Pattern and Texture

Pattern refers to the arrangement of discrete objects, which individually are visible distinctly and form some regular arrangement with each other, for example vehicles in a parking lot, fruit trees in an orchard, crop rows, or

FIGURE 5-5 Strong diagonal elements may be utilized for visual emphasis. Fall River Lake, southeastern Kansas, United States. (A) Overview of dam and roads. (B) Closeup view of dam and spillway. Kite aerial photographs by JSA, June 2006.

FIGURE 5-6 The same effect that reveals the famous Nazca lines in Peru tells of men and animals crossing their ways in cars and on foot in northern Burkina Faso. The stones covering the ground surface—pisolith from laterite crusts—are shifted off the beaten track, exposing the light sandy soil beneath. Kite aerial photograph by IM, JBR, and K.-D. Albert, November 2001.

FIGURE 5-6 The same effect that reveals the famous Nazca lines in Peru tells of men and animals crossing their ways in cars and on foot in northern Burkina Faso. The stones covering the ground surface—pisolith from laterite crusts—are shifted off the beaten track, exposing the light sandy soil beneath. Kite aerial photograph by IM, JBR, and K.-D. Albert, November 2001.

FIGURE 5-7 Mulitple sets of cross-cutting linear fractures are exposed in this granite outcrop at Point Pinos on the shore of Monterey Bay, Pacific Grove, California, United States. Vertical kite aerial photograph by SWA and JSA, November 2006.

FIGURE 5-8 Curved linear features. (A) The road and small stream channel marked by trees form parallel diagonal elements that lead the eye from the lower left corner toward the village with mountain backdrop in the upper right corner. Foreslope of the Tatra Mountains, Strane pod Tatrami, northern Slovakia. Kite airphoto by JSA and SWA, August 2007. (B) Meanders of the dry channel of the Cimarron River, southwestern Kansas, United States. Such almost perfectly symmetrical S-shaped curves are rare in nature. Kite airphoto by SWA, November 2006.

FIGURE 5-8 Curved linear features. (A) The road and small stream channel marked by trees form parallel diagonal elements that lead the eye from the lower left corner toward the village with mountain backdrop in the upper right corner. Foreslope of the Tatra Mountains, Strane pod Tatrami, northern Slovakia. Kite airphoto by JSA and SWA, August 2007. (B) Meanders of the dry channel of the Cimarron River, southwestern Kansas, United States. Such almost perfectly symmetrical S-shaped curves are rare in nature. Kite airphoto by SWA, November 2006.

FIGURE 5-9 The edge of a table mountain topped with remains of a thick laterite crust acts as a foreground element in this oblique airphoto taken in Burkina Faso's Sahel. The change of colors between the inselberg and the glacis in the background additionally increase the depth effect. Kite aerial photograph by IM, JBR, and K.-D. Albert, November 2001.

FIGURE 5-9 The edge of a table mountain topped with remains of a thick laterite crust acts as a foreground element in this oblique airphoto taken in Burkina Faso's Sahel. The change of colors between the inselberg and the glacis in the background additionally increase the depth effect. Kite aerial photograph by IM, JBR, and K.-D. Albert, November 2001.

FIGURE 5-11 Near-vertical view of headstones arranged in rows of a cemetery. Note distinctive shadows cast by stones and grave markers. Liebenthal, Kansas, United States. Kite airphoto by SWA and JSA, May 2006.

gravestones in a cemetery (Fig. 5-11). Texture, on the other hand, involves elements that are too small to appear clearly as individual objects but still impart a distinct grain or fabric to the picture, such as waves on water, trees in a dense forest canopy, roof shingles, or prairie vegetation. The difference between pattern and texture is largely a matter of spatial resolution. Features that create texture at small scale may appear as distinct pattern elements at larger scale.

Patterns in an image can be pleasing and enjoyable to the observer, but also may be boring if their alignment and orientation are too regular and their content too monotonous. Patterns often have a most satisfying effect if

FIGURE 5-10 Roughly following the rule of thirds, this view of the Bar-denas Reales Natural Park in the Province of Navarra, Spain, is divided into a foreground zone of eroded rangeland, a middleground of green fields and hills, and a background zone where the Tertiary structural platforms of the Ebro Basin create a silhouette before the sky. Kite aerial photograph by IM and JBR, February 2009.

FIGURE 5-10 Roughly following the rule of thirds, this view of the Bar-denas Reales Natural Park in the Province of Navarra, Spain, is divided into a foreground zone of eroded rangeland, a middleground of green fields and hills, and a background zone where the Tertiary structural platforms of the Ebro Basin create a silhouette before the sky. Kite aerial photograph by IM and JBR, February 2009.

combined with other elements breaking their uniformity or with other patterns of different scale (Fig. 5-12; see also Section 5.3 below).

Stereoscopic color vision is the most important human sense (Drury, 1987). The nature of color is, thus, a key element in photography. A huge amount of subjective discourse and quantitative research has been devoted to the subject of visible color, human perception of color, and color in nature (Lynch and Livingston, 1995). A full discussion is well beyond the scope of this book, so only a few basic aspects of color are reviewed here. For a more in-depth discussion of color in photography, see for example Langford and Bilissi (2007).

The primary colors—blue, green, and red—are also called additive colors, because they may be combined in various amounts to create all visible colors of the spectrum. Subtractive colors, also known as complementary colors, are created by removing (subtracting) an additive color from white light (Table 5-1). The human eye, video display, and digital photography depend on additive colors; whereas, printing and film photography are based on subtractive colors. In printing a color image from a computer display, for example, the printer must translate additive colors of the monitor into corresponding combinations of subtractive colors for the printer.

Several quantitative means exist to define color. One approach is based on the proportions of primary colors and their intensities. Another well-established means for defining color is the Munsell Color system, which is based on three attributes of color that are often illustrated in

Aerial Photographs Texture

FIGURE 5-12 A variety of patterns and textures discriminates different land uses in this vertical image of a landscape near Baza, Province of Granada, Spain. Flat, narrow valleys are dotted with olive trees of different age and size, north-exposed slopes and abandoned fields at hilltops show the mottled texture of steppe vegetation, and south-exposed slopes and fallow fields are lined with erosion rills and tillage patterns. On a flat surface in the lower right, a newly planted olive grove has the most regular pattern in the image. Cars pinprick the lower right corner with tiny yellow color splashes. Model airplane photograph by C. Claussen, M. Niesen, and JBR, September 2008.

FIGURE 5-12 A variety of patterns and textures discriminates different land uses in this vertical image of a landscape near Baza, Province of Granada, Spain. Flat, narrow valleys are dotted with olive trees of different age and size, north-exposed slopes and abandoned fields at hilltops show the mottled texture of steppe vegetation, and south-exposed slopes and fallow fields are lined with erosion rills and tillage patterns. On a flat surface in the lower right, a newly planted olive grove has the most regular pattern in the image. Cars pinprick the lower right corner with tiny yellow color splashes. Model airplane photograph by C. Claussen, M. Niesen, and JBR, September 2008.

a wheel diagram (Fig. 5-13). It is widely used in the geo-sciences for describing soil and rock colors, and is similar to the HSL or IHS color space implemented in many graphics programs.

TABLE 5-1 Relationship of primary and subtractive colors.

Primary colors

Wavelength

Subtraction from white

Blue

(green + red)

Green

(blue + red)

Red

(blue + green)

• Hue: actual spectral color such as red, yellow, green, blue, etc. Hue is designated by a number and letter: 5R (red), 10YR (yellow-red), or 5GY (green-yellow), etc.

• Value: lightness or brightness of the color. Value ranges from zero for pure black to 10 for pure white.

• Chroma: intensity or saturation of the color. Chroma begins with zero for neutral (gray) and increases with no set upper limit.

Common rock and soil colors, for example, are moderate yellowish brown (10YR 5/4), light olive gray (5Y 5/2), and pale red purple (5RP 6/2). Moderate yellowish green (10GY 6/4) and brilliant green (5G 6/6) are typical vegetation colors (GSA Rock-Color Chart, 1991).

Colors may be described in general as hot (warm) or cold (cool). The former include red, orange and yellow; the latter are blue, cyan, and green. Hot colors represent longer wavelengths; cold colors are shorter wavelengths (see Fig. 2-1). Most of the Earth's surface is covered by objects of cool or neutral colors: green vegetation, blue-green water, tan-brown soil, etc. Hot colors are much less common and, so, tend to stand out in aerial photographs, especially when the hot colors are bright compared with the background (Fig. 5-14). It is because hot colors are generally lacking in

Champion Flash Photography

Champion Flash Photography

Here Is How You Can Use Flash Wisely! A Hands-on Guide On Flash Photography For Camera Friendly People!. Learn Flash Photography Essentials By Following Simple Tips.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment