Endla Nature Reserve

The present reserve was created in 1985 as an expansion of the previous smaller Endla-Oostriku mire reserve. It is located immediately south of the Pandivere Upland in east-central Estonia (Fig. 14-4). The Endla mire complex grew up in the depression of former Great Endla Lake (Allikvee and Masing, 1988). Several remnants of this lake still survive, notably Endla Lake and Sinijarv (Blue Lake). The Endla mire system covers ~25,000 ha and contains several bogs separated by narrow rivers, and significant springs rise in the western part of the complex. The lakes, bogs, and springs are important sources of recharge for the Poltsamaa River. Among the bogs, Mannikjarve has been investigated intensively since the early 1900s. A small meteorological station is located in the bog, and an elevated, wooden walkway allows visitors to travel across the bog without disturbing the surface (Aaviksoo et al., 1997).

Oblique views across the bog display overall patterns of hummock ridges, dwarf pines, hollows, and water-filled pools (Fig. 14-5). In close-up oblique and vertical views, it

FIGURE 14-3 Generalized distribution of large mire complexes in Estonia and adjacent territories. Endla mire complex (E) and Nigula bog (N). Adapted from Aber and Aber (2001, fig. 5); based mainly on Orru et al. (1993).
FIGURE 14-4 Topographic map of Endla vicinity, Estonia. Kite aerial photography was conducted at Mannikjarve (M) and Teosaare (T) bogs. Map derived from Narva, Eesti Topograafiline Kaart, sheet 2, scale 1:200,000 (1992).
FIGURE 14-6 Vertical shot of Teosaare bog illustrating the complex distribution of pools, hummocks, moss, and dwarf pine trees. White marker in lower center is 1 m2. Kite aerial photo by SWA and JSA, September 2001.
FIGURE 14-5 Oblique westward view of Mannikjarve bog showing public observation tower and raised boardwalk. The center of the bog contains water-filled pools in hollows between elongated hummocks that support dwarf pine trees. Kite aerial photo by SWA and JSA, September 2001.

is possible to identify individual small trees, moss hummocks, faint trails, small potholes, and other structures (Fig. 14-6). Varieties of peat moss are distinct in their autumn coloration—bright red, reddish orange, and greenish yellow (Fig. 14-7). Color-infrared images emphasize active moss around the margins of pools (Fig. 14-8).

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