Index

Aberration, 42

axial chromatic, 72-4 lateral chromatic, 74-5 spherical, 55, 75-6 types, 72 Abney, 238

Acceptance angle, exposure meter, 322 Accommodation (eye focusing), 52 Acid-hardening fixing solutions, 294-5 Actinity (light source efficiency), 24 Additive colour mixing, 14

Additive (triple-exposure) colour printing, 190, 214, 215-17, 361 process imperfections, 258-9 Advanced Photographic System (APS), 104, 201, 202

camera features, 109 data recording, 162 film coding, 201-202 Aerial photography, use of infrared materials, 209 Afocal attachments, 100-101 Agfa-Gevaert:

coupler immobilization, 264 dye release by reduction, 271 Airy diffraction pattern, 50, 79 Airy disc, 79-80, 81 Aliasing, 123, 408, 409, 410 Alkalis, in developing solutions, 276-7 Aluminium potassium sulphate, as hardening agent, 294

Amidol developers, 274 Ammonium thiosulphate, as fixing agent, 294 Amplitude, wave, 9 Analogue control systems, 115-17 Analogue-to-digital (A/D) converter, 118, 127 Anamorphic lens converter, 101 Anastigmat lenses, 77, 88 Anti-foggants see Restrainers Anti-reflection coatings: multiple, 70-71 single, 69-70 Aperture, eye, 11 Aperture stop, camera, 61 Aplanatic correction, 75 Apostilb (unit), 21, 324 Archival storage materials, 375-6 Arrhenius equation, 374 Aspheric surfaces, 75, 90 Astigmatic surfaces, 77

Atmospheric gases, effect on photographic media, 376

Autocorrelation function, 417, 419 Autofocus systems, 127, 151 active ranging, 151 phase detection, 152-4 Automatic exposure (AE) mode, 160, 324-6 aperture-priority, 160 memory lock, 316 programmed, 160, 326-7 scene classification, 329 shutter-priority, 160 Average gradient (characteristic curve), 228 Azo dyes, 268, 271

Barlow, 99

Barrel distortion, 78-9 Battery power, 160-61 digital camera, 129 flash unit, 32-3 Bayer colour filter array, 121, 125, 195 Beam candle power (BCP), 29 Between-lens shutters, 131-3, 143 Binning technique, pixel data, 122 Bit depth, scanner, 368 Bitmap (raster) image files, 202 Black body see Planckian radiator Black-and-white reproduction, 250-51 Bleach-fixing, 342 Bleaching of silver images, 298-9 Blending magnification factor, 415 Blind spot (eye), 12 Block error rate (BLER), 381 Blue-sensitive materials, 206 Blur circle, 50

Bounce flash lighting, 32, 333 Brewster angle, polarization, 187 Brightness see Luminance Bromide printing papers, 233, 337 Bunsen and Roscoe, 238

Cadmium sulphide (CdS) photoresistors, 155, 321-2

Callier coefficient/Q factor, 220-21 Camera exposure, 219 Camera types, 107 aerial, 113

APS see Advanced Photographic System (APS) automatic, 115-20

Camera types - continued box, 107 compact, 109 digital see Digital cameras digital back conversions, 127-8 folding-baseboard, 112, 113, 163 large format, 163-4 Mamiyaflex, 111 monorail, 112, 163 panoramic, 114-15 pocket, 107 Polaroid, 113 rangefinder, 109-110 Rolleiflex, 110 shift, 174-5 simple, 107-108 single use, 107-108 single-lens reflex (SLR), 111-12 still-video (SV), 120 technical, 112-13, 163 twin-lens reflex (TLR), 110-11 ultrawide-angle, 114 underwater, 113-14 Cameras: battery power, 160-61 components, 104 development, 104-106 image formats, 104, 105 rotational movements, 165-6 translational movements, 165 use of analogue systems, 115-17 versatile functions, 106-107 Candela (unit), 21 Candle-power (unit), 21 Cardinal points, lens, 43-5 Cardioid response diffuser, 320 Cassegrainian mirror system, 94 Catadioptric system see Lenses, catadioptric Catechol developers, 274

Cathode ray tube (CRT), colour reproduction, 217 Cellulose triacetate, as base material, 198 Central processing unit (CPU), 117-18, 119 Centre of curvature, lens, 42 Centre-focus lens attachment, 103 Characteristic curve, 222-3, 227 average gradient, 228 construction, 239-40 main regions, 223 -5 neutral-exposure, 254 variation with development, 225 -6 variation with material, 225 Charge injection device (CID), 122 Charge-coupled device (CCD), 120, 122 for image sensing, 122, 191-6, 201 production process, 200 spectral sensitivity, 122, 211, 245 -6 Chemical fog, 226 Chloro-bromide papers, 233, 337 Chroma, Munsell system, 383-4

Chromatic aberrations, 72

Chromatic adaptation, eye, 248

Chromatic difference of magnification, 74-5

Chromaticity diagrams, 386-8

Chromogenic developers see Colour developers

Chronotron, 333

CIE:

CIELAB Uniform Colour Space, 389, 392 RGB colorimetry, 385-7 Uniform Chromacity Scale Diagram, 389, 391 XYZ colorimetry, 387-9, 390 CIELAB Uniform Colour Space, 389, 392 Circle of acceptable definition, 49 Circle of confusion, 50, 52-3, 55 Clock circuits, 117, 118 Close-up lenses, 42, 101, 147 Close-ups:

depth of field, 55-6 exposure compensation, 67-8 Cobb chart, 421 Cold-cathode lamps, 353-4 Colorimetric density, 222 Colour cast, 20

Colour coupler/former, 254, 263 location, 264-5 oil-dispersed, 265 Colour developers see Developers, colour Colour enlargers see Enlargers, colour Colour filter array (CFA), 194-5 Colour filters see Filters, colour Colour gamuts, 389-92 Colour image formation, 263-7 Colour masking, 255-6, 260 Colour matching, 213, 383 constancy, 16 physical specification, 384 reproduction, 6-7 specification by sample, 383 specification by synthesis, 384-5 Colour mixture principles, 13-14 Colour order systems, 383-4 Colour printing, 359-60 filtration, 190, 360-61 imperfections, 258-9 negatives evaluation, 365-7 papers, 339 variables, 360 Colour processes, 251-3, 265-7 additive (triple-exposure), 190, 214, 215-17, 361 Eastman Kodak instant, 271 historical development, 214 instant, 269-71 Polaroid instant, 271

subtractive (white-light), 14, 214-15, 217, 362 Colour rendering index (CRI), 20, 27 Colour temperature (CT), 18, 19 correlated, 18

measurement and control, 20 Colour-blind materials, 206

Colour-negative films, 256 exposure latitude, 311 speed rating, 306-307 Colour-reversal films, 256-8 additive systems, 258 exposure latitude, 312 processing, 265-6 speed rating, 307 Colour-sensitive materials, 207-209, 210 Colours:

at low light levels, 250 complementary, 249-50 effect of light source, 248 eye response, 248-9 natural objects, 247-8 primary, 249-50 range, 247 rendering, 18, 20 Coma effects, 66, 76-7 Compact cameras, zoom lenses, 98 Compact Disc (CD), as image storage media, 380-81

Compact-source iodide (CSI) lamps, 27 Complementary colours, 249, 250 Complementary metal oxide semiconductors

(CMOS), 122, 127, 191 Composition, picture, 5 Compression processes, image, 124, 443-5 Condenser enlargers, 349-51 Condenser-diffuser enlargers, 352-3 Cones (light-sensitive receptors), 11 Conjugate (image distance), 43, 45-8 Consistency principle, colour reproduction, 7 Contact printing, 349 Continuous spectra, 18 Contrast, subject, 230 Contrast index, Kodak, 228 Contrast sensitivity function (CSF), 13 Convolution process: digital, 428-9

image formation, 398, 401-402, 406 Cornea, 11

Corpuscular theory, 9 Correlated colour temperature, 27 Cosine response diffuser, 320 Covering power, lens, 49 Crispening operator, 412 Critical value of incidence, 40 Curvature of field, 77 Curvilinear distortion, 78-9 lens, 50

Cut-off see Vignetting, mechanical Cycolor see Cylithographic process Cylithographic process, 346

Dallmeyer, 87 Dark adaptation, eye, 12 Dark current output, 123, 425 Dark fading, colour media, 373-7

Darkroom safelights, 189-90 Data compression, 204, 443 -5 Data imprinting, 161-2 Davis-Gibson liquid filter, 25 Day vision, 12 Daylight, as light source, 25 Decamired (unit), 21 Decoder, 117 Densitometers, 241 automatic plotting, 243 colour, 243-4 measuring wedge, 242 single-beam, 241-2 Status A, 244 Status M, 244 transmission, 241 twin-beam, 242-3 Density, image, 219, 220, 221-2 Density range, scanner, 368 Depth of field, 50-53 close-ups, 55-6 equations, 53-6 Depth of focus, 51, 56-7

Detective quantum efficiency (DQE), 422-4, 425-6 for CCD imaging array, 424-5 for photographic process, 424 Developing agents, 273-6 for colour printing papers, 263-7, 282, 340 extreme-contrast, 281-2 fine-grain, 279 -80 high definition, 280-81 liquid concentrates, 285 low-contrast, 280

for monochrome printing papers, 279, 340 POTA, 280

powdered chemicals, 285 pre-packed, 284-5 Developing solutions: alkali content, 276-7 changes with use, 282-3 composition, 273 other additions, 277-8 preparing, 284-5 preservatives, 276 replenishment, 283 restrainers, 277 safety precautions, 284 Development techniques, 285, 340-44 criteria, 289-91 machine processing, 287-9 quality control, 292-3 roll films, manual processing, 286-7 sheet films, manual processing, 286 tank lines, 287

time and speed variation effects, 291-2, 313 variation effect on negative, 228-9 Deviation see Refraction effects Dichroic filters, 190 Diffraction effects, 72, 79-80

Diffraction gratings, for special effects, 103 Diffuser, 23, 32

for light readings, 319-20 types, 319-20 Diffuser enlargers, 351-2 Digital cameras, 120 additional features, 129-30 dynamic range, 245 image data, 127 image resolution, 124-5 internal circuitry, 125-7 noise, 122-3

photosensor array, 120-21 power supply, 129 printer performance, 125 resolution, 368 sensitometry, 245 -6 signal, 121-2

spectral sensitization, 211-12 speed ratings, 307-308 tonal range, 124 viewfinders, 128-9 zoom lenses, 98, 129 Digital data:

control systems, 117-20 filtering, 428-34 histogram, 123, 124 image file formats, 202-204 image processing, 3-4, 174, 428 media life expectancy, 379-81 migration process, 379 Digital-to-analogue (D/A) converter, 118 Diode lasers, 38 Dioptre (refracting power), 42 Dirac Comb, 409 Dirac delta function, 404 Direct thermal imaging, 346-7 Discontinuous spectra, 18 Discrete Fourier transform (DFT), 408, 410-11 Dispersion effect, 40 Dispersive power, 72 Distortion: barrel, 78-9 curvilinear, 78-9 pincushion, 78-9 uncorrected, 66 Dodging devices, 358 Dollond, 72, 87 Drum scanners, 367-8 Dry Silver process, 345-6 Drying processes, film, 301 Dufaycolor process, 216

Duplex method (illuminance measurement), 320

Duplication requirements, 261-3

Durst laser imager, 354

DX film coding, 109, 201, 312

Dye sensitivity, 207-210

Dye sublimation process, 370

Dye-developer compound, Polacolor system, 270

Dye-diffusion materials, printing papers, 339 Dyes, subtractive image, 254 Dynamic range, scanner, 368

E-6 reversal processing procedure, 266 Eastman Kodak:

coupler immobilization, 264 imaging chain concept, 6 instant process, 271 Eberhard effects, 259, 281 Edge detection, 442-3 Edge spread function (ESF), 400 Efficacy, light source, 24 Electrolytic silver-recovery units, 297 Electromagnetic spectrum, 10-11 Electromagnetic waves, 9-10 Electron beam coating, lens, 70 Electronic distance measurement (EDM) system, 152 Electronic flash: automatic, 333-4 circuitry, 29-30 duration, 31

exposure guide numbers, 331 modelling lights, 330-31 output, 30 portable units, 32 power, 30 properties, 329-30 self-developing materials, 330 Electronic flash metering, 329-30 automatic, 333-4 matrix system, 335 OTF systems, 334-5 Electronic noise, 122 Elongation factor, image, 50 Emulsions:

coating process, 199-200 grain types, 197, 198 layer sensitivity, 252-3 panchromatic, 208 preparation, 197 Energy equations, 30

Enhancement procedures (image restoration), 438 Enlargers, 349 ancillary equipment, 355 colour, design, 362-3, 363-5 condenser, 349-51 condenser-diffuser, 352-3 diffuser, 351-2 easels, 355 lenses, 354-5 light sources, 353-4 paper holders, 355 rectifying, 170 Enlarging attachments, exposure meter, 322 Enlarging processes, 349

soft-focus, 359 Equal energy spectrum, 249 Equivalent focal length, 44

Equivalent focal plane, 158 Evaporation coating, lens, 70 Expand filter, 433 Exposure, 218-19, 310-11 analogue sequence, 116 aperture variation effect, 356 correction factors, 67 enlargement degree variation effect, 356 latitude, 230-31, 311

measurement by luminance of subject, 315 practical tests, 315 time determination, 313-15, 355-8 useful range, 230 variation effect on negative, 229 Exposure factor see Filter factor Exposure guide numbers, 29, 331 Exposure memory lock, 159, 316, 326 Exposure meter, 154-6 acceptance angle, 322 automatic, 160, 313 calibration, 316-18 components, 320-22 digital readouts, 323

electronic flash see Electronic flash metering for enlarging process, 357-8

in-camera, 324-9

integral, 156-7, 160

optical attachments, 322-3

sensitivity, 159

spot, 324

type of reading, 158-9 Exposure range, paper, 232 Exposure value (EV), 133, 312, 318, 319

relationships, 323 Extended sensitivity materials, 208-209 Extension tubes and bellows, 147-8 Extra covering power, lens, 49 Extra-low dispersion glass, 74 Extreme-contrast developers, 281-2 Eye:

components and operation, 11-12 lens, 11

mesopic mode, 250 photopic mode, 250 response to colours, 248-9 scotopic mode, 250 Eyepiece adaptor attachments, exposure meter, 322

aperture range, 61, 62 effective, 67 /-stop see Lens aperture Fading, colour media, 373-9 Farmer's reducer, 299 Ferric EDTA, as oxidizing agent, 299 Fibre-optics probe attachments, exposure meter, 322 Field stop, 61 Field of view (FOV), 166 File formats, digital image data, 202-204

Fill factor, image formation, 194 Fill-in flash technique, 313 Film speed see Speed Filter factor, 176 Filter type:

absorption, 176 colour, 251

colour-compensating (CC), 183 colour-conversion, 183 colour-printing (CP), 190 contrast, 179-80 correction, 179 Davis-Gibson, 25 dichroic, 190 expand, 433 graduated, 186 haze, 181 high-pass, 433 infrared-absorbing, 184 infrared-transmitting, 184 interference, 70, 176, 190 inverse, 438 light-balancing, 20, 182 low-pass, 127, 433 maximum, 433 median, 434 minimum, 433 neutral-density, 186 non-linear, 433 photometric, 182 polarizing, 186-9 shrink, 433 skylight, 182 spot, 66

threshold average, 434 ultraviolet-absorbing, 184 ultraviolet-transmitting, 184 Filters: materials, 177 sizes, 178 Filtration process: colour, 190, 360-61 for b&w photography, 179-82 for colour photography, 182-6 colour-conversion (CC), 20 convolution, 428-9 dark-room use, 189-90 exposure factors, 176-7 focusing, 178 linear spatial, 428-9 use of colour arrays, 194-5 Fine-grain developers, 279-80 Fish-eye lenses, 66

Fixed density systems, speed criterion, 302-303 Fixing process, 342 time required, 295 Fixing solutions, 294, 294-6 acid, 294

acid-hardening, 294-5

Fixing solutions - continued changes with use, 295-6 preparation, 295 silver recovery, 296-8 Flare, camera, 68 Flare factor (FF), 68 Flash:

automatic exposure, 33-6 circuitry, 29-30, 35 duration and exposure, 31-2 electronic see Electronic flash exposure guide numbers, 29, 331 indirect, 32 integral units, 36 output and power, 30-31 portable batteries, 32-3 portable units, 32-3 studio units, 33 Flash factor, 29, 331 Flash meter, 331-3

integrating, 33 Flash synchronization, 35-6, 143 between-lens shutters, 143 connections, 144 focal-plane shutters, 144 Flash-cubes, 28 Flashbulbs:

expendable, 28-9 firing circuits, 28-9 use in arrays, 28 use of slave units, 28 Flashguns, 23 Flashmatic system, 36, 109 FlashPix, 204 Flatbed scanners, 367-8 Fluorescent lamps, 27 Fluorite, for lens construction, 74-5 Focal length: effective, 44 eye, 11 lens, 42, 43 Focal plane array (FPA), 18, 120 Focal-plane shutter, 133-6, 144 Focusing scales, 148 Focusing screen, ground-glass, 148 Focusing systems, 144-8 extension tubes, 147-8 front-cell, 146 internal, 147

microprism grids, 150-51 see also Autofocus systems Fog level, 225, 226 Forea, 12

Fourier theory of image formation, 393-4, 396, 398-402

Fourier transform process, 396-7, 403-404 Dirac delta function, 404 of noise samples, 419-20 rectangular function, 403-404

Fractional gradient systems, speed criterion, 304 Frequency, vibration, 9 Frequency domain filtering, 429-32 Fresnel lens, 23 Front-cell focusing, 146 Fujifilm: Neopan film, 198

Pictrography process, 344, 345, 369 Pictrostat process, 344 Thermo-Autochrome process, 346-7, 370 Full radiator see Planckian radiator Fully-automatic diaphragm (FAD), 112

Gamma (sensitometric contrast), 223-4, 225, 228 scanning process correction, 369 variation with wavelength, 227 Gamma-ray region, 206 Gamma-time curve, 226-7 Gauss points, 43 Gaussian optics, 43 Gaussian plane, 77 Gelatin, 195-7, 294 Geometrical distortion, lens, 49-50 Geometrical optics, 10

image correction, 442 Glass, as base material, 198 Global Positioning System (GPS), interfacing, 162 Glycin developers, 274-5 Goerz Hypergon lens, 66 Gold solution protective toning process, 377 Graded refractive index (GRIN), 83 Graininess, 413, 415-16 negatives, 415 prints, 358, 416 Granularity, 416-17

negatives, 416 Gray code, 118

Ground-glass focusing screen, 148 Guide numbers, 29, 31

H and D curve see Characteristic curve Half-watt value, 24 Hard copy: production, 336, 348 quality assessment, 370 Heat filters, enlarger, 355 Helmholtz, 14, 249 High contrast subjects, 235-6 High definition television (HDTV), colour gamut, 391, 392

High-definition developers, 280-81 High-pass filtering, 433 Highlight, artificial, 314-15 Histogram:

equalization, 436-8 image data, 124 modification techniques, 436 Honeywell Visitronic system, 152 Hotshoe connection, 144

Hues, 16, 20, 247 Munsell system, 383-4 spectral, 247 Huffman coding, 445 Human visual system (HVS): discrimination ability, 13 see also Eye, components and operation Hurter and Driffield:

characteristic curve see Characteristic curve tone reproduction experiments, 236 Hybrid imaging, 6

Hydragyrum metal iodide (HMI) lamps, 27 Hydroquinone developers, 275 Hyperfocal distance, 55 Hypo see Sodium thiosulphate Hypo eliminators, 300

Ilfochrome process, 268, 271 Ilford XP-2 film, 198, 282 Illuminaires, 23 Illuminance, 22, 63-6 units, 323

with wide-angle lens, 66 Illumination, 5, 22, 63-6 Image conjugate distance, 45 Image formation, 5, 393-4 compound lens, 43-5 Fourier theory see Fourier theory of image formation graphical construction, 45, 46 information capacity, 426 manipulation, 358-9 optical systems, 41 panoramic, 106 pinhole method, 41 simple positive lens, 42-3 sinusoidal, 397-8

use of charge-coupled devices, 193-5 Image noise, 413 causes, 413 quantifying, 417-18 spatial structure, 417 Image production: data compression, 443 file formats, 104-106, 124, 202-204 permanency, 5 principles, 1-2, 5 quality expectations, 7-8 resolution in digital systems, 124-5 segmentation procedures, 442 shape control, 171-2 sharpness, 50-52, 168-70 statistical operations, 434-8 Image restoration, 438-42 Image scale, 45 Imaging chain, 6 Imaging equation, 401

in one dimension, 402 Impulse of unit energy (Dirac delta function), 404

Incident light, measurement, 316, 318-20 Inconel, in filter construction, 186 Indium tin oxide (ITO), 122 Inertia systems, speed criterion, 303 Information exchange (IX) system, 162 Information theory, 426 Infrared (IR) materials, 209 Infrared (IR) wavelengths, 11 Ink-jet printing, 347, 370 Instant return mirror, 142 Integral flash units, 36-7 Integral masking, 260 Integral tripack process, 217, 253 Inter-image effects, 256, 258, 259-60 Interactive restoration, 441 Interference filters, 70 Intermediate negative film, 262-3 Intermittancy effect, 239 International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 305 equivalent speed, 121 speed ratings, 305-306 speed ratings for colour materials, 306-307 Internegative film, 262-3 Interpolation technique, pixel data, 122 Inverse filter, 438

Iris diaphragm shutter system, 61, 136-7 Iris (eye), 11

JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) compression standard, 124, 204, 445

Kelvin scale, 18

Kepler type viewfinder system, 128, 140-2

Key tone measurement, 315-16

Kodak:

C-41 colour negative process, 268

D-23 developing agent, 280

D-76 developing agent, 280

dye diffusion thermal transfer process, 370

Dye Transfer method, 217

E-6 reversal processing procedure, 266

gold solution protective toning process, 377

Photo CD, 204

RA4 negative colour process, 268 T-grain technology, 198 Kostinsky effects, 281

L-ascorbic acid developers, 274

Lambertian surface, 39

Lambert's cosine law, 22, 320

Lamps, photographic see Light sources

Laplacian filter, 443

Laser printers, 369-70

Lasers, as light sources, 354

Latent image formation, in silver halides, 191-3

Lateral chromatic aberration, 74-5

Lens design:

aperture and performance, 62, 80

aspheric surfaces, 90

cardinal points, 43-5

coatings, 69-71, 89

compound, 43-5

computer-aided, 90

conjugate equation, 45-8

covering power, 49, 165, 166-8

development, 85-8

double-Gaussian configuration, 75, 77

for enlargers, 354-5

floating elements, 90

focal length, 43, 49

formulae, 47

geometric distortion, 49-50 graphical image construction, 46 image evaluation, 90-91 materials, 90 modern forms, 88-91 optical attachments, 100-102 perspective control (PC), 49 resolution, 80-81 speed, 61

transmission light losses, 68 Lens flare, 68 Lens hood, 101-102 Lens tilt, 170-71 Lenses:

achromatic, 40

afocal converter, 100-101

anastigmat, 77, 88

Aplanat, 87

apochromatic, 73

apochromatic copying, 85

catadioptric, 74, 94-5

cemented achromatic doublet, 73

compound, 43-5, 83-5

deep-field, 55

double-Gauss, 75, 77, 88

landscape, 87

long-focus, 93-5

macro-zoom, 96-7

micro, 121

multiplier see Teleconverters

PC projection, 174

perspective-control, 173-4

Petzval, 87

portrait, 102

Rapid Rectilinear, 87

retrofocus, 91

Rodenstock Imagon, 76

simple, 42, 83

special effects attachments, 102-103 Steinheil Periskop, 87

superchromat, 73 symmetrical doublets, 87 symmetrical-derivative, 91 telephoto, 93 telephoto wide-angle, 98 triplets, 88 varifocal, 95, 98 wide-angle, 49, 91-3 Zeiss Biogon, 98 Zeiss Tessar, 88 zoom, 95-8 see also Teleconverters Life expectancy:

digital media, 379-81 imaging media, 372 Light: eye adaptation, 12 losses, 68

measurement, 315-16 properties, 9-10 scatter in negative, 220 Light emitting diode (LED): as digital display, 117 as light source, 38 Light fading, colour media, 373, 378-9 Light guide attachments, exposure meter, 322 Light meter see Exposure meter Light sources:

characteristics, 16-20 colour temperatures, 19 daylight, 25

effect on colour appearance, 248 efficiency, 24

for enlarging and printing, 353-4 maintenance, 25 methods of production, 16 operation, 25 output, 21-5

properties used in photography, 17 variation in output, 358 see also under individual types Light value (LV), 155, 318 Light waves, 9 Light-pipe, 353

Light-sensitive materials, 195-8 emulsion coating, 199-200 sizes and formats, 200-201 support base, 198-9 Lighting ratio, 312, 320 Line spectra, 18

Line spread function (LSF), 400, 401 Linear spatial filtering, 428-9 Lithographic developers, 281-2 Log exposure range, 311, 313 Log-luminance range, 230 Lossless/lossy compression coding, 124, 204 Low-contrast developers, 280 Low-pass filtering, 433 Lumen (unit), 21

Luminance, 21, 39, 218

darkest shadow measurement, 315 discrimination, 12-13 formed by lens, 63 lightest highlight measurement, 315 units, 323 Luminance factor, 384 Luminance ratio, 312-13 Luminous flux, 21, 22, 63 Luminous intensity, 21 Lux (unit), 218, 323

3M Company, Dry Silver system, 345-6 Macbeth ColorChecker chart, 390 McCormick-Goodhart storage recommendations,

375, 376 Mackie lines, 281 Magicubes, 28 Magnification, 45 Mangin mirror, 94 Marr-Hildreth edge operator, 443 Matrix flash metering, 335

Matrix metering see Photocells, segmented systems

Maximum black (density), 231-2

Maximum entropy reconstruction, 441-2

Maximum filter, 433

Maxwell, James Clerk, 214

Mead Corporation, dry colour process, 346

Mean noon sunlight, 25

Media, life expectancy, 372

Median filter, 434

Metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) circuitry, 118 Metal-halide lamps, 27

Metallic replacement silver-recovery methods,

297-8 Metameric pairs, 213 Metering systems, in-camera, 324-9 Metol developers, 275 Micro reciprocal degree see Mired value Micro-flash units, 31 Microdensitometers, 243 Microlasers, as light source, 38 Microprism grids and screens, 150-51 Microprocessor systems, 117-18, 127 Microscope attachments, exposure meter, 322-3 Migration process, digital data, 379 Minimum filter, 433

Minimum useful gradient, characteristic curve,

303-304 Mired scale, 21

Mired shift value (MSV), 20, 21, 182 Mired value (MV), 21 Mirror lenses, 74, 94-5 Mixed lighting effects, 20 Modelling lights, 330-31 Modulation transfer function (MTF), 81-2, 402, 405, 406, 417 for CCD imaging array, 411 correction, 407-408

edge input method, 407 image quality, 411-12 theory, 412

wave recording, 406-407 Moire effects see Aliasing Monochrome developer formulae, 279 Multiple-image prisms, 103 Multiplexer, 117

Munsell system, standard colours, 383-4

Near distance of distinct vision, 52 Near-UV radiation, 206 Negative:

density range, 313 effect of variation in exposure, 229 Negative carriers, 355

Negative-positive colour process, 254-6, 266-7

Neutral-density filter, 186

Newton, 13, 384

Newtonian finder, 139

Nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries, 32-3

Night vision, 11

Nodal points, lens, 43-4

Noise:

CCD system sources, 122, 425 photographic, 413-17 Noise equivalent exposure (NEE), 425 Noise measures, relationships, 419 Noise power spectrum, 417-19 Non-colour-sensitive materials, 206 Non-impact printing methods, 369 Non-linear filtering, 433 Nyquist frequency, 409

Object conjugate distance, 45

Off-the-film (OTF) flash measurement, 33, 158,

326, 334-5 Off/on-easel negative evaluation, 366-7 Opacity, 219 Optic nerve, 11 Optical filters see Filters Optical image formation, 41 Optical resolution, 368 Optical spread function, 81 Optical transfer function (OTF), 81, 405 Optics, 10-11 Optimal filtering, 440 Orthochromatic materials, 208 Output scanning, digital data, 369-70

Panchromatic materials, 208 Panoramic formats, 106 Pantone colour system, 383 Paper:

as base material, 198-9 printing see Printing paper Para-aminophenol developers, 275 Paraphenylenediamine developers, 275 Paraxial conditions, 43

Peltier effect, 122 Pentaprism viewfinder, 112 Permanence tests, negatives and prints, 300 Perspective, 5, 53, 57-60 correction/introduction techniques, 172, 358 distortion, 60 use of lenses, 49, 173-4 Petzval lenses, 87 Petzval sum, 77 Petzval surface, 77 Phenidone developers, 275 Photo-transistor, for flash exposure, 33 Photocells, 155-6 in exposure meters, 320-22 positioning, 157-8

segmented arrangement, 158-9, 327-8 Photoelectric effect, 9-10 Photoflood lamps, 25, 26 Photographic paper see Printing paper Photographic process, basics, 2-3 Photometer see Exposure meter Photometry, units, 323-4 Photon (quantum of light), 9 Photopic vision, 12 Photoresistor devices, 155 Photosensor, 33 array, 120-21 Photoshop, Adobe, (software package), 389 Photovoltaic cells, 155 Physical optics, 10 Pictrography system, 344, 345, 369 Pictrostat system, 344 Picture Disk, 204

Piezo-electric ceramic vibrator (PECV), 151

Piggy-back mirror, 158

PIMA/IT10 technical committee, 307

Pincushion distortion, 78-9

Pinhole image formation, 41

Planck, 9

Planckian radiator, 18 Planck's constant, 10

Point spread function (PSF), 398, 400, 401 Polachrome process, 216, 217, 271 Polacolor process, 269-71 Polar distribution curve, 23 Polarizing filter: circular, 189 linear, 186-8 Polaroid, 271-2 active ranging system, 151 exposure test, 315 Polyethylene terephthalate, as base material, 198 Post-development processing stages, 293 POTA developing agent, 280 Potassium metabisulphite, as developer preservative, 276 Precipitation method, for silver recovery, 298 Preflashing, paper, 235 Preservatives, in developing solutions, 276

Primary colours, 249-50 Principal focal plane, 43 Printing paper, 336 base paper, 339 bleach-fixing, 342 bromide, 233, 234, 337 colour, 339

contrast, 234-5, 337-8 exposure latitude, 234 exposure range, 232 modern chromogenic, 378 resin-coated, 339 response curve, 231 spectral sensitivity, 337 speed, 336

surface finish, 338-9 variable-contrast, 338

variation of print curve with development, 233-4 variation of print curve with emulsion, 232-3 Printing processes, 349 density, 222

development processes, 340-44 drying, 344

effect of conditions on life expectancy, 373-5 fixation, 342

from digital data, 369-70 glazing, 344 preflashing, 235 quality requirements, 125, 234 washing, 342-4 see also Colour printing Probability functions, 434-8 Programmed exposure modes, 326-7 Projection printing, 349 Projector lamps, 26 Prontor-Compur (PC) socket, 144 Pulsed xenon lamps, 27-8 Pupil magnification/factor, 62 Purkinje shift, 250 Pyrogallol developers, 275

Quadrant diagram, tone reproduction, 237-8 Quantifying image noise, 417-18 Quantum optics, 10 Quantum theory, 9 Quarter-wave coating, lens, 70 Quarter-wave plate, polarizing filter, 189 Quartz ultraviolet radiation, 205 Quartz-iodine lamps, 27 Quasi-Planckian source, 18

Rangefinder:

coincidence type, 148-9 focusing, 109 split-image, 142, 149-50 Raster (line pattern), 217 Ratio of reproduction, 45 Rayleigh criterion, 80 Read only memory (ROM), 118

Reciprocity failure, 238

effects, 238-9 Reciprocity law, 238

failure, 182 Red-eye reduction, 37-8, 144 Reflectance, 39, 231

average, 313 Reflectance ratio, 312 Reflected light measurement, 316 Reflection densitometers, 241 Reflection density, 231 Reflection effects, 39 Reflector factor, 23 Reflectors, 23 Refraction effects, 40 Refractive index, 40 Refractive power formula, 42 Repro attachments, exposure meter, 322 Roseau (mosaic), 215-16 Resin-coated printing papers, 339, 340 Resolving power (RP), 80, 81, 422

test charts, 421 Responsivity, characteristic curve, 424-5 Restrainers, in developing solutions, 277 Retina, 11

Reversal processing, 265-6 Reversal-colour film, 256-8

colour gamut, 391 RGB colorimetry, 385-7 RGB high-intensity lamps, 354 Rinse and stop baths, development process, 293 Rodenstock Imagon lens, 76 Rods (light-sensitive receptors), 11 Roll films, 104, 106, 200 Run-length coding, 444

Safelights, darkroom, 189-90

Sampling process, 408-409

Saturation equivalent exposure (SEE), 425

Sayce chart, 421

Scanners, 367-8

Scanning process, 368-9

output, 369-70 Scatter see Light scatter Scelera, 11

Scheimpflug's rule, 168-70, 358 Schmidt corrector plate, 94 Schneider Componon, 354, 355 Schumann emulsions, 205 Scotopic vision, 11 Seidel aberrations, 72 Selenium cells, 155 Selenium toning protection, 376, 377 Self-developing materials, 113 Selwyn granularity, 417 Selwyn's law, 417

Sensitivity (photographic materials), 205 short-wave radiation, 205-206 visible radiation, 206

Sensitization, spectral see Spectral sensitization Sensitizing dyes, 208-10 Sensitometers, 240-41 Sensitometry, 218, 239-40 colour, 254-8 contrast, 223-5 density, 219 digital cameras, 245 elementary form, 244 exposure, 218-19 opacity, 219 subject, 218 transmittance, 219 Shading devices, 358 Sharpness, image, 50-52, 411-12 Shrink filter, 433 Shutter systems, 131 between-lens, 131-3, 143 electronic, 132-3 focal-plane, 133-6, 144 iris diaphragm, 136-7 leaf, 132

Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), 122, 308, 413, 420-22 Silicon photodiode (SPD), 29, 33, 115, 122, 155-6, 321-2

Silver, tests for residual, 300 Silver halide emulsion systems, 191 basics, 2-3

latent image formation, 191-3 photographic printing papers, 336-7 Silver images, bleaching, 298-9 Silver recovery, fixing process, 296-8 Silver selenide toning, 376, 377 Silver-dye-bleach process, 268-9 Sinusoidal waves, 394 and image formation, 395-7 modulation, 394-5 Sizing factor, digital scanning, 368 SLR cameras, TTL metering systems, 324 Sludging method, for silver recovery, 298 Slussarev effect, 66 Snell's Law, 40 Sobel operator, 442, 444

Sodium sulphite, as developer preservative, 276 Sodium thiosulphate: as fixing agent, 294 tests for residual, 300 Soft-focus attachments, 102-103 Soft-focus enlargements, 359 Solarizattion region, 224 Source entropy, 426 Spectral absorption, 176 Spectral dispersion, 72

Spectral power distribution (SPD), 16, 18, 19

Spectral quality see Hues

Spectral sensitization, 207-210, 252-3

digital cameras, 211-12 Spectrograms, wedge, 207, 210-11 Spectroradiometer, 16

Spectrum: electromagnetic, 10-11 secondary, 73 Speed:

alternative systems and standards, 305-306 digital systems, 307-308 DX film coding, 109, 201, 312 ISO ratings, 305-308 standard based on noise, 308 standard based on saturation, 308 table for monochrome film materials, 304 use of numbers, 302-305, 308 Speed point see Minimum useful exposure Spherical aberrations, 72, 75-6 Split-field close-up device, 103 Spot filter, 66 Spot meter, 324 Spotlights, 23 Spread functions, 400 Square wave recording, 406-407 Star-burst and twinkle devices, 103 Steinheil, 87 Stilb (unit), 324 Still-video (SV) camera, 120 Stops, optical, 61-2

Storage conditions, photographic media, 375-6 Strobe mode, flash tube operation, 31 Studio flash, 33 Subject correction factor, 313 Subtractive colour mixing, 14 Subtractive (white-light) system, 217 colour printing, 362

colour process deficiency correction, 259-60 Sunshade, lens, 101-102 Superadditivity see Synergesis Swedish Natural Colour System (NCS), 383 Synchro-sunlight techniques, 313, 331 Synergesis, of developing agents, 278-9

T-numbers (lens transmittance), 69 Tagged image file format (TIFF), 127 Technical cameras, 112-13 Technicolor method, 217 Teleconverter, 93, 99-100 Telephoto lenses see Lenses, telephoto Thermal imaging processes, 346-7, 370 Thermo-Autochrome (TA) process, 346-7 Thermodynamic scale see Kelvin scale Thermoelectric cooling effect, 122 Third-order aberrations see Seidel aberrations Threshold average filter, 434 Threshold systems, speed criterion, 302 Through-the-finder (TTF) metering systems, 110, 140

Through-the-lens (TTL) metering systems, 67-8,

112, 156-7, 158-9, 324, 325-6 Thyristor switches, 33-4, 35 Tilt movements, 170-71 Tone distribution, 329

Tone reproduction, 6, 236

Toning processes, for media stability, 377

Total internal reflection (TIR), 40

Total scene luminance measurement, 316

Transfer function, scanner, 369

Transistor-transistor logic (TTL), 118

Transmission, effects, 39

Transmittance, 176, 213, 219

Triangulation, rangefinder, 149

Trichromatic theory of colour vision, 248-9, 385

Tripack process, 263-4

integral, 217, 253 Triple-sensitivity theory, 14 Tungsten lamps, 353 Tungsten-filament lamps, 20, 25-8 Tungsten-halogen lamps, 20, 26-7, 353

Ultraviolet (UV) radiation, 205-206

wavelengths, 11 Undersampling process, cosine wave, 408 Uniform Chromacity Scale Diagram, 389, 391 Unit focusing, 145 -6

Vacuum spectrography, 206 Van Albada finder, 139 Vanishing point, 58, 171-2 Variable length coding, 445 Variable-contrast printing papers, 338 Vector graphics files, 202 Veiling flare, 68

Video display unit, colour gamut, 391 View cameras see Camera types, technical Viewfinder systems, 128-9 direct-vision optical, 139-40 frame, 139 function, 138

ground-glass screen, 142-3 Kepler type, 128, 140-2 Newtonian, 139 pentaprism, 143 real image, 140-2 reversed Galilean, 128, 140, 141 simple, 139 suspended frame, 139 van Albada, 139 Viewing distance, 58 Viewpoint: camera, 58 eye, 57-8 Vignetting, 49, 101 mechanical, 62-3 Virtual focus, 42 Visible spectrum, 11 Visual acuity (eye resolution), 52 Vogel, 207

Washing process, after fixing, 299-300 Waterhouse stops, 136

Wave recording:

sine wave methods, 406 square wave methods, 406 Wave theory, 9 Wavelength, radiation, 9 Weber-Fechner Law, 12-13 Wedge spectrograms, 207, 210-11 Weston exposure meter, 316, 320, 322 White light, 16 balance control, 129 dispersion, 13-14 Wiener filtering, 440

Wiener (noise power) spectrum, 418 Wollaston, 87

X-ray region, 206

XYZ colorimetry, 387—9, 390

Young, 14, 249

Young-Helmholtz theory of colour vision, 14, 385

Zone System (exposure determination), 313 Zoom flash action, 23 Zoom lenses, 23, 95—8

This Page Intentionally Left Blank

Plate 1 The action of ideal blue, green and red filters, and the corresponding spectral density distributions

Plate 2 Maxwell's method of colour photography

400 500 GOD 7 00 Wavelenglh {run)

Plate 3 Ideal yellow, magenta and cyan filters

Plate 4 Combinations of complementary colour filters

Plate 5 A subtractive colour photograph

Projected reproduction

Plate 6 The Dufaycolor system, an additive colour film

JtfO 420 460 500 540 5S0 6M 060 700 Wauelervglh (nm)

Plate 7 Seven hues identified in the visible spectrum, together with their approximate wavelength ranges

Wavi-engir (ranj

Plate 8 The selective spectral absorptions of some coloured surfaces length ranges

Plate 9 Cross-section of integral tripack film of camera speed

Plate 10 Cross-section (not to scale) of a modern colour-negative film. Note the double-coated emulsion layers with fast components coated above the slow. The symbol A represents silver halide crystals

Plate 11 Cross-section (not to scale) of a modern high-speed colour-negative film. The structure is such that it gives the maximum access to exposure to the fast-emulsion components. The use of tabular-grain, 'T-grain', emulsions in the green- and red-sensitive layers allows the omission of the customary yellow filter layer below the blue-sensitive emulsions

Plate 12 Non-substantive reversal processing

Plate 13 The substantive reversal process

Plate 14 The colour negative-positive process

Colour nügalivf

Plate 14 The colour negative-positive process

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