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Are you one of those who loves photography but does not feel comfortable starting a career in professional photography? So you're not alone! With the advent of digital photography, it was easier to record personal moments. Also, nowadays, we have hundreds of smartphones with good cameras, in addition to the semi-professional and professional equipment, which are much more affordable. Therefore, opting for a good online photography course is your best choice. For those who do not have so much time available, online courses appear like a good way to qualify, upgrade and professional training. In the area of photography, for example, there are options that range from the general concepts of photography to the most complex editing techniques, with the use of specific software. Here, we have an excellent online photography course. Get to know him a little more and learn how he can help you value your professional resume! Throughout the online course Photography, the inscribed will know, with rich detail and quality materials, the evolutionary process of photography, with emphasis on the practices, techniques, and operation of photographic equipment. Throughout the course, you will have access to materials that will discuss the fundamentals of photography. Read more here...

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The Excitement Over Digital Photography

Digital photography is generating excitement in the world of nature photography unlike anything else in my long career. I have always cared dearly about obtaining quality images. As a result, I missed the early stages of the digital revolution because it didn't make any sense to buy cameras that were far more expensive than top of the line film cameras, only to get inferior results. But, by 2003, the best digital cameras were coming close to the quality offered by the best slide films. Perhaps they weren't quite as good as Fuji Velvia 50 slide film, but digital capture was excellent and becoming widely accepted by photo buyers. When the 16.7-megapixel Canon 1Ds Mark II became available a year later, digital capture was at least as good as slide film and more fun too.

Meet Digital Photography

When you use a film camera, your pictures are memorized by billions of silver halide crystals suspended on celluloid. Digital cameras, on the other hand, generally store your pictures pictures on a memory card. It's a special kind of memory flash memory. Unlike the RAM in your PC, the contents of flash memory survive even when the machine is turned off. You can erase and reuse a digital camera's memory card over and over againa key to the great economy of digital photography. At this millisecond of technology time, most digital cameras are slightly slower than film cameras in almost every regard. Generally speaking, they're slower to turn on, slower to autofocus, and slower to recover from one shot before they're ready to take another. Once you've captured a picture, however, digital cameras provide almost nothing but advantages over film. For example You can view a miniature version of the photo on the camera's built-in screen. If there's something about the picture that bothers...

The Sigma Dpi A Full Spec Compact Digital Camera With All The Power Of Dslr

The built-in SLR-sized 14-megapixel image-sensor is 7 to 12 times bigger than that of an ordinary compact digital camera. The Poveon direct image sensor capturesallthe RGB data on every pixel. The 16.6mm F4 lens uses large-diameter< 14.5nniT0 aspherical glass molds for superior high-resolution and high-contrast performance. And the brand-new TRUE image-processing engine delivers new insight. Measuring just W 113.3mm x H 59.5mm x D 50.3mm and weighing just 250gr the SIGMA DPI is the world's first and only integral-lens high-performance compact digital camera with SLR specifications. It's designed to deliver pure creative control and ignite your creativity.

Why Take Nature Photographs

We all have reasons for photographing nature. Perhaps you are more interested in winning a photo contest at the State fair or camera club. Perhaps you want to get published in a calendar, magazine, or book. Perhaps you want a beautiful web site or gorgeous prints on the wall. Perhaps you love digital cameras and computers so you make images to use those tools. Perhaps you love being in natural places and making photos gives you an excuse to spend time enjoying natural events. You may photograph for fun or hope to make some money from your images. All of these are valid reasons to photograph nature. Most likely your reasons for taking photographs of nature include a combination of these.

Your Guide To The World Of Digital Photography

Plus Digital Photography Techniques, Photoshop CS4 Tutorials, and More Colin Bell answers your questions in our FAQ series, with a look at hyperfocal distances, lens hoods, and what to look for when selecting a new digital camera, be it a point and shoot or DSLR. Is digital art as much of an art as traditional art For those of you who love to use your digital photographs and post-process them into artistic masterpieces, Jon Ayres gives us a look at some of his recommendations for the best digital art conversion software on the market, along with some book suggestions on the subject. Usually when we shoot an image, it's best to keep that horizon level, but sometimes it also works well to intentionally tilt your camera to the famous Dutch Angle. Ken Fagan talks about odd angles and cropping in this month's Confessions editorial series.

PC Magazine Guide to Digital Photography

PC Magazine Guide to Digital Photography PC magazine guide to digital photography Daniel Grotta and Sally Wiener Grotta. 1. Photography-Digital techniques-Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Digital cameras-Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title Guide to digital photography. II. Grotta, Sally Wiener, 1949- III. PC magazine (New York, N.Y.) IV. Title. TR267.G76 2004

The Three Steps Of Digital Photography

Digital cameras are just one link in a long chain leading from the original scene through to the final image that you display or distribute. In fact, a digital camera isn't even an absolutely necessary link in the chain. The key element in digital photography is an image in a digital format made up pixels. Although a digital camera captures photos in this digital format, you can also scan slides, negatives, or prints to convert these traditional images into the same digital format. To understand how the camera fits in with other parts of the digital photography system, it helps to understand the three basic steps involved in creating and using digital photographs-input, processing, and output. Step 1. Inputting Photographs Input devices get photographs or other data into a computer system. The input device you're probably most familiar with is the keyboard. However, there are hundreds of other input devices including mice, touch pads, voice recognition systems, scanners, and so on....

Book I Digital Photography Overview

This section is your digital photography short course, providing all the information on a variety of topics that you really need to know to get started. Each of the six chapters is an overview of topics covered in depth later in the book. You'll find the essentials of good digital photography, equipment basics, and how to acquire digital pictures. Buzz through the quickie introduction into some of the ways you can edit or restore a photo electronically and take a look at how you can store and organize your digital photos. Then, if you're interested in what's involved in selecting a printer or scanner, you'll find all the basic information summarized for you in an easy-to-understand way.

The World Of Digital Photography

Digital photography is a new way to capture photos using a solid-state image sensor instead of traditional film. Once captured, the photos are then stored in a universal digital format that lets you move them to a computer, print them on a printer, view them on a television, e-mail them to friends, or even put them on the Web where anyone in the world can see them. Digital photography is becoming increasingly popular because of the flexibility it gives you when you want to use or distribute an image. It's both the immediacy and flexibility of digital imaging that's made is so popular in so many areas. However, there is one aspect of digital photography that is rarely mentioned. This is the new freedom it gives you to explore photography. In the 1870's when William Henry Jackson was carrying 20 x 24 glass plates around the West on a mule, you can believe he hesitated before he took a photograph. We may not be carrying glass plates, but you and I also hesitate before taking a picture....

Book II Building Your Digital Photography Studio

This book helps you choose the right camera, whether it's your first digital camera or the one you're dreaming about as a replacement for your current model. You'll read all the facts on resolution, lens settings, storage, and accessories. One chapter shows you the requirements for setting up a PC for digital photography. The good news is that you probably already have everything you need in your computer. I'll give you some advice on recommended upgrades that can make your system work even better with digital images. You'll also discover your options for getting pictures from your camera into your digital darkroom. And, if you want to get the most from your pictures, you'll want to read up on how to add a scanner and printer, too.

How does a digital camera work

The digital camera -jf' Basically, digital cameras aren't that different from their 35mm counterparts. Both feature the core elements of lens, aperture and shutter the only difference is how they capture and store the image information. So if you can use a film camera, you can shoot with one of these too. Although digital cameras may often look like their analogue counterparts and share many components, such as the aperture, shutter and a lens system, their methods for recording images are quite different. Instead of light-sensitive film, they use a combination of CCD chip, imaging processing engine and storage media to capture the image. The heart of the digital camera is hidden behind the shutter. The CCD (Charge-Coupled Device)

How are Digital Photos Used

Lots of us have old family photographs that have been tossed in drawers and not well cared for over the years. As our families grow and spread out, it's harder and harder to organize and share these images that recall so much. However having them scanned, or even just photographing them with a digital camera, makes them easy to insert into documents or e-mail. You can even give someone a digital picture frame and feed photos to it over the Internet from anywhere in the world. Posters, books, magazines, journals, reports, and other kinds of other documents are illustrated with photographs and other images. Since these publications are increasingly desktop published, digital photos are just another part of the stew. Some big users of digital images are multimedia developers. Since multimedia is always displayed on a computer screen, or projected from it, digital images are a necessary ingredient. Whether originally taken with a digital camera or with a film camera and then scanned, the...

The Essentials of Good Digital Photography

Choosing equipment Making great digital photos Converting other photos to digital format Making hard-copy prints n 1888, George Eastman began promoting the first hand-held Kodak camera with the slogan, You press the button, we do the rest. His idea was to make the camera as ubiquitous as the pencil. However, the film king's dream didn't really come true until the invention of the digital camera. Digital photography has finally put the entire process of making pictures in the hands of the person holding the camera. You compose the picture through the viewfinder (as always), but now you can preview the exact photograph that you're going to take with a bright liquid crystal display (LCD) screen on the back of your camera, or through an electronic viewfinder inside. Then, after snapping a shot, you can instantly review the photos you've taken and erase the bad pictures on the spot. Digital photography puts everything in your hands You press the button, and you can do as much of the rest...

What Youll Find in This Book Part I Digital Photography Basics

Working with digital cameras requires a major shift in one's thinking. Consumer film photography has been around for over 100 years and has become integrated into our lives. Along comes digital cameras and all of the familiar touchstones of film photography film, negatives, and the local drugstore where we develop the film are gone. The first part of the book introduces you to this digital new kid on the block that has invaded your lifestyle, and shows you how it is similar to, and how it differs from, film photography. Chapter 1 Discover the Excitement of Digital Photography In this chapter you'll get an overview of the types of digital cameras and what they can be used for, as well as the tools that are available to the digital photographer. Buying your digital camera is the just the first step. In this chapter you will find out which digital camera accessories are absolutely necessary and which aren't.

Digital Camera Basics

Photographic technology didn't change much for the first hundred years or so. Sure, cameras got smaller and easier to use, lenses grew more powerful, and film quality improved, but folks were still basically taking pictures with a box that focused an image on a light-sensitive piece of film. The world, apparently, was ready for a change. Barely a decade after they first entered the average consumer's consciousness (and price range), digital cameras started outselling film camerasa shift of culture-jarring proportions. By early 2006, a staggering 92 percent of cameras sold were digital cameras. Film photography giants like Kodak, Canon, and Olympus are now major players on the digital market, and they've been joined by manufacturers coming from the electronics side, like Sony, HP, Casio, and Samsung. The makers compete for your dollars by offering dozens of digital camera models with a dizzying array of features. Fortunately, if you understand just a few important digital camera...

Understand how your camera works

No digital photography book can tell you how to turn on your camera, how to adjust the autoexposure settings, or how to use your model's self-timer to take a picture with you in it. Those are things found only in your camera's instruction manual. Read it. I promise that the information you seek is in there it just might be hard to find. The instructions for my own Nikon digital camera are so cryptic that I found myself creating a cheat sheet with lists of steps, such as, To turn off the autosharpening feature, press the Menu button, then. . . . Some of the techniques in this book call for using a specific exposure mode or lens setting. I might ask you to switch to your camera's close-up mode to take photos a few inches from your subject. You might need to use your camera's built-in flash. Learn how to do these now so that you can add some simple but effective tools to your shooting repertoire.

How photographs are read

The latter can be a lifetime's study, because so many changing influences are at work. Some aspects of reading meaning from photographs are blindingly obvious, None of us is wholly objective in interpreting photographs - everyone is influenced by their own background. Experience so far of life (and pictures) may make you approach every photograph as a work of art or some form of political statement or a factual record for measurement and research, etc. This kind of tunnel vision, or just general lack of experience, confuses visual communication between photographer and viewer. In a similar way, it is difficult to imagine a colour you have not actually seen or to speak words you have never heard. photomicrographs. A scientist might recognize and look 'through' the picture as if seeing into the microscope eyepiece itself, picking on the subject's factual detail. A sculptor, architect or industrial designer might file it as a reference for particular...

Introduction to Digital Cameras

Unless you plan to digitize existing photographs with a scanner, as discussed in Chapter 2, you'll need a digital camera often called a digicam if you want to make digital images. In some respects, these cameras are similar to their 35mm counterparts. They include most of the same features, but gain many others that are exclusive to the digital process. In this chapter, I'll discuss how digital cameras work, the various types of digital cameras, their primary capabilities, and some of the features that are unique to digital cameras. If you are thinking of upgrading to a newer, more advanced or different type of digital camera, the following sections can help guide your purchasing desision.

About Stock Photography

This is not a lecture on the history of stock photography, but a few words of explanation may help set the scene for what happened in April 2000 when the first microstock image library was born, signaling the beginning of a revolution in the stock photography industry. Most of the photos you see in books, magazines, and on the Internet were not shot specifically for a particular publication but were selected by picture editors or designers from available photographs that were in stock and ready for purchase. Of course, some images are shot to order. High-end advertising campaigns use photographers working under the direction of advertising agencies. Newspapers need newsworthy images to fill their pages. FIGURE 1.1 We live in a world with an insatiable appetite for images, as this good microstock image helps to illustrate. Jozsef Hunor Vilhelem Fotolia.com FIGURE 1.1 We live in a world with an insatiable appetite for images, as this good microstock image helps to...

Special Opportunities for Stunning Photographs

This part covers those specialty forms of photography that require some extra time, effort, or technique on the part of the photographer. Unlike the digital photography covered in the earlier parts of the book, each chapter in this part is targeted at a specific, specialized type of photography. Taking action photos with a digital camera can be done if you know how to do it. In this chapter, you will learn the cause of the problem most people have taking digital action photos. Once you know this, you'll find out how to work around it and take some great sporting action shots of the kiddos. If there ever was a perfect device to record photos of these precious ones, it's the digital camera. In this chapter you will discover how to photograph babies, toddlers, and small children. You'll learn how to select props, place lighting, and become part of their world so that they become unaware of you taking their photos which is always when you get the best ones When you shoot the world as...

What Kinds of Digital Photos are being Taken

People like David Grenewetzki think nothing of strapping their new digital camera to a remote control airplane, or even a rocket, and launching it into the wild blue yonder to capture photos from a bird's-eye view. Until camera prices come way down, you might want to find other applications for your new camera. Fine art photography is a broad category that has included everything from the amazing prints of Ansel Adams to fuzzy prints from a pinhole camera. It's not at all surprising that digital cameras have become part of the hardware repertoire that artists work with. Long before Jerry Uelsmann was making montages, this form of photography was going on. Here is a 1905 image by Adelaide Hanscom that has many of the features we see in manipulated digital art. Photographs don't always have to be put to work. Most are really just for enjoyment. Capturing memories and strange sights are just a few such uses. There is a grand tradition of photographing on the street, capturing the fast...

Why Digital Photography Hacks

This collection of hacks reflects the real-world experience of photographers who are steeped in photographic history and expertise. They share their no-nonsense and, sometimes, quick-and-dirty solutions to getting the shot. This book contains tips for working indoors, outdoors, during the day, at night, in front of the computer, and even with a camera phone in hand. Each hack can be absorbed in a few minutes, saving countless hours of searching for the right answer. Digital Photography Hacks provides direct, hands-on solutions that can be applied to the challenges that face both new users, who are meeting the digital camera for the first time, and longtime users, who are already toting hefty digital SLRs. I'm confident that this collection contains many gems that will delight you.

Digital Cameras Are Similar to Film but Different

Like a film camera, the digital camera consists of a light-proof box with a lens, diaphragm, and shutter. The key difference is that in a digital camera the light is focused not onto film, but onto a photosensitive silicon chip or semiconductor, called an image sensor (see Figure 1-4). Having an image sensor instead of film entirely changes things on the camera's back end. With film, once you capture the image, the only job left for the camera is to advance the film roll or cassette to the next unexposed frame. But with digital, pressing the shutter is only the beginning of a complex process that requires numerous other components and engineering considerations. Most digital cameras incorporate the following components (see also Figure 1-5) Figure 1-4 Instead of film, digital cameras capture photographs using silicon chips called image sensors.

Getting Familiar With Your Camera

Today's digital cameras are both rich in features and highly capable of helping you get good photos when used in one of many auto modes without requiring you to know much about your camera or photography. However, learning how to use your digital camera and its many features will enable you to get even better photos and do things you never even imagined could be done. In Technique 1, you will first get familiar with your camera. You will then learn how to select important image-quality settings in Technique 2. Technique 3 helps you learn how to select an appropriate shooting mode. Being able to review photos is a significant benefit of digital camera, and Technique 4 shows you how to get the most from the review features on your camera. Technique 5 will help you learn how to change settings quickly so that you don't miss getting the photos you want due to wrong settings.

The Advantages of Digital Photography

Digital photography offers many advantages over film. For one, you can take as many pictures as you want without the burden of buying and processing film. In addition, most digital cameras offer a built-in LCD screen that allows you to view an image right after you've tripped the shutter. How to choose a digital camera These factors alone make digital photography a wonderful tool for better photography. You can fire off a shot, review it on the LCD screen, and decide whether you should try to take the shot again.

Getting a Handle on Digital Camera Choices

Digital cameras have introduced a new wrinkle to the equipment upgrade issue The lure of this attractive new technology causes you to want to go out and buy new gear. But this same technology is changing so quickly that it forces you to face a much faster obsolescence path than you ever witnessed in the past. The first digital cameras on the market offered minimal resolution (640 x 480 640K), rapidly replaced by higher resolution (1068 x 768 1.4 megapixels), replaced by still higher (1600 x 1200 2.1 megapixels), and so on. The current high-end crop of digital cameras hits about 6 megapixels for point-and-shoot cameras and more than 10 megapixels for digital single lens reflex (DSLR) cameras. So digital camera buyers, much like computer buyers, have become conditioned to upgrading their machines every couple of years.

What should I take into account when shopping for a digital camera

Before buying a digital camera you should think about what you intend to use it for. If you are looking for a model for taking snapshots at family gatherings or on holiday, for example, you would be best served by a fully automatic compact or compact zoom camera that takes care of all the details. So, what features should you look for in a digital camera Digital photography is all too often described as digital technology plus some photo technology. However, it is actually photo technology that uses digital technology. Therefore high resolution lenses, efficient flash systems and, if desired, manually adjustable parameters are important in a digital camera. Zoom lenses let you get closer to the subject. Generally, the larger and more powerful the zoom lens, the more expensive and heavier the camera (though digital camera zoom lenses are far more compact and lighter that those on film cameras). For everyday use, a 3x lens is usually sufficient. Where it is too difficult - or too...

Computer in Your Camera

When you get down to it, the biggest difference between film and digital cameras relates to the fact that an image sensor is not an exact replacement for film. Shoot a roll of film and your pictures are saved onto the roll. Expose an image sensor to several different scenes, and all you have are a bunch of electrons, converted by the ADC into digital data. The job of turning that data into an actual photograph is handed off to a very small, but very complex computer within the camera. (See Figure 1-10.) The camera's circuitry and chips, including ASICs and DSPs, process the data to produce form, color, contrast, and luminance and then organize and format it so it can be saved in a recognizable file format. (See Chapter 5 about the file formats, including the RAW format, which postpones much of this processing until the picture is uploaded to your computer.) All this is done according to manufacturer-specific proprietary imaging and color science, which is what really sets each camera...

What Your Answers Say about the Best Digital Camera for

The previous questionnaire gives us a beginning point to help zero in on possible digital cameras to fit your needs, budget and personality. If you scored from 8-14 You are definitely a point-and-shoot user. Point-and-shoot digital cameras are designed to let you capture good pictures without requiring you to learn any controls or fuss with any features. 15-23 You 're probably a candidate for an intermediate consumer camera. It may in fact be the same point-and-shoot camera that novices and technophobes use, but once taken off automatic, it will offer you some control over your photography, though with a limited feature set. 24-29 You may wish to consider a more advanced consumer digital camera, one that allows more extensive control over exposure, color, and tonality and comes bundled with more sophisticated image-editing software. 30-36 You will want a prosumer or semiprofessional digital camera. Prosumers offer more faster better more features, more precise control, faster...

Whos Taking Digital Photos

Some of the early adopters of high-end digital cameras were photographers doing studio photographs for catalogs and other publications. They were able to quickly adopt these cameras for a variety of reasons. To begin with, objects such as birdhouses or dinner plates don't move. This makes it possible to get the long exposures required by some high-resolution cameras that take three exposures to get a full color image. Another reason is that the images are usually reproduced small enough so their faults don't show. Finally, the production houses that prepare the catalogs prefer to receive digital images so they can avoid the time and cost of scanning them. This studio image was taken with Sound Vision s CMOS-PRO the first CMOS digital camera specifically designed for the graphic arts professional. Image courtesy of Sound Vision Inc. Commercial photographers were amongst the first to adopt digital photography. Using expensive digital backs to large format cameras, these photographers...

Software That Comes with Your Camera

Along with an instruction booklet, carrying strap, and battery, digital cameras always come with a software CD nestled in their box. That software isn't for the camerait goes on your computer. Manufacturers give you these programs to help you pull pictures from the camera's memory card and deposit them on your hard drive. But here's a word of advice These programs are generally about as useful and friendly as phone-based tech support. The good news is that you can usually get by without ever installing this software. Thanks to the built-in photo importing tools you get with Windows XP (it's called the Camera and Scanner Wizard), you can plug most cameras into your PC's uSb port and Windows guides you the rest of the way (Chapter 4 has full details about how to do this import dance).

Set Up Your Camera for Whats Most Likely to Happen Next

If you miss an important moment because you had to stop and fiddle with your camera, remember that I said this any time you're about to move from one situation to another and don't know exactly what the upcoming shooting conditions will be, set your camera's mode dial to P, which is short for Point and Shoot. That is, the camera does the best to automatically figure out the best compromise between shutter speed and aperture. It also assures you that you're going to get a picture. At the very least, you'll be able to look at that picture after you've shot it and be able to figure out whether you need to be able to go to Aperture or Shutter priority or whether you need to switch to entirely manual control. Speaking of manual control, there's one situation where it's always called forwhen shooting with an external flash that's not made specifically to be controlled by the camera. The best clue as to whether your camera can control the flash is whether the brand name on flash and camera...

Digital camera equipment

Digital camera equipment is less easily classified by image format than film simply because of the huge variation in sensor size. Cameras can, however, be put into broad categories based upon the market for which they are aimed and like film cameras, this dictates the level of sophistication and cost of the equipment. Figure 2.16 Types of digital camera (a) high-end compact, (b) hybrid and (c) professional SLR. Figure 2.16 Types of digital camera (a) high-end compact, (b) hybrid and (c) professional SLR. At the lowest end of the market are mobile phone cameras. Pixel counts of up to 5 megapixels on sensors in mobile phones are now beginning to rival and surpass those in the compact point-and-shoot cameras of a few years ago. CMOS image sensors were first used in mobile phones at the time the noise levels and low resolution associated with CMOS were unacceptable for other cameras, but the advances in the sensors in terms of both smaller pixel sizes and improved noise suppression have...

Digital Camera Attachments

Convert Your Monopod into a Makeshift Tripod Hack 5. Steady Shots from the Comfort of Your Car Hack 6. Attach Your Camera to Bicycle Handlebars Hack 7. Flash Brackets for Pro Lighting Hack 8. A Flexible Arm to Hold Accessories Hack 9. Bubble Levels to Keep Things Straight Hack 10. Battle the Sun with an LCD Hood Hack 11. Convert Your Digicam to a Digital SLR Hack 12. T-Mounts and Other Threaded Tricks Hack 13. Double-Strapping on the Trail Hack 14. Stay in Charge of Your Batteries Hack 15. Gaffer's Tape When All Else Fails

Taking Movies with Your Camera

Almost every digital camera nowadays captures video some do it better than others. Cheaper cameras produce movies that are tiny, low-resolution flicks. These mini-movies have their novelty value, and are better than nothing when your intention is to email your newborn baby's first cry to eager relatives across the globe.

What role does the lens system play in a digital camera

As mentioned in section 2.4, the digital camera's lens system is often not given enough consideration. Many manufacturers draw the consumer's attention away from the lens, stressing instead resolution, price or other aspects. This is all the more surprising when you consider that digital cameras demand an even higher degree of optical performance than analogue compacts or even analogue SLR models. The following explains why this is so Digital camera lenses have to focus the light onto a far smaller area than those in film cameras. Where CCDs have a diagonal measurement of, in some cases, 0.55cm, 35mm negative film measures 4.3cm. Also, as CCD resolutions increase while CCD sizes stay virtually the same, the actual area of the individual pixels decreases so they can fit into the same or similar area. On a CCD under 1 in size with three or four megapixels, for example, the width (or pitch) of the pixel is just six microns or less (1 millimetre is 1,000 microns). Whereas film-based...

Digital Camera Classes

Visit a large photo retail store, and you'll find three major types of digital cameras compact models with a built-in lens, larger cameras that accept interchangeable lenses (see Figure 1.4), and even larger models designed to accept a large digital back accessory. The latter two types of cameras and their lenses are expensive, and the accessory digital backs are even more expensive. Because such equipment is primarily intended for commercial applications and studio use, I will discuss it only briefly. Single-use digital cameras as well as very inexpensive low-resolution digital cameras are also available, but these do not produce high-quality images, so they will not be covered in this book.

How Digital Cameras Capture Images

If you've previously shot film and are new to digital media, this chapter is for you. Here you'll find basic information about the types of digital cameras, camera components and concepts, and shooting tips. People take photographs for many different reasons. Some take pictures for scientific purposes, some shoot to document the world for the media, some make their living shooting products for advertisements, and others shoot for enjoyment or purely artistic purposes. Whatever your reason for picking up a camera and framing an image, an understanding of how cameras work can help you improve the quality of your images. Types of Digital Cameras (p. 7) Types of Digital Cameras In its most basic form, a digital camera is a photographic device consisting of a lightproof box with a lens at one end, and a digital image sensor at the other in place of the traditional film plane. Advances in digital photography are fast providing a wide spectrum of features and options that can be challenging...

Transferring Images from Your Camera to Your PC

The first challenge you have to face is getting your digital images from your camera into your computer so that you can edit them (if necessary), store them on some archival medium (such as CD or DVD), and make prints. Today, transferring images to your computer is a fairly painless process. It wasn't always so. My first digital camera back in the last millennium had no removable storage. It was bad enough that when the camera's internal storage was full, I had to stop taking photos. But what was even worse was that it often took 10 to 20 minutes to move those photos from the camera to my computer. The only option was an old-fashioned serial cable that moved an image one bit at a time, like a line of soldiers, from the camera to the serial port on my computer at about 64 kilobits per second. Card readers are so inexpensive these days that they are often built right into computers or printers, as you can see in Figure 3-1, which shows the slots of a reader included below the DVD drive...

Studio Digital Cameras and Backs

Used only by professional photographers, studio digital cameras and backs are devices designed to yield the absolutely best possible image quality. Many are digital backs that attach to a conventional A high-quality studio digital camera or back can deliver higher resolution than film, with a more extended dynamic range to boot. For example, Kodachrome, the film of choice of most pros still shooting film, has the ability to capture approximately 2.5 stops (the latitude between the brightest highlight and darkest shadow detail). Many studio digital cameras and backs can capture up to 11 stops. And while a 4 megapixel consumer digital cameras can produce a 12 megapixel image file large enough for an 8.5x11 photo-quality print some studio scanbacks generate files as large as 250MB, or larger, which is enough data to generate billboard-sized prints.

Compact Digital Cameras

The most common type of digital camera (see Figure 1.5) includes a built-in lens and flash unit, an LCD monitor for viewing images, and an optical viewfinder a small window for viewing the scene above the lens that will actually take the picture. Although cameras of this type are often called point-and-shoot models, this term is valid only for the inexpensive, basic models. Consequently, I'll refer to cameras with a built-in lens as compact cameras to distinguish them from the larger SLR models that accept interchangeable lenses.

Mastering your camera menu

All camera menus are not created equal. Therefore, it's impossible to cover each and every nuance that might appear on your camera menu, especially if your camera was hatched last week. Yup, they do update them that frequently. What I do in this section is cover what I think are some of the things you should know. Your camera may also use one or more dials to access certain functions. To find out where these gems are hidden in your multi-faceted, mega-page menu, or on the dial on which they appear on your Swiss-Army-Knife camera, you'll have to consult that manual that came with your camera. Sorry if the manual is boring. And if the manual is really boring, tell them you know where they can find a Dummies author who can add a bit of spice to their boring drivel. Figure 3-4 shows two camera menus side by side. The camera menu on the left side of the figure is the shooting menu from a Nikon D5000, and the menu on the right is the shooting menu from a Canon PowerShot G10. The combination...

The Right Digital Camera for the

With all the digital camera choices available on the market now, which one is best for the nature photographer To be honest, there really isn't a correct answer. Just like film cameras, digital cameras come in all sorts of flavors, and your personal tastes will dictate a lot of the choices you'll make. There are professionals out there who will only work with high-end professional digital cameras, such as the Canon EOS IDs Mark II with its speed of four frames per second (4 fps) and its full-frame 1 6.7-megapixel sensor, while others are happy with compact digital point and shoot cameras. Other nature photographers, like me, use a number of different digital cameras. I carry into the field my digital SLR and accompanying lenses, plus a compact digital camera. Actually, I like the idea of carrying a compact digital camera everywhere I go. Additionally, a small pocketable compact, such as the Nikon Coolpix 7900 digital camera, gives you the ability to shoot some great macro shots, which...

Demystifying your camera dial

On the top or your camera, neatly organized with the utmost ergonomic efficiency, you'll find a dial. On this dial, you'll see some icons some of them familiar, others strange. These dials determine what shooting mode the camera operates in. The number of icons you have on your camera depends on the model camera you use. Figure 3-6 shows the camera dial from a Nikon D5000.

Where and How to Buy Your Digital Camera

Let's review some of the places you can buy digital cameras and accessories, along with the pros and cons of each Local camera stores Although few and far between, many cities and towns still support a handful of stores that specialize in digital cameras and photographic supplies. Most, however, have expanded into other areas in an attempt to remain afloat, such as selling camcorders and other consumer electronics. The advantages of a full-service camera store are that you can have a hands-on session with the products you are thinking of buying, someone in the establishment usually has a working knowledge of photography and digital cameras and can competently answer your questions, and you can walk out of the store with Full-service camera stores Large nationally oriented camera stores, like B& H Photo, Samy's, and Olden's, sell thousands of digital camera via toll-free operators, mail order, the Internet, or their retail outlets. Assuming that you're buying from one of the biggies...

Improving Your Photography with a dSLR

A digital SLR has (almost) all the good stuff available in a lesser digital camera, with some significant advantages that enable you to take your photo endeavors to a new, more glorious level of excellence. Certainly, you can take close-ups or sports photos with any good-quality film or digital camera. Low-light photography, travel pictures, or portraits are all within the capabilities of any camera. But digital SLRs let you capture these kinds of images more quickly, more flexibly, and with more creativity at your fingertips. Best of all (at least for Photoshop slaves), a digital SLR can solve problems that previously required working long hours over a hot keyboard. Despite the comparisons you can make to other cameras, a digital SLR isn't just a simple upgrade from a conventional film camera or another type of digital camera. A dSLR is very different from a film SLR, too, even though some vendors offer film and dSLRs that look quite a bit alike and share similar exposure metering,...

Paying for Your Digital Camera

The best way to pay for a digital camera or any other item, for that matter is with a credit card. The transaction is completed immediately, you don't have to pay anything for at least 25 days, and if anything goes wrong, you have some recourse. Credit card companies often intercede on your behalf when you have a problem with the vendor, either withholding or retrieving payment until the issue is settled.

Put your pictures in motion by attaching your digicam to the handlebars of your bike

Some people might wonder why the heck anyone would want to attach their digital camera to the handlebars of their bike. Well, in the old days of traditional photography, this didn't make much sense. You couldn't see through the viewfinder while pedaling, so composition was little more than a wild guess. For cycling fans, this means that you can mount your camera on the handlebars, swing the screen upward, and monitor your composition in real time while you're peddling just don't forget to watch the road, please This is a great opportunity for you to share your adventures with those who don't ride with you. If your camera has one of these nifty swiveling monitors, then chances are good that it also has a remote release that you can hold in one hand while riding. Most of these releases not only enable you to trip the shutter, but they also have buttons to let you zoom the lens to different focal lengths. You can literally compose and shoot while on the ride. If you really want to get...

The Crop Factor Film Camera Lenses on Digital Cameras

Focal lengths for digital cameras are different from what we became accustomed to with conventional 35mm film cameras. For example, the normal focal length for a digital point-and-shoot normal being the angle or field of view of the human eye is much shorter than the traditional 50mm lens that was considered normal for 35mm film cameras. And when used with digital SLRs, the focal length of a film camera's lens will vary depending on the size of an individual digital camera's sensor. This is known as the multiplier or crop factor. The sensors on most digital SLRs some of the more expensive ones are the exceptions are smaller than a 35mm film frame. A digital SLR's sensor image might measure approximately 24mm x 16mm while 35mm film measures 36mm x 24mm. So a 35mm camera lens used with a DSLR will give a narrower field of view than on the film camera. While the subject image size will be the same on both cameras, the scene will be cropped on the digital camera, giving the impression...

Learn Your Cameras Various Shooting Modes

Most point-and-shoot cameras (and some DSLRs) have a number of special camera shooting modes (for example, Canon calls them special scene modes) to help you take pictures in certain situations without having to set the camera manually. Examples include Landscape, Portrait, Beach, and Night Portrait, and each generally has a descriptive icon, such as a face, runner, or mountain. These can be helpful to know, and are worth learning about, especially if you are not concerned about the science behind the modes. The best way to learn about what each mode does is to refer to your camera's manual or books Web sites that go over each mode step by step w1.16 . Also check whether specific modes will force your camera into JPEG shooting mode. You may not want that. Other picture modes available on many point-and-shoot and DSLR cameras allow adjustments to overall contrast, sharpness, and saturation in your images. These adjustments generally won't change your RAW files (they can later be reset...

When You Subscribe To Digital Camera Magazine

Get the most from your digital camera Subscribe to Digital Camera Magazine from just 12.48 every quarter with Direct Debit and you'll receive a Lowepro Rezo camera bag absolutely free Are you a keen amateur photographer Digital Camera Magazine is your indispensable guide. Each issue's packed with inspirational photography expert techniques, essential tips and a CD full of video tutorials which will help you improve your photographs.

Do digital cameras have to be serviced

Digital cameras do not require any special servicing. You should, of course, take care of your digital camera just as you would a film camera or any other electronic instrument. Protect it from falls, bumps or water and replace the lens cap or barrier when not shooting. Removing the batteries from the camera when not in use for a long period of time is also recommended, as is storing your camera in a dry environment. The handbook supplied with your camera will give you many helpful tips on how to care for it. To ensure you can always take pictures quickly, it is recommended that you check the batteries regularly (e.g. once a month). This can easily be done with the help of the battery gauge, a standard component in every good digital camera. If your digital camera has a date and time indicator, you need not worry about losing this information after changing the battery. Most digital cameras contain an energy buffer that safeguards against memory deletion. If the camera contains a...

If your camera accepts an external flash you might think that will solve your problems with red eye Well almost

Many prosumer digital cameras provide a means for attaching an external flash. More often than not, the connection is provided by what is commonly called a hot shoe a postage-stamp-sized bracket on top of the camera into which you can slide an external flash. As for the flash bracket itself, I think the best commercial one is the Stroboframe Quick Flip 350 (catalog 310-635) distributed by Tiffen (http www.saundersphoto.com). The Quick Flip is easy to use. You mount your camera to the base of the bracket by turning the screw into the camera's tripod socket. You then put one end of the dedicated flash cord into the camera's hot shoe and attach the other end to the top of the bracket. Now all you have to do is attach the flash to the cord on top of the bracket, and you're in business (see Figure 16). Depending on the height of your camera, the flash is now positioned six to eight inches higher than it was previously in the camera's hot shoe. Not only does this configuration eliminate red...

Getting to Know Your Digital Camera

From studio apartments to mansions, all share certain features, such as a bathroom, kitchen, a place to sleep, and an area to socialize. But when you walk in the front door, you may not know whether to turn right or left to get to the kitchen, if the door on the wall leads to the garage or the hall closet, or if the nearest bathroom is just up the stairs or down by the recreation room. Every digital camera has an on off switch, a shutter button, and a lens. Most have memory cards, LCD viewfinders, control panels, and various switches and dials. But each model varies as to the number of features, where you will find them, and how they are used. In this chapter, we'll give you a hands-on introduction that will put you on the road to using your camera right away, as well as give you a head start on learning your way around its more advanced controls, commands, and buttons. You'll find more in-depth explanations of the various controls and tools throughout...

Using Your Cameras Exposure Modes

Almost every digital camera on the market makes it easy to take quick-and-dirty snapshots using an automatic exposure mode. Automatic exposure is great much of the time, but I hope that you will sometimes want to get a little more creative. And when that happens, you may need to adjust the exposure of your photographs as we talked about both in this chapter and in Chapter 2. Automatic In this mode, both shutter speed and aperture settings are selected by the camera to match the current lighting. Some digital camera automatic modes try to select the fastest shutter speed possible in order to minimize camera shake when you take a picture, while most choose something in the middle, a compromise between speed and depth of field. There's generally nothing you can do to change the settings that the camera chooses when set to fully automatic, except for adjusting the exposure compensation (EV) dial to over- or underexpose the scene. Program The program mode (usually indicated by the letter P...

How many times have you wished for an extra hand when youre shooting Heres one you can attach to your cameras hot shoe

The folks at GranView Camera have invented a unique accessory called the Flare Buster ( http www.multiclip.com) that might turn out to be one of the most versatile tools in your camera bag. This ingenious item is simply a flexible arm that's 15 inches long with a camera mount on one end and a sturdy clip on the other. You can attach it to your camera via the tripod socket or the hot shoe. Then, use the clip on the other end to hold whatever it is you need held. Digital cameras have amazing close-up focusing ability. Usually, the hardest part is correctly positioning the item you're photographing. Why not attach the item to the Flare Buster and position it any way you want, as illustrated in Figure 1-8 You don't even need a tripod because the item is now connected to the camera, they move in unison. Flare Buster kits range from US 30 to 36 depending on the configuration. They are well made and fit easily in your camera bag. You'll always have that extra hand available to make...

Choosing Your Digital Camera

The advances in digital technology and cameras has been truly breathtaking. Only a few years ago, digital cameras cost many thousands of dollars, yet produced images that were inferior to less expensive film cameras. Today the price of terrific digital cameras has dropped tremendously while the quality they produce has risen dramatically. This explains why digital cameras became so widely accepted among amateurs and professionals alike as the camera system of choice in the 2003-2006 time period.

Digital Cameras Are They Useful For Travel Photography

As if there weren't enough cameras to choose from already, now there's a whole new type - digital cameras. Actually it's not so much the camera that's different, just the recording method. Whereas the traditional camera captures the image on a chemical film, a digital camera saves it as an electronic file. But is this whiz-bang technology actually useful for you Let's take a look. The primary benefit of a digital camera is that it's much easier to display your photographs on a computer. So if this is what you want, a digital camera may be for you. For example, it's easy to use your pictures in a newsletter with a word processor, or send your pictures by e-mail, or post them on a website. While traveling, you can find Internet Cafes and e-mail your pictures to friends and family. Another benefit is that the pictures are instant. Many digital cameras include an LCD display to show the picture you've just taken. It's like having a Polaroid camera - you'll be a big hit at group...

Your cameras LCD viewing screen is one of its most exciting features except that is when youre standing in bright

If you ask people what they like best about their digital camera, many will say it's the LCD viewing screen that provides instant gratification right after you take the shot. How could you not love it You can review the image, analyze its pros and cons, and then either keep it or try again instant gratification at its best. The sun happened. Many LCD monitors hate the sun and don't fare well in its presence. To combat this problem, you have two options. You could purchase a state-of-the-art digital camera, such as the Contax SL300R T* shown in Figure 1-10, that uses a new technology called DayFine to preserve the screen's color fidelity regardless of the ambient light. Contax's parent company, Kyocera, originally developed this screen for their smart phones, which are constantly used in these types of lighting conditions. http www.hoodmanusa.com) has excelled at providing glare relief for digicam owners. They make a variety of custom hoods that attach to almost every digital camera...

Do You Really Need a History of Digital Photography

I promised to dispense with the history and pros cons of digital photography in a few paragraphs. Don't blink, or you'll miss this background entirely. In practice, history has no value unless it provides useful perspective. The chronology of digital camera development isn't important the role of digital photography in the centuries-long struggle to reproduce images is. Digital cameras and scanners are a technological miracle that we've needed for more than 500 years. For millennia, text and pictures were more or less equals scribes illuminated or illustrated a manuscript at the same time the text was drawn. It took a little longer to draw an illustration, but, as they say, a sketch is worth a thousand words. It's only been the past few years that digital cameras and scanners have provided the technology we need to meld text and pictures seamlessly with our documents, computer presentations, Web pages, and other electronic media.

Who Uses Photographs Buying and Selling

Who needs photographs Who uses photographs Who are the clients What are the markets The framework for your future business as a photographer rests on an understanding of the world of photo buyers. Or, if you want to be in the buying end of photography, then knowing what a photographer requires to provide you with the right image is crucial. It will help them solve your visual needs. In this chapter you'll see how the careers of photographer and photo buyer interrelate, and you'll realize the benefits of each understanding the other. Throughout this book we will speak casually of photo buyers. In some areas of photography, photographs are literally bought, and the physical property of a print changes hands obvious examples being family portraits or pictures documenting a wedding. However, in other parts of the profession, such as photography for publication, photographs may be assigned or selected from stock, and certain rights to use those photographs are licensed for use. In that...

Printing and Sharing Your Pictures

Digital technology is just making prints easier for anyone to produce. Instead of stacks of photos of every single picture you've ever taken (plus shoeboxes full of lost negatives), you can have great-looking enlargements of the photos you want to keep, perfectly cropped and carefully corrected in your image editing program. The ability to make prints is one of the best things about digital photography. An alternative to sharing prints is sharing your pictures online through commercial sharing services or your own personal Web space. Such options let friends and colleagues view your photos even if they aren't close by.

Your Pictures Our Passion

If it is bird images you are after, there is no better place to start your search than the RSPB picture library. The extensive collection of pictures includes UK bird species and bird photography from across the world. Every image is clearly displayed and captioned, and the site is bright, colourful and easy to use. On the homepage, there is a helpful 'Themes and Concepts' dropdown menu, which makes browsing straightforward and quick. Users can choose from a list of subjects including In-flight', 'Dawn and Dusk' and 'Cute and Cuddly'. The site also features photographer portfolios, including resident RSPB photographer Andy Hay and AP contributor Danny Green. Images of insects, mammals and plants also feature, so you may even pick up ideas for other areas of your photography. For information on how to submit images to the site, see the 'new photographer submissions' page under the 'About Us' heading. Whether you are browsing or buying, this picture library is a goldmine of images....

Reviewing Your Pictures

Looking at and sharing your just-shot pictures is one of the joys of owning a digital camera. True, the LCD viewfinder is tiny and you won't be able to see much detail, but by golly, you are assured that you got your picture and can instantly show it off. Depending upon how your camera is set up, the last picture you shot may automatically appear on the LCD viewfinder for a few seconds (giving you the option to delete or save it), or you may have to manually switch from camera to playback mode. Usually, the playback symbol on your camera is an arrow icon inside a small box (see Figure 3-5). Press or turn to it, and the camera will display your photos. To page through them, press the left or right arrow of the jog button. While the default setting for playback fills the entire LCD with a single photo, many cameras also allow you to view thumbnails (tinier versions of your pictures), four or nine at a time. You really can't see much of each, but you can see more images at a single...

Tip Hook Your Digital Camera up to Your Television

Looking at your just-shot pictures on a tiny LCD viewfinder is great fun, but for a real blast, attach the video cable that came with your camera to your television set. Then plug it into your camera's Video port (often identified as AV Out), activate the playback mode, and enjoy watching your pictures from your favorite couch or easy chair. A digital camera usually can delete individual frames, mark several or numerous photos for batch deletion, or do a global (complete) deletion of everything on the memory card. But do you really want to Remember once it's gone, it's gone for good. Here are our thoughts on when to delete and when not to Or, delete the really obviously bad pictures to preserve your reputation as a photographer (especially if you plan to show the pictures from your camera) and to make room for more images on your memory card.

A trusty walking stick is helpful for fording streams and navigating slippery trails But why not use it to steady your

By attaching your camera to the walking stick, you can create the third leg of what I call the human tripod. You supply your two legs, and the walking stick becomes the third. Simply position your feet about shoulder's width apart, and then lean forward slightly on the walking stick while composing your picture in the camera's viewfinder. You'll find that this method is much easier for stabilizing the camera than trying to hold it with just your two hands. If you'd rather not spend the money on a Leki stick, you can make your own. First, make a quick trip to the hardware store for a 1 4 screw with 20 threads per inch. Get one about an inch or so long. Screw it into the tripod socket on the bottom of your camera. I recommend that you add a plastic washer to serve as a cushion between your camera and the walking stick. Slip the spacer on the screw and position it so that it's flush against the bottom of the camera. With a felt-tip pen, mark the screw right beneath the washer, and then...

Speeding up your cameras response time

Before you consider how to use shutter speeds most effectively, you need to know how to make your camera respond to your needs. Modern cameras (both film and digital) have to accomplish an amazing number of tasks before the shutter fires. They need to take light meter readings, make auto-exposure settings, and lock auto-focus in a split second. In addition, digital cameras often add another step. If you're using a micro-drive as your media (as your digital film), you're working with a miniature computer hard drive. Its micro-drive platters (which receive the image data) need to be spun up to the proper operating speed for recording data. The time necessary for your camera to accomplish all these tasks is known as shutter lag. It's the reason why nothing happens when you first press the shutter button. Depending on your camera, there are usually some things you can do to compensate for shutter lag. Some cameras allow you to press the shutter button halfway down to activate many of the...

Tired of your camera bouncing around during your hike Strap it into place for comfort and for fast access

Here's the hiking photographer's dilemma do you stash your camera in the backpack so that it doesn't bounce around and possibly get damaged, or do you leave it around your neck so that you're ready for the next shot, no matter how uncomfortable it is I can tell you right now that I'm a big fan of finding ways to keep your camera handy. Great outdoor shots present themselves with little warning, and they are usually gone within seconds. Your camera might be safe and sound in your backpack, but it also won't have nearly as many exciting pictures on it. You might miss the shot of a lifetime That said, my gosh, it's aggravating to have a camera swinging every which way as you try to navigate the up-and-down terrain of trail hiking. I've even encountered situations, such as crossing a stream on a log, when my swinging camera just about threw me off balance. Falling in the stream is not good for one's morale, nor is it healthy for the life of your digital camera.

Examining the Parts of a Digital Camera

If you're very new to digital cameras, you might be wondering what all those buttons, LEDs, and windows are for. Here's a quick introduction to the key components of the average non-SLR digital camera. Not every camera will have all these features, and some will have additional features not shown in Figures 1-1 and 1-2. Lens cover This protects the lens when the digital camera is turned off. Picture review Set Execute button Figure 1-2 The back of a typical digital camera. Display control Menu button This controls the amount of information shown in the LCD and produces menus. Some digital cameras have multiple buttons for recording menus, setup menus, and special functions. Print e-mail share photos Some digital cameras allow printing directly from the camera to compatible printers or marking pictures for printing or e-mailing later. Cursor pad Use this to navigate menu choices. Many digital cameras use the cursor buttons to activate frequently accessed features, such as flash...

Parts of a Digital Camera

If you're very new to digital cameras, you might be wondering what all those buttons, LEDs, and windows are for. Here's a quick introduction to the key components of the average non-SLR digital camera. Not every camera will have all these features, and some will have additional features not shown in Figures 1-1 and 1-2. The front of a typical digital camera. The front of a typical digital camera. Lens cover This protects the lens when the digital camera is turned off. The back of a typical digital camera. The back of a typical digital camera. Display control Menu button This is used to control the amount of information shown in LCD display and to produce menus. Some digital cameras have multiple buttons for recording menus, setup menus, and special functions. Print e-mail photos Some digital cameras allow printing directly from the camera to compatible printers, or marking pictures for printing or e-mailing later. Cursor pad Use this to navigate menu choices. Many digital cameras use...

The Achilles heel of digital cameras is that they need power lots of it But what do you do when youre in the middle of

I'm going to start out by saying that you should always have an extra battery on hand. Digital cameras are power-hungry beasts that behave only as long as you feed their insatiable appetite for electricity. Once the juice runs out, they're about as useful as the box they came in. When you're traveling, be sure to take your charger and extra battery with you. Each night, put the battery you've been using all day in the charger and put the spare in the camera. Then, when you take off the next morning, pull the freshly charged battery out of the charger and put it in your camera bag. Continue this rotation throughout the trip.

Import photos from your camera

After you've completed a shoot or filled up a memory card, you should get the files copied to your computer and backed up as soon as possible. Lightroom facilitates this and much more you can use Lightroom to handle the transfer of files from your camera to your hard disk and automatically import them into the Lightroom catalog.

ADC and Your Digital Cameras Bit Depth

That's what the ADC (analog-to-digital converter) does inside your digital camera (and in fact, the reason why it's even called a digital camera). All digital cameras have an ADC chip inside that converts the picture captured by the image sensor into digital data. Not all ADCs are created equal, however. How well and how quickly it does its job depends upon the manufacturer, chip design, and most importantly, the number of data bits it can process. The ADC works by taking the analog data stream from your camera's image sensor, registering the charge, or number of electrons related to each photoreceptor site, and then deciding whether a piece of data should remain a zero or be a one. These digital pixels consist of data bits that establish exactly what color that pixel will be. The more bits, the more possibilities for more precisely defining the color's hue, saturation, and brightness. Most inexpensive digital cameras process 8-bit pixels. Better digital cameras may have 10 bits or 12...

Saving digital photographs

Used almost exclusively in Sony digital cameras, camcorders, hand-helds, portable music players and notebook computers Most compact digital cameras and Olympus and Fuji digital cameras, Sharp camcorders with digital still mode, and some MP3 players Figure 9.7 Memory cards store the pictures captured by the digital sensors. Different manufacturers favor different card types. Check which type your camera uses before purchasing additional cards. Film records the image exposed onto it in your camera, using light-sensitive chemicals (silver halide crystals) coated as a gelatine emulsion on a plastic base. The size, shape and how tightly packed these silver halides are basically determines the speed of a film - from fine grained and relatively 'slow' in reaction to light, to coarser grained and 'fast' in sensitivity.

Is There Film in Your Camera

Of course, your digital camera doesn't have film, exactly the removable media in your camera is your film. So a better title of this section might be Does your camera have a memory card installed If you own several media cards, make it a habit to open the media card compartment of your camera, like the one shown in Figure 3-2, and pull out the card to check the size of card that is installed. If you do have a memory card in your camera, the next question is, Are there any more exposures left on your memory card In most cases, this means that you must turn on the camera and look at the image counter displayed on the LCD screen to see how many images remain.

Defining Yourself and Your Photographs

Making age-old creative decisions in your photography Identifying interesting photography subjects Creating photos that intrigue viewers Turning old family photos into art Transforming your life experiences into digital art J lo doubt about it Photographs are a personal thing. After all, a photo- W graph is a way for you to show the world how you see something After you have those parts of the puzzle knocked out, you have to choose your subject matter. The world that you can catch on your camera is one very big place. From your immediate surroundings to your neighborhood,

Photographs Usage Value

In the end there is only one truth the client determines the value of your photography by its willingness to pay. If you understand that, you understand that the fees for photography are most often determined by the client setting a fee, as in editorial photography, or by the mutual agreement of the parties, as in corporate and advertising photography. In the latter group, the principle of pricing according to what the traffic will bear is the norm. For the good salesperson and negotiator this can present the opportunity to make greater revenues. If you are waiting for the industry to adopt some kind of value formula, please practice your sales and negotiating skills while doing so. Some day you will realize that the formula is never going to exist. Then, if you studied and practiced, you will be ready to engage in the business like a businessperson. Then you can start on the path to making more money by working the business rather than having it work you.

PPI Pixels per Square Inch and Digital Camera Resolution

Digital cameras can capture images in different resolutions. Low-resolution images are appropriate for display on a website, but not for making photographic-quality images. A 6-megapixel digital camera refers to the maximum number of pixels (PPI) such a camera is capable of capturing. The PPI is the number of pixels displayed in the image file, which directly refers to image resolution. Digital cameras have capture settings that can be set to less than the maximum PPL For example, most digital cameras have image size or PPI settings usually described as large, medium, and small. The Large setting represents the maximum allowable image resolution for that particular camera and will always produce a larger image file than the Small setting. Hence, a 10-megabyte image file created with the Large setting will always contain more pixel information than a 1-megabyte image file created with the Small setting.

Setting Up a Computer for Digital Photography

Ou might be ready for digital photography, but is your computer up to the task The good news is that virtually any computer of recent vintage probably has the horsepower and features you need to work with the digital images that you capture with a camera or scanner. Even so, the differences between a computer that's good and one that's good enough can be significant. Your system might be exceptional, or it might be the exception. You probably don't want to work with the minimal system possible even if you'd rather invest your money in a better digital camera. (I know, if faced with the choice of a new, superfast computer and a digital single lens reflex, I'd choose the camera every time.) In this chapter, I cover only the main equipment options for setting up a computer for digital photography editing and storage. You can find information on equipment used to transfer images between your camera and computer in Book I, Chapter 3.

Change Your Camera Position

When you come upon a photo opportunity and raise your camera to shoot, you are not compelled by any state or federal law to remain in that position. Sure, the subject may look good from the first position that you choose to shoot it, but it may look even better from another angle, so why not try it out For the car photograph shown in Figure 3-15, I quickly shot a photo while the street behind the car was empty.

Your Next Digital Camera Is It Time for a CMOS Image Sensor

Part of the excitement of digital photography is how fast the technology is evolving. Just a few years ago, even the best consumer-level cameras were only 1 megapixel. Compare that to the release this fall of the promising and inexpensive Canon Digital Rebel 6.3 megapixel SLR, with CMOS image sensor and a mass market price tag of 1000 including lens, and you can almost feel the groundswell of another major leap forward. But should you look for a camera with a CMOS image sensor when you're ready to take the leap to your next camera

Is Your Camera Likely to Be a Fairly Long Term Investment

The president of a major power tool company once remarked, Most of our customers don't come to us because they want a one-half horsepower 3 8-inch reversible drill. They want holes. Similarly, many digital camera buyers aren't looking for a shiny new gadget They want pictures. Once they acquire a camera that does the job for them, they're not likely to upgrade until they develop an important job their current model can't handle. Such well-heeled photographers are not often disappointed by the constant parade of new hardware in the digital photography realm. New, less expen-

Zoom lenses for compact and digital cameras

Compact cameras use both the 135 and APS formats, while digital cameras use focal plane arrays of much smaller formats, typically from 2 3 to 1 4 inch diagonal. Apart from small formats, most of these cameras do not use reflex viewfinders but rely instead on separate optical viewfinders. Both factors influence lens design in that the rear element can be very close to the focal plane, and that a useful zoom range is possible with only a few elements, especially if the maximum aperture is modest, perhaps f 4 at the most. The lens must also telescope down into the camera body for storage, to help keep the size of the camera small. For the 135 format, long range zoom lenses of 38 to 200 mm are used, although the aperture reduces to some f 11 at the long focus setting. The lenses are non-interchangeable and the collapsible telescoping barrel may cause some optical misalignment. Many digital cameras feature a 'digital zoom' feature. This is not an optical zoom using a lens, but by a digital...

Resources for Learning More about Digital Photography

Here are a handful of suggestions for learning more about digital photography The various companies involved in digital photography, from hardware manufacturers such as Nikon, Olympus, and Kodakto software vendors such as Adobe and Macromedia, sponsor numerous, information-packed programs specifically designed for novices, intermediates, and even professionals. As is to be expected, they focus primarily on their own products and those of cosponsors or noncompetitors. We would be remiss if we didn't mention our own digital photography seminars, which will be held in major cities around the country. For dates and locations, check out our Web sites www

Underwater Digital Photography Workshops

Whether a beginner or digital pro, take your digital photography to the next level with Rod Klein, Digital Editor of Fathoms Magazine and Kungkungan Bay Resort for a series of underwater I digital workshops Augustj 6-27, 2005 in what is arguably one of the best destinations on the planet for macro photography - Lembeh Strait. Topics to be covered include digital vs film, proper camera set-up and preparation, exposure of digital cameras, media cards, file types, underwater lighting and composition, and photo retouching. Photoshop seminars will also be given.

Medium Format Digital Cameras

The larger the sensor on a camera, the better the image will be. A larger sensor takes in more light, enabling your camera to distinguish between color tones and produce more levels of brightness and contrast across the area of your image. You're less likely to get blasting highlights (which occur when you get one color tone over a large area). There is also significantly less noise when the light is low. A larger sensor will pick up subtle light differences better than a smaller one will. Although Leica just entered the medium format digital camera market, announcing their first medium format camera (the S2) in 2008, Mamiya has been producing them since 2004 and Hasselblad since 2006. However, both Mamiya and Hasselblad have been making film versions of these cameras for decades. The expensive cameras range in price from 10,000 to 40,000. Will there be a Mars landing in the future If so, they'll probably use one of the Hasselblad medium format digital cameras to document it. If...

Improving the Lighting in Your Photographs

Another way to improve the quality of your photographs is to use supplemental lighting. Most of the time this means using either your camera's built-in flash unit or an accessory flash unit, but sometimes it's as easy as repositioning a couple of lamps to throw more light on your subject. The idea is simple Throw more light on a poorly lit subject to create a better photo. and produces an otherworldly appearance that can adversely affect your photographs. In fact, cinematographers have been using ghoul lighting for years it's the lighting used in those old black and white horror movies your parents and grandparents might have watched. When applied judiciously, supplemental lighting is one of those things that can make a huge difference in your photography.

First Use of Digital Cameras

Wire service photographers who worked for such agencies as the Associated Press, United Press International, and Reuters and a few larger newspapers were the first main users of digital cameras, starting in the early 1990s. These first digital cameras were bulky, had a slight delay on the shutter release button, and were slow in terms of consecutive bursts, or frames per second. They also suffered by comparison to today's cameras from poor image quality, minimal storage capacity, and poor battery life. They were mostly hybrid cameras that were the result of marrying electronic film bodies to digital backs and self-contained battery packs. Kodak was the leader in producing these cameras and developing the early digital camera technology. These first digital cameras were expensive, with costs almost three to seven times those of current cameras. Of course, at the time, they were the latest technology available, and the industry welcomed them. Another limiting factor in the daily use of...

Plug one end of the cable into the USB port on your camera

The USB connector is often hidden behind a small door on your camera. It's sometimes a squared-off, D-shaped socket, approximately > 4 x ie inch. If your camera includes a standard USB port, you can use a standard USB cable, which has a rectangular plug on one end and a square plug on the other. However, most digital cameras now use a smaller mini-USB connection to save space. In that case, you may need to use the special cable supplied with your camera if it's not a standard mini-USB connector.

Contemporary Use of Digital Cameras

The advances in digital cameras have been as rapid as the changes in the computing industry. The early cameras mentioned earlier were adequate for the news industry but did not produce the file sizes and image quality that were needed for the commercial and high-end publishing markets. Large megapixel digital camera backs have been developed for medium-format cameras to meet the needs of this segment of the photography industry. The introduction of Canon and Nikon's new large-file (12.4 to 16.7 megapixel) 35-mm style cameras has produced cameras that can now be used for almost all aspects of photography. The professional-level digital cameras that are used today, such as the Canon EOS-1D Mark II or Nikon D2H and new D2X, are extremely fast. They have no delay problem and can shoot up to 8.3 frames per second.

Color Temperature and White Balance for Digital Cameras

Different light sources vary in color when seen by film or digital camera sensors. On the other hand, the human eye compensates and adjusts well for these variations. For example, while we will see a white object as white, regardless of the light illuminating it, the camera might not. This is because color is measured in degrees of color temperature, most commonly on the Kelvin scale, with red or warm colors at the lower end, and blue or cool colors at the high end of that scale. The range goes from With digital photography, this means setting the camera's white balance to match the color temperature of the light. The manufacturers have simplified this to a large extent by incorporating a range of settings, that will get you in the ballpark, and those settings, and the approximate color temperatures for each will be described in your camera's manual. To get a feeling of what incorrect white balance looks like, shoot a series of images in daylight with the whole range of white balance...

The Workings of a Digital Camera

The thing is, it took very decent photos. And it did so with few means to adjust exposure or focus and with no opportunity at all to adjust settings we assume should be adjusted with today's cameras. There were no white balance controls, no bracketed shooting or exposure compensation, no depth of field to worry about, no flash or backlighting. You pretty much clicked the shutter and a week later picked up your photos from the drugstore. Today's cameras, with all their automation and intelligence, are very easy to use. But you couldn't blame a novice if the sight of so many knobs and buttons makes him suddenly grow weak. It's not so bad if you take all the controls leisurely and a few at a time. That's what we'll do here to familiarize you with the lay of the land before you embark into the deeper territory of how digital photography works. GETTING TO KNOW DIGITAL CAMERAS Here we're looking at two types of digital cameras. The small one is less expensive, so it doesn't have all the...

M Mhen you take pictures with a conventional film camera you end up

With a roll of exposed film that must go to a photo lab (or the minilab at your local drug store) for processing and printing using special chemicals and darkroom equipment. When you get the prints back a few hours or days later, you get to see how your pictures turned out. Often, a fair number of pictures end up in the trash, and you keep the rest. If you want extra prints or enlargements of the good shots, it's back to the lab to order reprints. One of the great things about digital photography is that you don't have to process and print every single image you shoot. Most digital cameras let you preview your images right in the camera, so you know immediately how you did. And you can discard the obvious blunders and bloopers before anyone else sees them. What remains are the pictures you want to print. With digital photography, there's no need to go to a photo lab to get prints from your pictures. The darkroom and lab are as close and convenient as your own computer. But unlike...

Steadying Your Camera

For nighttime shots and other photos that require long exposure times, keeping your camera steady is essential. Otherwise, you run the risk of a blurry image because of camera shake. Here's a look at some of the devices you can use any time you want to be sure that your camera remains absolutely still Take your camera when you shop to see how well the tripod works with it. Set the tripod at its maximum height, push down on the top camera platform, and try turning the tripod head as though it were a doorknob. If the tripod twists easily, or the legs begin to collapse, look for a different model. Monopods Another way to be portable but stable is to use a monopod, a collapsible stick that lets you hold your camera steady but doesn't stand on its own. You frequently see sports photographers at football games traipsing around the sidelines with a big camera, big lens, and a monopod. If you get tired of holding your camera, whatever its size, these are useful and easy to tote around. A...

Hold Your Camera For Proper Shooting

The Sharper Camera

The proper way to hold your camera to ensure sharp, blur-free images. (Photos Alex Revell) Digital SLR cameras are made to favor the right-handed individual. The basics of properly holding the camera begins with grasping the camera body with the right hand. You will quickly find that most of the important camera controls are within easy reach of your thumb and forefinger. The next step is to create a stable base for your camera to rest on. This is accomplished by placing the camera body on the up-facing palm of your left hand (Figure 1.13). Now you can curl your fingers around the lens barrel to quickly zoom or manually focus the lens. Now that you know where to put your hands, let's talk about what to do with the rest of your body parts. By using the under-hand grip, your elbows will be drawn closer to your body. You should concentrate on pulling them in close to your body to stabilize your shooting position. You should also try to maintain proper upright posture. Leaning forward at...

Coaxing a Digital Camera to Take Close Ups

Virtually every digital camera on the market has a close-focus mode. How that mode works, though, depends upon whether your camera has an autofocus or fixed-focus lens. In cameras with autofocus lenses (and that represents about 95 percent of the cameras on the market today), you enter close-focus mode (also called macro mode) by pressing a button on the camera body. A tulip icon typically represents close-focus you should see a button somewhere on your camera with such a symbol. You can see the close-focus button control in Figure 5-1. Often, the camera buttons perform more than one function. You may need to press the button several times before the macro mode is actually enabled, usually indicated by a tulip somewhere on the camera's LCD display. That tulip is a reminder that you are in close-focus mode, and you will get good results when shooting within only a few inches of the camera. In addition, some digital cameras require your zoom lens to be within a certain macro range zoom...

Types of Digital Cameras

Let's now look at the types, or families, of digital cameras currently available. As we do so, keep in mind is that no one yet knows what a digital camera should look like so you'll find all kinds of strange shapes. 35mm cameras have taken their familiar forms because they require room for the film and light path as well as prisms and such. Digital cameras are freed from many of these limitations so they can take new forms. During these early days, some manufacturers make their cameras look like familiar 35mm cameras, others veer off in new directions. Regardless of what they look like, the digital camera market is divided into two distinct segments the consumer and professional markets. Let's take a look at these categories. Some digital cameras don't look at all like film cameras. Digital camera are rapidly being integrated into other devices. For example, Handspring's handheld computers have a Springboard expansion slot. Soon you'll be able to plug in a Springboard digital camera...

Digital cameras have macro capability built right in But what if you want to get real close Heres how to get a bugseye

Since the early roots of photography, people have been fascinated with capturing the world up close. Super close. Bumps-on-a-frog close. Most digital cameras come with a Macro mode that allows you to get very close to your subject. Sometimes, this mode is simply called Close Up and is denoted by a flower icon on your camera. Depending on your camera, close can be defined as anything from 6 inches to 18 inches. But what if you want to see the very pores This hack will help you get started. But what if your digital camera isn't an SLR or doesn't take interchangeable lenses The third, and most affordable, option is to buy a close-up lens that mounts on top of your current lens, the same way that filters attach. Some cameras have adapters for these auxiliary lenses. But if yours doesn't, third-party manufacturers such as Raynox ( http www.raynox.co.jp index.htm) have devised clever workarounds to enable this capability on just about any digital camera. The advantages are that you don't...

Tip Understand What Your Camera Is Saying

Figure 5-1 The photo on the left is an original JPEG photo of an antique urn. But when it was opened and saved several times, using high JPEG compression settings, details became indistinct, with noticeable pixelization and blurring. This is a severe example of what can happen when too much compression is applied to a JPEG image. Most digital cameras will not compress JPEGs to such a great degree, and the visual effect of light compression may be imperceptible to most people. Figure 5-1 The photo on the left is an original JPEG photo of an antique urn. But when it was opened and saved several times, using high JPEG compression settings, details became indistinct, with noticeable pixelization and blurring. This is a severe example of what can happen when too much compression is applied to a JPEG image. Most digital cameras will not compress JPEGs to such a great degree, and the visual effect of light compression may be imperceptible to most people.

Taking Your Photography To The Next Level

If you talk to most professional photographers you will find that the majority of them are using a few selective modes that offer the greatest amount of control over their photography. To anyone who has been involved with photography for any period of time, these modes are known as the backbones of photography. They allow you to influence two of the most important factors in taking great photographs aperture and shutter speed. To access these modes, you simply turn the Mode dial to one of the letter-designated modes and begin shooting. But wouldn't it be nice to know exactly what those modes control and how to make them do our bidding Well, if you really want to take that next step in controlling your photography, it is essential that you understand not only how to control these modes, but why you are controlling them. So let's move that Mode dial to the first of our professional modes Program mode.

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Digital Cameras For Beginners

Digital Cameras For Beginners

Although we usually tend to think of the digital camera as the best thing since sliced bread, there are both pros and cons with its use. Nothing is available on the market that does not have both a good and a bad side, but the key is to weigh the good against the bad in order to come up with the best of both worlds.

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