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IWOV/i'oli %lriy ||m»m» (»bout l< mm yorir•. riQo f von thn opora houso wa% <.ovorr«d tr» rod light Not (mm* if» waste on Opportunity, I v*t up my tripod Will» my aperturi* '.»•! to 1/tt "Who car oft?" iincf everything is <ji |no same* focol distance of infinity I tilted iho camera up to tho dusky blue, cloudy sky and adjusted my shutter speed until the motor indicated 2 seconds as a correct exposure. I then recomposed and made soveral exposures, trip ping the shutter with the camera's self timer.

[80-200mm lens, 1/8 for 2 seconds]

The Aravais mountain range in the Northern French Alps is a skier's paradise, and the village of Grand Bornhand sits in the valley floor of these impressive mountains. It's a town that offers wonderful low-light photo opportunities if you can put off eating dinner for half an hour or so!

With my camera and 35-70mm lens on a tripod, I set the focal length to 35mm and the aperture to f/2.8, and then raised the camera to the dusky blue sky above the mountain range. I adjusted the shutter speed until the meter indicated 1/8 sec. as a correct exposure. I then lecomposed, stopped the lens down 5 stops to //16, and increased my exposure time by five stops. With my exposure time now set for f/16 for 4 seconds, I tripped the shutter with my cameras self-timer,

Consider whether the nighttime scene before you offers the chance to capture motion. Cityscopes often provide wonderful opportunities to show the flow of traffic. Keep in mind that the car lights will appear as streaks of red and white, so when you set up your composition, you must ask yourself if these lines will keep the eye in the scene or lead it out of it. At a minimum, a 4-second exposure will render the traffic as streaks With your camera's shutter speed set to 4 seconds, simply aim at the sky above the scene (above, left) and adjust your aperture until you get a correct exposure. Then recompose the scene, and trigger the shutter release either via the camera's self-timer or with a locking cable release.

Since many people think the pedestrian plaza at the Place de la Concorde affords some of the best views of the Eiffel Tower, to get the image here I made it a point to arrive a bit early, scout the best spot, and lay claim to it by positioning my tripod exactly where I wanted it. For the next thirty minutes or so, I just enjoyed my baguette and cheese, and awaited the arrival of the dusky blue sky. I at first set my aperture wide open to f/2.8. I then aimed at the sky to the left of the tower and adjusted my shutter speed to 1 /4 sec. However since I was interested in getting a stieaked effect from the traffic around the tower I needed a much longer shul-

ter speed then 1/4 sec. ! therefore stopped 'he 'e^s down from f/2.8 to f/16 and—to maintain a correct exposure—chose a s hi-ter speed of 8 seconds S ~ce stopped the ens down 5 stops (f/2.8 to f/16 is 5 stops). I needed to increase mv exposure time by an equal number of stops (1 sec. to 1 2 sec. to 1 second to 2 seconds to 4 seconds fo S seconds is 5 stops)

[80-200mm lens at 200mm f, 16 for S seconds]

Vatican. I ^vting »hofHy after the oiv* came on, yet the ¿ itself never lit up! In ,.N I used o filter I

ve without (besides the kvJjri:er and Tiffen 3-stop

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fed): the FLW. It's a BK:cento-cobred filter not to te confused with the FID. The mooenta color of the flW is far denser and is far irore effective on normally g-eenish city lights, giving ihem o much warmer cast. Additionally, this filter also ~cc"$ its mcgenta hue onto sky, which is perfect for trcse niahrs when there isn't w a strong dusky blue sky.

With my camera mounted on c tripod, I at first set my aperture 4o f/4. I pointed the camera to fhe gray sky and cdjusfed my shutter speed to 1/2 sec., but since I had c'-eody de'ermined that I wonted the longest possible exposure time, I did the math end ended up at f/32 for 30 seconds!

[105mm lens, f/32 for 30 seconds]

I H on>' rockV shorelines lUl offer opportunities to I W Iconvey both tranquility and motion. This exposure, although it appears difficult, is reclly quite easy to make. I first placed my FLW magenta filter on my 24mm lens and then went looking for my meter reading. Using Brother Reflecting Sky and with my aperture at f/4, I metered off the light reflecting on the surface of the wcter, adjusting my shutter speed until 1 second indicated a correct exposure. I then pointed the lens above the horizon and, with the aperture still at f/4, took a meter reading using Brother Backlit Sky. I got a correct exposure at 1/15 sec., a difference of 4 stops (f/4 for 1 second vs. f/4 for 1/15 sec. is 4 stops—from 1 second to 1 /2 sec. to 1/4 sec. to 1/8 sec. to 1/15 sec ). So, which exposure wins? Both, thanks to my trusty 3-stop graduated soft edge neutral density filter. The graduated neutral density had effectively slashed 3 «-tops of exposure from

Brother Backlit Sky, so the exposure time had to change from f/4 for 1/15 sec. to f/4 for 1/2 sec. In other words, the brothers would only be separated by 1 stop, and a 1-stop difference in backlit exposures like these is nothing.

But wait! Since I wanted to shoot a long exposure and use the first exposure I took using Brother Reflecting Sky, I had to do the math. Since f/4 was correct at 1 second, then f/5.6 for 2 seconds would also be good, as would f/8 for 4 seconds and f/11 for 8 seconds and f/16 for 16 seconds. Stop! That's good enough for me! After setting my depth of field via the distance setting on my lens (in this case setting five feet out ahead of the center focus mark), I was ready to shoot—and presto, here's the result (with the aid of my Lee 3-stop soft-edge neutral density filter and my Tiffen FLW magenta filter.)

(24mm lens, f/16 for 16 seconds)

While many photographers watch the moon rise, few photograph it because they aren't sure how to meter the scene. Surprisingly, however, a "moonrise" is easy to expose. It's actually just a frontlit scene—just like the frontlit scenes found in daylight— but now, of course, it's a low-light frontlit scene.

Since depth of field was not a concern here, I set the aperture on my lens to f/8, metered the sky above the tree, adjusted my shutter speed to 1/8 sec., recorn-posed the scene, and—using the camera's self-timer—fired the shutter release button.

Note: In this instance, as well as for other full-moon landscapes, it's best to ta*e the photograph on fhe day before the calendar indicates a full moon. Why? Because the day before a full moon (when the moon is almost full), the eastern sky and the landscape below are darn near at the same exposure value. (And, truth be told I could have also taken my meter reading from the wheat field in this scene and it would have been within a cat's whisker of the meter reading for the sky.)

[35-70mm lens at 50mm, f/11 for 8 seconds]

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