived by human vision. See also infrared, ultraviolet, visible light, X-ray, and spectrum. the photographically useful range of the electromagnetic spectrum. the photographically useful range of the electromagnetic spectrum.

What Light Is

Light is a form of electromagnetic energy that travels in waves, like the ripples on the surface a pond after someone has thrown a stone in it. Unlike water waves, light waves don't require a medium through which to travel. In fact, light travels best in a vacuum air actually slows it down. Like all forms ofelectromagnetic energy, one way to measure light is in wavelengths, the distance between two corresponding points on successive waves. The wavelengths of visible light range from 400 to 700 nanometers, but the visible spectrum is only a small part of the complete electromagnetic spectrum, which includes radio, infrared, ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays waves that are all differentiated by their unique wavelengths.

Printing Options

Where painter's colors denote mixed pigments, photographer's colors are mixed colored light sources. The colored light emulates the electromagnetic spectrum seen in nature's rainbow, with ultraviolet at one end and infrared at the other. The primary colors of light are red, green, and blue. When combined, blue and green light (or printing ink) create cyan red and blue make magenta red and green create yellow. Check for yourself. Buy some inexpensive colored gels and hold them up to white light beamed to a white surface. At first you'll be amazed how a red and green gel make yellow. Lighting masters of the musical stage use such colored gels to create magic out of mixed light sources to augment glamour, drama, suspense, and d cor.

What Is Color

Color is what happens when our eyes perceive different wavelengths of light, which is that part of the electromagnetic spectrum that occurs roughly between 380 and 760 nanometers. A namometer (nm or one billionth of a meter) measures the distance between the crests of a light wavelength. Wavelengths shorter than 380 nm are outside our ability to see them, and they're called ultraviolet or UV. Wavelengths just over 760 nm are likewise invisible and are called infrared or IR There are lots of other types of electromagnetic radiation like X-rays, microwaves, radar, and radio, and those are also invisible because our eyes and the rest of our vision apparatus are sensitive only to a tiny slice of the energy pie (380 760 nm). This is called the visible spectrum, or more commonly, just light (see Figure 4.1). Figure 4.1 Light is only a small sliver of the electromagnetic spectrum. Figure 4.1 Light is only a small sliver of the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic spectrum


Should be noted that the lux is defined in terms of the human observer, who cannot see radiation in either the ultraviolet or infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The inclusion of either of these spectral bands in the desired imaging exposure may therefore yield erroneous results with some films or other imaging systems.

How Color Works

In one sense, color is just a way of referring to how human beings react to a very limited portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Apparently, as our primate ancestors evolved, the ability to differentiate among different colors (for example, blood, orange sabre-tooth tigers hiding in green foliage, etc.) became a survival trait, and our eyes developed, in addition to the rod cells that are used for fine detail and for black-and-white vision when light levels are low, three different kinds of cone cells.

Sources of Light

Prior to the invention of electric lights, electromagnetic energy originated from only a few sources. Even today, the sun is the primary source of light. Fire and candlelight provided evening light for thousands of years, though considerably weaker than modern electric lights. Newer sources of light include incandescent light bulbs, fluorescent light tubes, cathode-ray tubes (CRTs), liquid crystal displays (LCDs), light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and some phosphorescent materials. These light sources directly influence the images you create as a photographer.

What Is Light

Light is a type of energy called electromagnetic radiation. Electromagnetic radiation travels through space in tiny bundles called photons. A photon is pure energy and has no mass. A box of photons the size of an elephant weighs nothing. The energy of the photon produces an electromagnetic field around the photon. A field is invisible and cannot be detected unless there is a material object in the field on which it can exert a force. This sounds pretty mysterious, until we realize that one common example of a field is the magnetic field surrounding an ordinary magnet. We cannot tell the field exists unless we move a nail close enough for the magnet to attract it. Then the effect of the field is apparent the nail jumps to the magnet. Unlike the field around the magnet, however, the electromagnetic field around the photon is not constant in strength. Instead, it fluctuates as the photon travels. If we could see this change in the strength of the field it would look something like Figure...

Light Perception

Light, according to Webster's Dictionary (1), is radiant energy which, by its action on the organs of vision, enables them to perform their function of sight. Much is known about the physical properties of light, but the mechanisms by which light interacts with the organs of vision is not as well understood. Light is known to be a form of electromagnetic radiation lying in a relatively narrow region of the electromagnetic spectrum over a wavelength band of about 350 to 780 nanometers (nm). A physical light source may be characterized by the rate of radiant energy (radiant intensity) that it emits at a particular spectral wavelength. Light entering the human visual system originates either from a self-luminous source or from light reflected from some object or from light transmitted through some translucent object. Let E(X) represent the spectral energy distribution of light emitted from some primary light source, and also let t(X) and r(X) denote the wavelength-dependent...

Special Films

Infra-red film is sensitive to the infra-red region of the electromagnetic spectrum and can therefore record images by light that is normally invisible. The film is usually used in conjunction with an infra-red-transmitting filter over the camera lens, which blocks all visible lightwaves. Infra-red radiation comes into focus on a slightly different plane than visible light, so you may need to adjust your lens according to the infra-red focusing index (a red or orange line engraved next to the ordinary focus index on the lens barrel).

Charging the Sensor

Photons themselves are subatomic electrometric spectral particles that have no mass or charge. In photography we interpret photons as light, but they are also packets of energy for radio transmissions and other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. The word photon is derived from the words photo and electron. The photons travel as particles or waves of electrons and function as negative charges (as electrons) when they are captured.