Glacial Deformation

The combined pressure of glacier loading and forward movement of ice deformed soft sedimentary substrata in many locations, which resulted in conspicuous ice-shoved

FIGURE 12-14 Topographic map of Vormsi and surroundings showing the trace of a long esker system (red dots) that extends at least 26 km from Austergrunne to Kuivarahu. Adapted from Tallinn Eesti topograafi-line kaart, nr. 1, 1:200,000 (1992), Estonia.

hills that may rise 100-200 m above surrounding terrain. In many cases, a depression marks the source of materials that were pushed into adjacent ridges. The combination of ice-scooped basin and ice-shoved hill is a basic morphologic form called a hill-hole pair (Aber and Ber, 2007). A good example of a hill-hole pair is Devils Lake Mountain in northeastern North Dakota. The ice-shoved hill is a slightly arcuate, continuous, single ridge that parallels a narrow source basin on its northwestern side (Fig. 12-16). The ice-shoved ridge is approximately 4 km long, 1 km wide, and stands >50 m above the source basin (Fig. 12-17).

Denmark possesses many well-developed and long-studied glacial deformations and ice-shoved hills of various types (e.g. Pedersen, 2000, 2005). Denmark is also a country famous for its wind power, which is most suitable for KAP. This method was employed by the authors for documenting ice-shoved hills in the Limfjord district of northwestern Denmark. The Limfjord is an inland estuary that was excavated in part by glacial thrusting of soft bedrock into adjacent ice-shoved hills. Feggeklit is a small ice-shoved hill that is connected by a narrow peninsula to the larger island of Mors (Fig. 12-18). Dislocated, folded, and faulted bedrock is exposed in a cliff along the eastern side of Feggeklit (Fig. 12-19). These strata were thrust up from the Limfjord basin by ice movement from the north (Pedersen, 1996).

Another larger example is Flade Klit, which consists of multiple, parallel, ice-shoved ridges on the northern side of Mors (Fig. 12-20). Flade Klit is approximately 3.5 km long

FIGURE 12-15 High-oblique views looking over the esker at Rumpo on the island of Vormsi, Estonia. (A) View toward southeast. The road and pine forest follow the crest of the esker, which forms a peninsula in the shallow sea. (B) View northward across the island. The villages, agricultural fields, and road occupy the crest of the esker. Kite aerial photos by JSA and SWA, August 2000.

FIGURE 12-15 High-oblique views looking over the esker at Rumpo on the island of Vormsi, Estonia. (A) View toward southeast. The road and pine forest follow the crest of the esker, which forms a peninsula in the shallow sea. (B) View northward across the island. The villages, agricultural fields, and road occupy the crest of the esker. Kite aerial photos by JSA and SWA, August 2000.

FIGURE 12-16 Topographic map of Devils Lake Mountain vicinity, northeastern North Dakota, United States. Elevations in feet; contour interval = 10 feet (~3 m); each grid square represents one square mile (~2.6 km2). Taken from Hamar quadrangle, North Dakota, 15-minute series, 1:62,500 (1962), US Geological Survey.

FIGURE 12-16 Topographic map of Devils Lake Mountain vicinity, northeastern North Dakota, United States. Elevations in feet; contour interval = 10 feet (~3 m); each grid square represents one square mile (~2.6 km2). Taken from Hamar quadrangle, North Dakota, 15-minute series, 1:62,500 (1962), US Geological Survey.

FIGURE 12-17 Devils Lake Mountain seen from the northwestern side with the source depression in the foreground. Superwide-angle image; nearly all of the ice-shoved hill and source basin (lake) are visible. Helium-blimp aerial photo; adapted from Aber and Ber (2007, fig. 4-3).

FIGURE 12-18 Topographic map of Feggeklit vicinity, northwestern Denmark. The hilltop is ~30 m above the floor of the Limfjord. Location for kite aerial photography indicated by asterisk (*). Each grid square is 1 km2; adapted from 1116 I Thisted, Danmark, 1:50,000 (1983), Geods-tisk Institut, Denmark.

FIGURE 12-18 Topographic map of Feggeklit vicinity, northwestern Denmark. The hilltop is ~30 m above the floor of the Limfjord. Location for kite aerial photography indicated by asterisk (*). Each grid square is 1 km2; adapted from 1116 I Thisted, Danmark, 1:50,000 (1983), Geods-tisk Institut, Denmark.

(E-W) and 1.5 km wide. The ridges comprise a conspicuous hill with a gentle crescentic shape, concave toward the north. Maximum elevation within Flade Klit reaches 88 m at Salgerh0j, which is ~100 m above the floor of the Limfjord estuary (Fig. 12-21). The 50-m-high cliff exposure at Hanklit reveals three folded masses of dislocated bedrock that were thrust out of the Limfjord basin from the north (Klint and Pedersen, 1995).

FIGURE 12-19 Northeastward view over the flat-topped hill at Feggeklit, northwestern Denmark. Cliff on the eastern side exposes deformed bedrock thrust up from the Limfjord in the background. Kite aerial photo by JSA and SWA, September 2005.
FIGURE 12-20 Topographic map of Flade Klit vicinity, northwestern Denmark. Hanklit is a cliff exposure of deformed bedrock at the western end of Flade Klit. Each grid square is 1 km2; adapted from 1116 I Thisted, Danmark, 1:50,000 (1983), Geodstisk Institut, Denmark.

Salgerhoj

Salgerhoj

FIGURE 12-21 View toward the northeast over ice-shoved ridges of Flade Klit. Hanklit is a cliff exposure of dislocated bedrock on the western end of Flade Klit; Salgerh0j is the highest point (88 m). Kite aerial photo; adapted from Aber and Ber (2007, fig. 5-24).
100 Photography Tips

100 Photography Tips

To begin with your career in photography at the right path, you need to gather more information about it first. Gathering information would provide you guidance on the right steps that you need to take. Researching can be done through the internet, talking to professional photographers, as well as reading some books about the subject. Get all the tips from the pros within this photography ebook.

Get My Free Ebook


Post a comment