Otolith description

Otolith small, discoid in smaller specimens and oval in larger specimens. Dorsal margin lobed or irregular to concave in larger specimens ventral margin lobed. Sulcus groove heterosulcoid and curved ventrally at posterior end opening ostial. Ostium wide and shallow cauda elongate and deep. Colliculum hetero-morph. Crista superior and crista inferior ridge-like along entire sulcus. Rostrum short, angular and pointed. Antirostrum minute and pointed. Excisura shallow with wide angle in larger...

Family Argentinidae

Previous nomenclature Argentina elongate australiae Material Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 132 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference 16.22P1. Catch locality Storm Bay. ID by RG. Otolith small, ovate. Dorsal margin gently lobed ventral margin entire to gently sinuate. Sulcus groove homosulcoid opening ostial, although near ostio-caudal. Ostium mainly restricted to region of rostrum. Colliculum heteromorph. Crista superior and inferior ridge-like crista inferior extending along...

Family Engraulidae

Common names Australian anchovy (southern anchovy) Previous nomenclature Engraulis antipodum Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 67 mm SL. Otolith catalogue reference 13.4P77. Catch locality southern Tasmania. ID by RG. Otolith small medium, ovate to fusiform. Dorsal margin and posterior margin slightly lobed ventral margin lobed at anterior and posterior regions, but characteristically dentate in mid region. Sulcus groove heterosulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum homo-morph...

Family Galaxiidae

Description based on otoliths of two specimens of 52 and 60 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference 16.5P84 and P87 (otolith provided by IFC). Catch locality unknown. ID by PD. Otolith very small, discoid with little relief. All margins entire. Sulcus groove generally homosulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum heteromorph. Collum constricted and separates ostium and cauda. Crista superior and inferior poorly developed. Rostrum present and rounded. Antirostrum absent. Excisura present angle wide. Dorsal...

Family Moridae

Previous nomenclature Austrophycis marginatus, Notophycis marginata tasmaniensis, Physiculus marginatus Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 190 mm SL. Otolith catalogue reference BG10. Catch locality Maria Island, Tasmania. Depth unknown. ID by BG. Otolith medium, pyriform. Dorsal margin domed, rounded irregular ventral margin flat. Sulcus groove heterosulcoid opening caudal, but may be ostio-caudal. Ostium larger than cauda. Colliculum heteromorph anterior colliculum poorly...

Family Phosichthyidae

Common names Silver lightfish (silver lighthouse fish) Previous nomenclature Photichthys argenteus Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 223 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF61. Catch locality Southern Hills, Tasmania, unknown depth. ID by AW. Otolith small, tear-drop shaped. Dorsal margin approximately flat and irregular ventral margin rounded and slightly irregular to serrate beneath rostrum posterior margin angular becoming rounded and slightly irregular. Distal and proximal...

Family Sternoptychidae

Description based on otoliths of one specimen of unknown FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF60. Catch locality Southern Hills, Tasmania, unknown depth. ID by AW. Otolith very small, tall. Dorsal margin lobed and irregular ventral margin keeled and entire and becoming irregular in larger otoliths (Smale et al. 1995) posterior margin straight and slightly irregular. Distal surface convex proximal surface concave. Sulcus groove deep, heterosulcoid, opening ostial. Colliculum heteromorph. Crista...

Family Uranoscopidae Species Ichthyscopus barbatus

Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 172 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF42-43. Catch locality Merimbula, Victoria, 25 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith large, oval. Dorsal margin rounded and entire to irregular ventral margin slightly rounded and entire to mildly irregular posterior margin notched and sharply rounded. Distal surface concave proximal surface convex. Sulcus groove shallow, archaesulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum homomorph two colliculi. Collum absent. Crista...

Introduction

Otoliths of Common Australian Temperate Fish A Photographic Guide has been compiled primarily as a reference work for use in studies of the dietary composition of a range of marine animals, including fish, sharks, cephalopods, mammals, penguins and other seabirds. Ecosystem studies have been recognised as being increasingly important to the understanding of the marine system (EPBC Act, 1999). The study of the diet of marine animals, particularly the identification of teleost otoliths from the...

Morphometry

(Note Data includes juvenile and adult specimens.) FL 292.071 OW 0 067 mm n 13 Std Err Est 0.017 R 0.352 P< 0.239 Otolith weight range 57.0-74.0 mg (CMAR) FL 16.796 x OL13292 mm n 289, R 0.99 Fish length range 76-349 mm FL (R. Kirkwood pers. com. Phillip Is. Nature Park) Mass 1.292 x 10-5 FL 2 974 g n 521 Std Err Est 0.163 R 0.987 P< 0.001 Fish length range 84-520 mm FL (CMAR)

Predatorprey information

Known prey ofAustralian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus) (Gales and Pemberton 1994), little penguin (Eudyptula minor) (Montague and Cullen 1987, Klomp and Wooller 1988, Gales and Pemberton 1990), short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) (Montague et al. 1984) and crested tern (Sterna bergii) (Higgins and Davies 1996). Undistinguished species of this Family are known prey of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) (Marchant and Higgins 1990), white-fronted tern (Sterna striata),...

References

Anderson WT, Mullins HT and Ito E (1997). Stable isotope record from Seneca Lake, New York evidence for a cold paleoclimate following the Younger Dryas. Geology, 25, 135-138. Arellano RV, Hamerlynch O, Vincx M, Mees J, Hostens K and Gijselinck W (1995). Changes in the ratio of the sulcus acusticus area to the sagitta area of Pomatoschistus minutus and P. lozanoi (Pisces, Bobiidae). Marine Biology, 122, 355-360. Ayvazian SG, Bastow TP, Edmonds JS, How J and Nowara GB (2004). Stock structure of...

Species Anoplocapros inermis

Previous nomenclature Strophiuruchthys inermis, Strophiuruchthys robustus Description based on otoliths of one specimen of unknown TL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF2. Catch locality Bermagui, New South Wales, 40 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith very small, obovate. Dorsal margin rounded and irregular ventral margin slightly rounded and irregular posterior margin sharply rounded and irregular. Distal surface flat proximal surface irregular. Sulcus groove deep, heterosulcoid to homosulcoid opening...

Species Aracana aurita

Common names Shaw's cowfish (striped cowfish) Previous nomenclature Aracana spilogaster Description based on otoliths of two specimens of 98 and 153 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference 33.13P3 and 33.13P9. Catch locality Storm Bay. ID by GF. Otolith small, tall discoid. All margins with extreme sculpturing. Sulcus groove heterosulcoid with ostium larger than cauda, but often difficult to distinguish due to extreme formation of colliculum opening ostia-caudal. Colliculum very well developed....

Species Azygopus pinnifasciatus

Common names Band-fin flounder (spotted flounder) Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 110 mm SL. Otolith catalogue reference BG18. Catch locality Maria Island, Tasmania. Depth unknown. ID by BG. Otolith very small, oval. Dorsal margin and ventral margin rounded, entire. Sulcus groove heterosulcoid opening ostial. Ostium smaller than cauda. Colliculum heteromorph anterior colliculum well defined and extends onto rostrum posterior colliculum poorly developed. Collum absent. Crista...

Species Cristiceps australis

Common name Southern crested weedfish Material Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 69 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference 30.103P31. Catch locality Margate, southern Tasmania. ID by RG RW. Otolith very small, generally discoid to ovate with a rostral projection. Dorsal margin and ventral margin entire. Sulcus groove homosulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum homomorph. Collum broad and bridgelike. Crista superior poorly developed crista inferior absent. Rostrum wider than it is long and...

Species Diodon nichthemerus

Previous nomenclature Atopomycterus nichthemerus Description based on otoliths of two specimens of 237 and 228 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF1 and DMF44. Catch locality Wilsons Promontory, Victoria, 25 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith very small, tall oval. Dorsal margin rounded and irregular ventral margin rounded to angular and dentate irregular posterior margin rounded and irregular. Sulcus groove deep, homosulcoid opening ostio-caudal. Colliculum homomorph, fused with deep anterior and...

Species Emmelichthys nitidus

Common names Redbait (pearl fish, redbait fish) Previous nomenclature Erythrichthys nitidus Description based on otoliths of four specimens of 250-325 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF59, SD3 and 30.31P4-3. Catch locality Merimbula, Victoria, 120 m depth Gabo Island, Victoria, 38 m depth and southern Tasmania, respectively. ID by DMF, SD and RG respectively. Otolith small medium, ovate. Dorsal margin acutely dentate ventral margin serrate posterior margin lobed. Distal surface flat...

Species Heteroclinus perspicillatus

Previous nomenclature Cristiceps robustus, Neoblennius fasciatus Description based on otoliths of two specimens of 43 and 119 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference 30.109P4 and P10. Catch locality Margate, southern Tasmania. ID by LC. Otolith ovate. Dorsal margin and ventral margin entire. Sulcus groove heterosulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum homomorph. Collum narrow and bridgelike. Crista superior rounded in smaller specimens and more angled over the collum and ostium in larger specimens crista...

Species Kathetostoma canaster

Previous nomenclature Kathetostoma sp.1 in Last et al. 1983 Description based on otoliths of four specimens. Specimens 1-3 of 150-360 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference 30.92P1-3. Catch locality Stanley, Bass Strait, Tasmania. ID by RG. Specimen 4 of 533 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF8-9. Catch locality Point Hicks, Victoria, 200 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith large, oval to ovate. Dorsal margin slightly rounded, irregular to crenate ventral margin rounded and irregular posterior margin...

Species Kathetostoma laeve

Common names Common stargazer (barred stargazer, catfish, stonelifter) Description based on otoliths of four specimens. Specimen 1-3 of 218-395 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference 30.91P1-3. Catch locality southern Tasmania. ID by RG. Specimen 4 of 381 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF54. Catch locality Disaster Bay, New South Wales, 80 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith medium large ovate. Large ontogenic variation in marginal sculpturing and form of sulcus and colliculi. Dorsal margin rounded,...

Species Latris lineata

Common name Striped trumpeter Previous nomenclature Latris mortoni Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 586 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF28. Catch locality Point Hicks, Victoria, 80 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith medium, ovate. Dorsal margin rounded and irregular ventral margin flat and approximately entire posterior margin rounded and irregular. Distal surface flat proximal surface flat convex. Sulcus groove deep, heterosulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum heteromorph. Collum...

Species Lophonectes gallus

Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 94 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference 32.5P41. Catch locality Bass Strait, off Stanley, Tasmania. ID by RG CL. Otolith oval to ovate. Dorsal margin and ventral margin entire posterior margin gently lobed. Sulcus groove ostial and heterosulcoid. Ostium larger than cauda. Colliculum heteromorph. Collum constricted. Crista superior well developed and irregular crista inferior ridge-like. Rostrum short and stout, rounded. Antirostrum absent. Excisura...

Species Meuschenia scaber

Previous nomenclature Balistes scaber, Parika scaber Description based on otoliths of one specimen of unknown TL. Otolith catalogue reference SD1032 5. Catch locality unknown. ID by SD. Otolith very small, hour-glass shaped. Dorsal margin flat and slightly irregular ventral margin notched slightly rounded and irregular posterior margin deeply notched and irregular. Distal surface flat proximal surface irregular. Sulcus groove deep, homosul-coid opening ostio-caudal. Colliculum homomorph two...

Species Nesogobius sp1 in Last et al 1983

Description based on otoliths of three specimens of 32-74 mm SL. Otolith catalogue reference 30.126P54, P52 and P59. Catch locality Cremorne, southern Tasmania. ID by RG CL. Otolith discoid with rostral and pseudo-rostral projections. Dorsal margin entire ventral margin entire in small specimens to lobed in larger. Sulcus groove heterosulcoid opening mesial to ostial. Colliculum heteromorph and deep. Collum slight, separating ostium and cauda. Crista superior distinct and irregular crista...

Species Ophthalmolepis lineolatus

Previous nomenclature Opthalmolepis cyanogramma Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 330 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF76. Catch locality Disaster Bay, Victoria, 40 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith small medium, anvil-shaped. Dorsal margin slightly rounded and entire to broadly crenate ventral margin flat to slightly rounded and entire to mildly irregular posterior margin sharply rounded. Distal surface flat proximal surface flat to slightly convex. Sulcus groove moderate,...

Species Paramonacanthus filicauda

Common name Threadfin leatherjacket Previous nomenclature Arotrolepis filicauda Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 111 mm TL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF1. Catch locality Disaster Bay, New South Wales, 25 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith very small, hour-glass shaped. Dorsal margin flat, but angled and entire to slightly irregular ventral margin rounded and irregular posterior margin deeply notched and entire to slightly irregular. Distal surface flat proximal surface irregular....

Species Pseudolabrus mortonii

Previous nomenclature Pseudolabrus psittaculus, Pseudolabrus rubicundus Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 202 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF75. Catch locality Disaster Bay, Victoria, 40 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith medium, spindle anvil-shaped. Dorsal margin slightly rounded and entire to broadly crenate ventral margin flat to slightly rounded and entire to mildly irregular posterior margin sharply rounded. Distal surface flat proximal surface flat to slightly convex....

Species Scorpis lineolata

Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 177 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF77. Catch locality Disaster Bay, Victoria, 40 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith medium, oval. Dorsal margin slightly rounded and crenate irregular ventral margin rounded and crenate posterior margin sharply rounded and crenate to irregular. Distal surface concave proximal surface convex. Sulcus groove deep, heterosulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum heteromorph. Collum absent. Crista superior well developed and...

Species Thyrsites atun

Common names Barracouta (couta, snoek) Previous nomenclature Leionura atun, Scomber atun Description based on otoliths of four specimens. Specimens 1-3 of 173-330 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference 30.1351-1352, and 30.1355. Catch locality Storm Bay, Tasmania at 25 m depth. ID by RG. Specimen 4 of 840 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF52-53. Catch locality Gabo Island, Victoria, at 250 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith large, elliptic fusiform. Dorsal margin sinuate to lobed irregular ventral...

Species Atypichthys strigatus

Previous nomenclature Atypus mado, Atypus strigatus Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 142 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF70. Catch locality Disaster Bay, Victoria, 40 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith medium, oval. Dorsal margin rounded and lobed to sinuate ventral margin rounded and slightly sinuate posterior margin sharply rounded to pointed. Distal surface concave proximal surface convex. Sulcus groove medium, heterosulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum heteromorph. Collum...

Abbreviations

Atmospheric Research, Tasmania BG Brian Griffiths, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Tasmania CL Chris Lalas, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand DMF Dianne M. Furlani, CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research, Tasmania DSF Department of Sea Fisheries, Tasmania currently TAFI GF Gwen Fenton, University of Tasmania IASOS Institute for Antarctic and Southern Ocean Studies, University of Tasmania IFC Inland Fisheries Commission, Hobart, Tasmania Commission, Hobart, Tasmania PD Peter...

Family Myctophidae

Common name Hector's lanternfish Material Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 73 mm SL. Otolith catalogue reference BG8. Catch locality Maria Island, Tasmania. Depth unknown. ID by BG. Otolith very small, rounded- to oval-ovate. Dorsal margin margins rounded and slightly irregular ventral margin rounded and serrate. Sulcus groove shallow, heterosulcoid opening ostial. Ostium larger than cauda. Colliculum heteromorph anterior colliculum elongate, moderately broad posterior...

Family Clupeidae

Common names Australian pilchard sardine Previous nomenclature Clupea neopilchardus, Sardinops sagax ocellatus Description based on otoliths of four specimens of 65-152 mm SL. Otolith catalogue reference 13.3P4, P7, P10 and P12. Catch locality Victoria. ID by RG. Otolith very small, ovate. Dorsal margin irregular ventral margin dentate posterior margin bluntly rounded and entire. Sulcus groove very deep, hetero-sulcoid opening ostial. Collum ranging from severely constricted to ill defined....

Family Salmonidae

Otolith Salmonidae

Common names Rainbow trout steelhead Previous nomenclature Salmo gairdnerii Description based on otoliths of two specimens of 182 and 198 mm SL. Otolith catalogue reference 16.1P1-2 otolith provided by IFC . Catch locality southern Tasmania. ID by RG. Otolith small, roughly ovate. Dorsal margin lobed ventral margin entire. Sulcus groove heterosulcoid opening generally ostio-caudal. Colliculum hetero-morph with ostium restricted to face of rostrum. Crista superior and inferior well developed and...

Family Paraulopidae

Previous nomenclature Chlorophthalmus nigripinnis Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 165 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF31. Catch locality Bermagui, New South Wales, 120 m depth. ID by DMF. Otolith small medium, elliptic. Dorsal margin rounded lobed and irregular ventral margin rounded and entire. Distal surface flat proximal surface convex irregular formations noted ventrally . Sulcus groove shallow, heterosulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum not visible. Crista superior and...

Family Platytroctidae

Previous nomenclature Bathytroctes kopua, Persparsia taaningi Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 122 mm FL. Otolith catalogue reference DMF66. Catch locality Southern Hills, Tasmania, unknown depth. ID by AW. Otolith very small, ovate. Dorsal margin entire becoming irregular Smale et al. 1995 ventral margin irregular to dentate posteriorly posterior margin straight and slightly irregular to sinuate. Distal surface slightly convex proximal surface flat to slightly concave. Sulcus...

Methods And Materials

The material described and illustrated in this guide was collected from fishing boats working off the north-west and south coast of Tasmania, between 1985 and 1987, and from CSIRO Southern Surveyor research cruises between Wilsons Promontory Victoria and Bermagui New South Wales , between April and December 1996, predominantly trawling in depths from 25 to 200 m. In addition, species were collected at the Melbourne markets from fishing operations in Bass Strait waters. Once fish were...

Family Notacanthidae

Notacanthidae

Common names Southern spineback spiny eel Description based on otoliths of one specimen of 490 mm SL. Otolith catalogue reference BG1. Catch locality Maria Island, Tasmania. Depth unknown. ID by BG. Otolith very small, square-discoid. Dorsal margin rounded ventral margin flattened or rounded, and irregular, and posterior margin irregular. Sulcus groove archaesulcoid opening ostial. Colliculum absent. Collum absent. Crista superior well developed, overhangs ostium crista inferior poorly...

Species List Systematic Order

Species are listed taxonomically within each Order and alphabetically within each Family. Thumbnail images have been provided as a provisional means of otolith identification, with full-sized images and complete descriptions contained on the individual species pages. Sardinops neopilchardus Australian pilchard Sprattus novaehollandiae Australian sprat Engraulis australis Australian anchovy Notacanthus sexspinis Southern spineback Phosichthys argenteus Silver l ightfish Argyropelecus gigas Giant...

Definition Of Terms

Otolithen Sulcus Fisch

The predominant otolith features included in descriptions are shown in Figure 1 using a generalised otolith. Otolith descriptions for each species follow a standardised format. Some terms are in bold type to aid navigation. Each description begins with the size and shape of the otolith. Size using otolith diameter from posterior to anterior margin, otoliths were classed as very small lt 3 mm diameter . Scale bars used in all figures are 1 mm, unless otherwise noted. Shape terms used to describe...